Herefossfjorden is a lake in the municipality of Birkenes in Aust-Agder county, Norway. The 3.7-square-kilometre lake is about 9 kilometres long and it is part of the Tovdalselva river. The Gauslåfjorden and Uldalsåna lakes flow into Herefossfjorden near the village of Herefoss at the northern end of the lake; the Uldalsåna lake is held back by a dam and the Gauslåfjorden flows over a waterfall into the Herefossfjorden. The Norwegian National Road 41 runs along the eastern shore; the village of Herefoss lies on the northern edge of the lake and the village of Søre Herefoss lies at the southern end of the fjord. The old municipality of Herefoss existed from 1838 until 1967 and it included all the land surrounding the lake. List of lakes in Aust-Agder List of lakes in Norway
Mjøsa is Norway's largest lake, as well as one of the deepest lakes in Norway and in Europe. It is the fourth-deepest lake in Norway, it is located in the southern part of Norway, about 100 km north of Oslo. Its main tributary is Gudbrandsdalslågen in the north. Inflows would theoretically need 5.6 years to fill the lake. With an average depth of 153 meters most of the lakes volume is under sea level. Average outflow is 316 m3/s or 9959 million m3. Mjøse contains about 56 km3 of water compared to 15 km3 of Røssvatnet, the second largest volume of lakes in Norway. Thomas Robert Malthus travelled through Norway in 1799 and his diaries from the trip includes a description of Mjøsa. Malthus wrote that Mjøsa appears as both lake and river because the shores are defined by mountains and where the valley becomes wider the water fills the space. Below Minde the lake only is called Vorma on the map, according to Malthus. From its southernmost point at Minnesund in Eidsvoll to its northernmost point in Lillehammer it is 117 km long.
At its widest, near Hamar, it is 15 km wide. It is 365 km² in area and its volume is estimated at 56 km³, its total coastline is estimated at 273 km. Dams built on the distribuary of Vorma in 1858, 1911, 1947, 1965 raised the level by 3.6 metres in total. In the last 200 years, 20 floods have been registered. Several of these floods inundated the city of Hamar; the cities of Hamar, Gjøvik, Lillehammer were founded along the shores of the lake. Before the construction of railways past the lake, it was an important transport route. Today, aside from minor leisure boating and the steamship Skibladner, there is no water traffic on the lake. Most of its shores are dominated by rolling agricultural areas, among them some of the most fertile grainlands in Norway; the main train line, the Dovre Line between Oslo and Trondheim, goes along its eastern shore, making stops in Hamar and Lillehammer. From the south European route E6 runs along the eastern shore of the lake until the Mjøsa Bridge connects Moelv on the east with Biri on the west.
The largest and only island is Helgøya. Except for Helgøya, Mjøsa only contains small islets; the most interesting of these is Steinsholmen, which holds the ruins of Mjøskastellet, a medieval citadel dating from the 13th century. Established by King Haakon IV of Norway, it was first mentioned in a letter dated 1234. Peter Andreas Blix documented the site and made drawings in 1897. Hedmark Museum has a future archaeological plan for the site. Lake Mjøsa has 20 species of fish. Among the most common are pike, European perch, common roach and the hundertrout, a brown trout which can reach a weight more than 20 kg. Another common species is the European smelt, the most important baitfish for the predators; the most economically significant species is the lågsild. The name must be old; the meaning is, maybe,'the bright/shiny one'. In 1975, the 14th World Scout Jamboree was held on its shores. More than 17,000 Scouts from 91 countries took part. In 1995, a Swedish team lifted a Halifax bomber, shot down in World War II.
Toftes Gave ArtProjectMjøsa2008 Mjøskastellet
Hovatn or Hovatnet is a lake in the municipality of Bygland in Aust-Agder county, Norway. It is part of the Otra river drainage basin; the 6.85-square-kilometre lake is regulated and is used by the nearby Hovatn hydroelectric power plant. The dam has an outlet into the Hovassåni river which empties into the Åraksfjorden near Åraksbø. Hovatn is located in the Otra watershed, but only 3 kilometres to the east is the lake Topsæ, in the Tovdalselva drainage basin. List of lakes in Aust-Agder List of lakes in Norway
Geography of Norway
Norway is a country located in Northern Europe on the western and northern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula, bordering the North Sea to the southwest and the Skagerrak inlet to the south, the North Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Barents Sea to the northeast. Norway has a long land border with Sweden to the east, a shorter one with Finland in the northeast and a still shorter border with Russia in the far northeast. Norway has a elongated shape, one of the longest and most rugged coastlines in the world, some 50,000 islands off the indented coastline. Mainland Norway covers 13° latitude, from 58°N to more than 71°N, covers the longitude from 5°E in Solund to 31°E in Vardø. Norway is one of the world's most northerly countries, one of Europe's most mountainous countries with large areas dominated by the Scandinavian Mountains; the country-length chain of peaks is geologically continuous with the mountains of Scotland, Ireland and, crossing the Atlantic Ocean, the Appalachian Mountains of North America.
