Campo Grande is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul in the Center-West region of the country. The city is nicknamed Cidade Morena because of the reddish-brown colour of the region's soil, it has a population of 796,252, according to a 2011 IBGE estimate, while its metropolitan area is home to 991,420 people. The region where the city is located was in the past a waypoint for travellers who wanted to go from São Paulo or Minas Gerais to northern Mato Grosso by land. In the early 1900s a railway was completed connecting Campo Grande to Corumbá, on the Bolivian border, to Bauru, São Paulo. In the beginning of the 20th century, the Western Brazilian Army Headquarters was established in Campo Grande, making it an important military center. With a population growth from 140,000 people in 1970 to 750,000 people in 2008, Campo Grande is the third largest urban center of the Center-West region, the 23rd largest city in the country. In 1977, the State of Mato Grosso was split into two, Campo Grande became the capital of the new state of Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising the southern portion of the former state.
By that time, Campo Grande had long surpassed the latter's capital city of Cuiabá in population, unusual in Brazil, where most capitals are the states' largest cities. Today, the city has its own culture, a mixture of several ethnic groups, most notably immigrants from the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa, Middle Easterners, Portuguese people, Italians and Paraguayans mixed with Asian and White Brazilians from the Brazilian Southern and Southeast regions, its native Amerindian peoples and Afro-Brazilians. Campo Grande started as a small village founded in 1877 by farmers José Antônio Pereira and Manoel Vieira de Sousa, who came from Minas Gerais just after the end of the Paraguayan War, they founded the village, known at that time as Santo Antônio de Campo Grande, near the Serra de Maracaju cliffs, at the confluence of two streams named Prosa and Segredo, whose courses now coincide with two of the city's most important avenues. In the end of 1877, the founder built the village's first church.
The aligned houses formed the first street, known as Rua Velha, today Rua 26 de Agosto. This street ended where today one finds a square in honor of the immigrants that came to the city; the city started to develop fast because of its privileged climate and location. These factors drew people from other regions of the country the South, the Southeast and the Northeast regions; the settlement was recognized as a municipality by the State Government on August 26, 1899 and renamed Campo Grande. Campo Grande has a tropical savanna climate, with a mild appearance of cold air masses on the southern edge of the tropics, it has semi-humid, hot summers, notably seasonal, with a dry winter season from June through September, but without major irregularities. In the precipitation, its altitude a few hundred meters higher than in the surrounding swamps and its location in the interior of South America, gives a much more extreme climate than several Brazilian cities, although still moderate. In addition, the flood is one of the problems seen in the city, the result of intense rains that occur in a short period.
Annual rainfall averages 1,465 millimetres. January is the warmest and rainiest month, with mean highs of 29 °C and lows of 20 °C. July brings on sunny days but cooler temperatures, with mean highs of 25 °C and lows of 4 °C. Occasional near-freezing temperatures can occur on winter's coldest nights; the vegetation in Campo Grande and Central Brazil is a tropical savanna called "Cerrado" that varies from pure grassland to a nearly closed canopy of medium height trees overlying grass. Since forest is the expected climax vegetation there, several theories have been given to explain the types of grassland present; the most promising of these involve differences in soil properties, but only a few sites have been used for evaluation. The 1960s marked the beginning of the expansion of large-scale agriculture across the Cerrado; the state is one of the largest producers of soy beans in the world. The municipality contains the 178 hectares Matas do Segredo State Park, created in 2000 to protect an area of cerrado forest.
It contains the 135 hectares Prosa State Park, created in 2002. Most of the city's active labor is absorbed by the tertiary sector. In spite of that, the primary and secondary sectors agribusiness, still play an important role in the local economy; the farming of bovine livestock supplies local slaughterhouses, which in turn allows Campo Grande to export meat to other states in Brazil and abroad. In addition to food processing and agribusiness and non-metallic mineral processing are important; the area's most important crops are soy and manioc. Sugar cane is becoming important as well. According to IBGE, Campo Grande has a total of 11,657 1,300 industrial enterprises; the city's GDP was R$20,7 billion in 2013, ranks as the richest city in the state, the third in the Central-West region of the country, the 33rd richest in Brazil. Per capita income was R$24.839 in 2013. Portuguese is the official national language, thus the primary language taught in schools, but English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.
The city has several universities. The most notable ones are: Universida
Campeonato Brasileiro Série A
The Campeonato Brasileiro Série A referred as Brasileirão, is a Brazilian professional league for men's football clubs. At the top of the Brazilian football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B. Due to historical peculiarities and the large geographical size of the country, Brazil has a short history of nationwide football competitions. Only in 1959, with the advancements in civil aviation and air transport and the need to appoint a Brazilian representative to the first edition of the Copa Libertadores was a nationwide tournament created, Taça Brasil. In 1967, the Torneio Rio-São Paulo was expanded to include teams from other states, becoming the Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa, considered a national tournament; the first Campeonato Brasileiro with that name was held in 1989. Prior to this, only the seasons post-1971 were regarded as Campeonato Brasileiro.
In 2010, the national tournaments from 1959 and 1970 – Taça Brasil and Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa – were unified by the Brazilian Football Confederation in the Brazilian championship history. The Campeonato Brasileiro is one of the strongest leagues in the world; the International Federation of Football History & Statistics ranked the league fourth in strength for the 2001–12 period after the Premier League, La Liga, Serie A. The Campeonato Brasileiro is the most-watched football league in the Americas and one of the world's most exposed, broadcast in 155 nations, it is one of the world's richest championships, ranked as the sixth most valuable with a worth of over US$1.43 billion, generating an annual turnover of over US$1.17 billion in 2012. Since 1959, a total of 156 clubs have played in the Campeonato Brasileiro. Seventeen clubs have been crowned Brazilian football champions, twelve of which have won the title more than once. Palmeiras is the most successful club of the Campeonato Brasileiro, having won the competition ten times including the most recent edition, followed by Santos with eight titles, Corinthians with seven titles and São Paulo with six titles.
Santos' Os Santásticos won five consecutive titles between 1961 and 1965, a feat that remains unequaled. The State of São Paulo is the most successful state, amassing 31 titles among five The Taça Brasil was introduced in 1959, ran until 1968; the Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa was competed for between 1967 and 1970. In 2010 the CBF announced. In 1968, the delay in closing the 1968 Taça Brasil made CBD use the Robertão to determine the Libertadores representants. With the extinction of the Taça Brasil, the Robertão named by CBD as "Taça de Prata" remained the top Brazilian championship the following two years. Following Brazil's third world title at the 1970 FIFA World Cup, president Emílio Médici decided to better organize Brazilian football. In a reunion with the CBD and the club presidents in October 1970, it was decided to create the following year a Brazilian championship contested by twenty teams, inspired by the national tournaments in the European nations; the first edition of the named "Campeonato Nacional", was held in 1971.
The top division was named "Divisão Extra", while a newly created second division earned the "Primeira Divisão" name. In 1987, the CBF announced it was not able to organize the Brazilian football championship, a mere few weeks before it was scheduled to begin; as a result, the thirteen most popular football clubs in Brazil created a league, The Clube dos 13, to organize a championship of their own. This tournament was called Copa União and was run by the 16 clubs that took part in it; the CBF stood by the Club of the 13 decision. However, weeks with the competition underway, under pressure from football clubs excluded from the Copa União, the CBF adopted a new set of rules, which considered the Copa União part of a larger tournament, comprising another 16 teams. According to that new set of rules, the Copa União would be dubbed the Green Module of the CBF championship, whereas the other 16 teams would play the Yellow Module. In the end, the first two teams of each Module would play each other to define the national champions and the two teams that would represent Brazil in the Copa Libertadores in 1988.
However, that new set of rules was never recognized by the Club of the 13 and ignored by most of the Brazilian media, who concentrated their attention in the independent league won by Clube de Regatas do Flamengo. The eventual final, set to be Sport Club of Recife vs Flamengo never materialized, with Flamengo refusing to partake in the final; as a result, Sport won the Championship for 1987 and went on to represent Brazil in the Copa Libertadores in 1988. Although Flamengo has attempted to gain ownership of the championship multiple times through the justice system, Sport remains recognized by both CBF and FIFA as 1987 Champions. In 2010, CBF decided to recognize the champions of both Taça Brasil and Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa as Brazilian Champions, creating some controversy as there was a two-year period when both tournaments were held, thus Palmeiras was awarded two times for winning both in 1967 and both Santos and Bota
FC Bayern Munich
Fußball-Club Bayern München e. V. known as FC Bayern München, FCB, Bayern Munich, or FC Bayern, is a German sports club based in Munich, Bavaria. It is best known for its professional football team, which plays in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system, is the most successful club in German football history, having won a record 28 national titles and 18 national cups. FC Bayern was founded in 1900 by 11 football players, led by Franz John. Although Bayern won its first national championship in 1932, the club was not selected for the Bundesliga at its inception in 1963; the club had its period of greatest success in the middle of the 1970s when, under the captaincy of Franz Beckenbauer, it won the European Cup three times in a row. Overall, Bayern has reached ten European Cup/UEFA Champions League finals, most winning their fifth title in 2013 as part of a continental treble. Bayern has won one UEFA Cup, one European Cup Winners' Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one FIFA Club World Cup and two Intercontinental Cups, making it one of the most successful European clubs internationally and the only German club to have won both international titles.