Geologists hold that all these formed a single range prior to the breakup of the ancient supercontinent Pangaea. The entire country was covered with a thick ice sheet during the last ice age, as well as in many earlier ice ages; the movement of the ice carved out deep valleys, when the ice melted, the sea filled many of these valleys, creating Norway's famous fjords. The land is still rebounding from the enormous weight of the ice, "growing out of the sea" several millimeters a year. Rebound is greatest in the eastern part of the country and the inner part of the long fjords, where the ice cover was thickest; this is a slow process, for thousands of years following the end of the ice age, the sea covered substantial areas of what is today dry land. The sea reached what is today an elevation of 221 m in Oslo, 25 m in Stavanger, 5 m near Stad, 180 m in Trondheim, 50 m in Tromsø and 75 m in Kirkenes; this old seabed is now among the best agricultural land in the country. The glaciers in the higher mountain areas today are not remnants of the large ice sheet of the ice age, their origins are more recent.
The regional climate was up to 1–3 °C warmer in 7000 BC to 3000 BC in the Holocene climatic optimum, melting the remaining glaciers in the mountains completely during that period. As a result of the ice carving, Sognefjorden is the world's second deepest fjord and Hornindalsvatnet is the deepest lake in Europe. Geographic coordinates: 62°N 10°E Map references: Europe Area: total: 324,220 km2 land: 307,860 km2 water: 16,360 km2 With Svalbard and Jan Mayen included: 385,199 km2 Area - comparative: The contiguous area is smaller than Vietnam and larger than New Mexico. With Svalbard and Jan Mayen included, the area is larger than Japan. Land boundaries: total: 2,515 km border countries: Finland 729 km. Coastline: continental 25,148 km; the EEZ along the mainland makes up 878,575 km2, the Jan Mayen EEZ makes up 29,349 km2, since 1977 Norway has claimed and upheld an economic zone around Svalbard of 803,993 km2. Scandinavian Mountains: the Scandinavian Mountains are the most defining feature of the country.
Starting with Setesdalsheiene north of the southern Skagerrak coast, the mountains go north, comprising large parts of the country, intersected by the many fjords of Vestlandet. This part includes Hardangervidda, Jotunheimen and Trollheimen in the north, with large glaciers, such as Jostedalsbreen and Hardangerjøkulen; the mountain chain swings eastwards south of Trondheim, with ranges such as Dovrefjell and Rondane, reaches to the border with Sweden, where they are gently sloping plateaus. The mountains follows the border in a northeasterly direction; the mountains are intersected by many fjords in Nordland and Troms, where they become more alpine and creates many islands as they meet the sea. The Scandinavian mountains forms the Lyngen Alps and reaches into northwestern Finnmark becoming lower from Altafjord towards Nordkapp, where they ends at the shores of the Barents Sea; the Scandinavian Mountains have divided the country in physical regions. The following physical regions will only correspond to traditional regions and counties in Norway.
Southern coast: the southern Skagerrak and North Sea coast is the lowland south of the mountain range, from Stavanger in the west to the western reaches of the outer part of the Oslofjord in the east. In this part of the country, valleys tend to follow a north–south direction; this area is a hilly area, but with some flat areas such as Lista and Jæren. Southeast: the land east of the mountains is dominated by valleys going in a north–south direction in the eastern part, a more northwest - southeast direction further west, the valleys congregate on the Oslofjord; the longest valleys i
Setten is a lake that lies in Setskog in Aurskog-Høland municipality in Akershus. The lake lies in typical forest terrain; the lake has many bays and small islands, is a popular canoeing and camping area. The lake is part of the Haldenvassdraget, empties into Mjermen; the fishing in Setten consists of northern pike, European perch, common roach, common bleak and burbot. Setten was part of the large canal system that ran from Eidskog via the Soot Canal, to Mjermen and to the lake at Haldensvassdraget; the Soot Canal has its start at Setten with Tangen in the north and down by boat to Kolstad in the south
Nordland is a county in Norway in the Northern Norway region, bordering Troms in the north, Trøndelag in the south, Norrbotten County in Sweden to the east, Västerbotten County to the southeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The county was known as Nordlandene amt; the county administration is in Bodø. The remote Arctic island of Jan Mayen has been administered from Nordland since 1995. In the southern part is Vega, listed on the UNESCO World Heritage site list; the history of Nordland is a tale about the gifts from the sea: One of the most productive seas in the world providing food all year since ancient times, the same sea creates a climate more moderate than any other place in the arctic. The county is divided into traditional districts; these are Helgeland in the south, Salten in the centre, Ofoten in the northeast. In the northwest lie the archipelagoes of Lofoten and Vesterålen. Nordland is located along the northwestern coast of the Scandinavian peninsula in Northern Norway. Due to the large distance to the densely populated parts of Europe, this is one of the least polluted areas in Europe.
Nordland extends about 500 km from Trøndelag to Troms. The distance by road from Bindal in the far south of the county to Andenes on the northern tip is 800 km. Nordland has a rugged coastline, with many fjords. From south to north, the main fjords are Bindalsfjord, Ranfjord, Saltfjord-Skjerstadfjord, Tysfjord and Andfjord, shared with Troms county; the best-known is the Vestfjorden, not a fjord, but an open stretch of sea between the Lofoten island group and the mainland. The Raftsundet strait, with its famous branch Trollfjord, is the shortest waterway connecting Lofoten and Vesterålen; the continental shelf is narrow west of Andenes, nowhere else in Norway is the deep ocean only a few kilometres from shore. Saltstraumen whirlpool is just southeast of Bodø, Moskenstraumen is located in southern Lofoten. Steep mountains near the sea and an flat lowland area in between the mountains and the sea is typical for the long coastline in Nordland, Strandflaten continues out from the shore, the result is numerous islands, of which Helgeland have thousands.
The southern part of Norways largest island, Hinnøya is in Nordland, as is the third-largest island, Langøya. In the fjords, the coastal brim is much less developed: There might be a more gradual slope, with hills, towards the mountains, or no lowland at all. There are valleys at the head of fjords with a river at the centre of the valley. Mo i Rana, Mosjøen and Rognan are situated in such valleys. Norway's second-largest glacier, the second-largest lake, Røssvatnet, the second-deepest fjord, Tysfjord are all located in Nordland; the largest river is Vefsna. The Saltfjellet mountain range forms a natural border between Helgeland and Salten, is where the Arctic Circle cuts through the county; the western part of this mountain range is dominated by steep mountains and fjord inlets, with glaciers stretching towards the sea, while the eastern part of the mountains is more gentle and rounded, with some forested valleys, is well suited for hiking. The interior of Nordland, towards the border with Sweden, is dominated by the Kjølen Mountains.
The highest mountain in Nordland is Oksskolten in Okstindan range, the second-highest is Suliskongen in Fauske, the third is Storsteinfjellet in Narvik. Stetind in Tysfjord has been voted as Norway's national mountain. There are many glaciers in the mountains, like Blåmannsisen, the Sulitjelma Glacier, Frostisen—7 of the 15 largest glaciers in continental Norway are located in Nordland. In the geological past, a collision with Greenland pushed long slices of the seabed on top of the existing bedrock, today forming the bedrock from Dovrefjell and Trollheimen south of Trondheim stretching north in Trøndelag and through Nordland to justh north of Tromsø; this Cambrian—Silurian bedrock, much of it mica schist, is by far the largest area in Norway with soft bedrock rich in nutritions good for plant growth. It forms the bedrock in the fjord areas, while the islands off the coast and some of the easternmost areas along the border with Sweden are made up of hard bedrock. In some areas, as in Tysfjord and Sørfold, the bedrock is a mix of hard granite.
Much of the Lofoten mountains are of precambrian eruptive origin and 3.5 billion years old, among the oldest on earth. The youngest rock in Norway is on Andøya known for its fossils of dinosaurs and other life forms; as the land was depressed by the ice sheet in the ice age, substantial areas in the lowest altitudes was beneath the surface of the sea for thousands of years acquiring marine deposits. Due to post-glacial rebound, this is now dry land, reaching 120 metres above sea level today in Saltdal, 100 m in Narvik and Brønnøysund, 30–50 m in Lofoten and Vesterålen. Limestone is common in Nordland, with many caves throughout the county, such as Grønligrotta in Rana. There are more caves in Rana than any other area in northern Europe. In August 2006 the Tjoarvekrajgge cave in Sørfold was explored and verified as the longest cave in Scandinavia.