Since the formation of the Bundesliga, Bayern has been the dominant club in German football, winning 27 titles, including six consecutively since 2013. They have traditional local rivalries with 1860 Munich and 1. FC Nürnberg, as well as with Borussia Dortmund since the mid-1990s. Since the beginning of the 2005–06 season, Bayern has played its home games at the Allianz Arena; the team had played at Munich's Olympiastadion for 33 years. The team colours are red and white, the team crest shows the white and blue flag of Bavaria. In terms of revenue, Bayern Munich is the biggest sports club in Germany and the fourth highest-earning football club in the world, generating €587.8 million in 2017. For the 2017–18 season, Bayern reported a revenue of €657.4 million and an operating profit of €136.5 million. This was Bayern's 26th year in a row with a profit. In November 2018, Bayern had 291,000 official members and there are 4,433 registered fan clubs with over 390,000 members; the club has other departments for chess, basketball, bowling, table tennis and senior football with more than 1,100 active members.
As of January 2019, FC Bayern is ranked joint second in the current UEFA club coefficient rankings. FC Bayern Munich was founded by members of a Munich gymnastics club; when a congregation of members of MTV 1879 decided on 27 February 1900 that the footballers of the club would not be allowed to join the German Football Association, 11 members of the football division left the congregation and on the same evening founded Fußball-Club Bayern München. Within a few months, Bayern achieved high-scoring victories against all local rivals, including a 15–0 win against FC Nordstern, reached the semi-finals of the 1900–01 South German championship. In the following years, the club won some local trophies and in 1910–11 Bayern joined the newly founded "Kreisliga", the first regional Bavarian league; the club won this league in its first year, but did not win it again until the beginning of World War I in 1914, which halted all football activities in Germany. By the end of its first decade of founding, FC Bayern had attracted its first German national team player, Max Gaberl Gablonsky.
By 1920, it had over 700 members, making it the largest football club in Munich. In the years after the war, Bayern won several regional competitions before winning its first South German championship in 1926, an achievement repeated two years later, its first national title was gained in 1932, when coach Richard "Little Dombi" Kohn led the team to the German championship by defeating Eintracht Frankfurt 2–0 in the final. The advent of Nazism put an abrupt end to Bayern's development. Club president Kurt Landauer and the coach, both of whom were Jewish, left the country. Many others in the club were purged. Bayern was taunted as the "Jew's club", while local rival 1860 Munich gained much support. Josef Sauter, inaugurated 1943, was the only NSDAP member as president; as some Bayern players greeted Landauer, watching a friendly in Switzerland lead to continued discrimination. Bayern was affected by the ruling that football players had to be full amateurs again. In the following years, Bayern could not sustain its role of contender for the national title, achieving mid-table results in its regional league instead.
After the war, Bayern became a member of the Oberliga Süd, the southern conference of the German first division, split five ways at that time. Bayern struggled and firing 13 coaches between 1945 and 1963. Landauer returned from exile in 1947 and was once again appointed club president, the tenure lasted until 1951, he remains as the club's president with the longest accumulated tenure. Landauer has been deemed as inventor of Bayern as a professional club and his memory is being upheld by the Bayern ultras Schickeria. In 1955, the club was relegated but returned to the Oberliga in the following season and won the DFB-Pokal for the first time, beating Fortuna Düsseldorf 1–0 in the final; the club struggled financially though, verging on bankruptcy at the end of the 1950s. Manufacturer Roland Endler provided the necessary funds and was rewarded with four years at the helm of the club. In 1963, the Oberligas in Germany were consolidated into one national league, the Bundesliga. Five teams from the Oberliga South were admitted.
Bayern finished third in that year's southern division, but another Munich team, 1860 Munich, had won the championship. As the DFB preferred not to include two teams from one city, Bayern was not chosen for the Bundesliga, they ga
1993 Intercontinental Cup
The 1993 Intercontinental Cup was a football match played on December 12, 1993, between A. C. Milan, runners-up of the 1992–93 UEFA Champions League, São Paulo, winners of the 1993 Copa Libertadores; the match was played at the National Stadium in Tokyo. It was Milan's fifth appearance in the competition, after the victories in 1969, 1989, 1990, the defeat in 1963, it was São Paulo's second appearance, after the victory in the previous edition. Olympique de Marseille, the winners of 1992–93 UEFA Champions League was not allowed to participate, because of match-fixing scandal involving the club, which made them stripped from 1992–93 French Division 1 title and ban from international club competitions; because of the scandal, AC Milan was allowed to play in the Super Intercontinental Cup. Man of the Match: Toninho Cerezo 1992–93 UEFA Champions League 1993 Copa Libertadores A. C. Milan in international football competitions