Tā moko is the permanent marking of the face and body as traditionally practised by Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. Captain James Cook wrote in 1769: The marks in general are spirals drawn with great nicety and elegance. One side corresponds with the other; the marks on the body resemble foliage in old chased ornaments, convolutions of filigree work, but in these they have such a luxury of forms that of a hundred which at first appeared the same no two were formed alike on close examination. Tohunga-tā-moko were considered inviolable and sacred. Tattoo arts are common in the Eastern Polynesian homeland of Māori, the traditional implements and methods employed were similar to those used in other parts of Polynesia. In pre-European Māori culture, many if not most high-ranking persons received moko, those who went without them were seen as persons of lower social status. Receiving moko constituted an important milestone between childhood and adulthood, was accompanied by many rites and rituals.
Apart from signalling status and rank, another reason for the practice in traditional times was to make a person more attractive to the opposite sex. Men received moko on their faces and thighs. Women wore moko on their lips and chins. Other parts of the body known to have moko include women's foreheads, thighs and backs and men's backs and calves. Moko was distinct from tattooing, in that the skin was carved by uhi, not punctured; this left the skin with grooves rather than a smooth surface. Tohunga-tā-moko used a range of uhi made from albatross bone which were hafted onto a handle, struck with a mallet; the pigments were made from the awheto for the body colour, ngarehu for the blacker face colour. The soot from burnt kauri gum was mixed with fat to make pigment; the pigment was stored in ornate vessels named oko, which were buried when not in use. The oko were handed on to successive generations. A kōrere is believed to have been used to feed men whose mouths had become swollen from receiving tā moko.
Men were predominantly the tā moko specialists, although King records a number of women during the early 20th century who took up the practice. There is a remarkable account of a woman prisoner-of-war in the 1830s, seen putting moko on the entire back of the wife of a chief; the pākehā practice of collecting and trading mokomokai changed the dynamic of tā moko in the early colonial period. King talks about changes which evolved in the late 19th century when needles came to replace the uhi as the main tools; this was a quicker method, less prone to possible health risks, but the feel of the tā moko changed to smooth. Tā moko on men stopped around the 1860s in line with changing fashion and acceptance by Pākehā. Women continued receiving moko through the early 20th century, the historian Michael King in the early 1970s interviewing over 70 elderly women who would have been given the moko before the 1907 Tohunga Suppression Act. Women were traditionally only tattooed on their lips, around the chin, sometimes the nostrils.
Since 1990 there has been a resurgence in the practice of tā moko for both men and women, as a sign of cultural identity and a reflection of the general revival of the language and culture. Most tā moko applied today is done using a tattoo machine, but there has been a revival of the use of uhi. Women too have become more involved as practitioners, such as Christine Harvey of the Chathams, Henriata Nicholas in Rotorua and Julie Kipa in Whakatane. Te Uhi a Mataora was established in 2000 "to preserve and develop tā moko as a living art form". Europeans were aware of tā moko from at the time of the first voyage of James Cook, early Māori visitors to Europe, such as Moehanga in 1805 Hongi Hika in 1820 and Te Pēhi Kupe in 1826, all had full-face moko, as did several "Pākehā Māori" such as Barnet Burns. However, until recently the art had little global impact. Appropriation of tā moko by non-Māori is deemed offensive and high-profile uses of Māori designs by Robbie Williams, Ben Harper and a 2007 Jean-Paul Gaultier fashion show were controversial.
To reconcile the demand for Māori designs in a culturally sensitive way, the Te Uhi a Mataora group promotes the use of the term kirituhi, which has now gained wide acceptance:... Kirituhi translates to mean—"drawn skin." As opposed to Moko which requires a process of consents and historical information, Kirituhi is a design with a Maori flavour that can be applied anywhere, for any reason and on anyone... Tā moko Mokomokai, preserved Māori heads Te Rangi; the Coming of the Maori. Wellington: Whitcombe & Tombs. Jahnke, R. and H. T. "The politics of Māori image and design", Pukenga Korero, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 5–31. King, M. and Friedlander, M.. Moko: Māori Tattooing in the 20th Century. Auckland: David Bateman. ISBN 1-86953-088-8 Nikora, L. W. Rua, M. and Te Awekotuku, Ng. "Wearing Moko: Māori Facial Marking in Today's World", in Thomas, N. Cole, A. and Douglas, B. Tattoo. Bodies and Exchange in the Pacific and the West, London: Reacktion Books, pp. 191–204. Robley, Maj-Gen H. G.. Moko, or Maori Tattooing.
Digital edition from New Zealand Electronic Text Centre Te Awekotuku, Ngahuia, "Tā Moko: Māori Tattoo", in Goldie, exhibition catalogue, Auckland: Auckland City Art Gallery and David Bateman, pp. 108–114. Te Awekotuku, Ngahuia, "More than Skin Deep", in Barkan, E. and Bush, R. Claiming the Stone: Naming the Bones: Cultural Property
The Mana Movement is a New Zealand political party led by Hone Harawira, formed in April 2011, following his resignation from the Māori Party. Harawira won the by-election in Te Tai Tokerau of 25 June 2011 for the Mana Party, retained the seat during the 2011 general election but lost it in 2014 and 2017 to Labour Party candidate, Kelvin Davis. Under a short-term agreement with the Internet Party, a joint Internet Party and Mana Movement contested the 2014 general election, with the Mana Movement providing the first and fourth list candidates. Despite being funded by online millionaire Kim Dotcom, the Internet Party and Mana Movement failed to win a single seat. Dotcom, not a candidate because he is not a New Zealand citizen, told reporters as election results became clear, "I take full responsibility for this loss tonight because the brand—the brand Kim Dotcom—was poison for what we were trying to achieve." During the 2017 general election, the Mana Movement failed to gain any seats and took 0.1% of the party vote.
Mana describes itself as "a political waka for all peoples" with a specific focus on giving a voice to "the poor, the powerless and the dispossessed" and on striving to "empower them against the government by the rich and powerful for the rich and powerful". Policies include: Establishing Government-funded breakfast and lunch programmes in all decile 1 and decile 2 schools. Abolition of the Goods and Services Tax and the establishment of a tax on financial transactions. Nationalisation of monopolies and duopolies. Full employment. Build 10,000 new state houses a year. A living wage of $18.80hr Free education from preschool through to tertiary. Full amnesty for Pacific Island overstayers. Make Te Reo Maori a core curriculum subject in schools; the party was formed following Hone Harawira's resignation from the Māori Party after that party's disciplinary committee recommended his expulsion. He had been vocal in his opposition to the Māori Party's position on the seabed issue. Harawira began organising a new party to compete with the Māori Party, attracted the support of left-wing activist John Minto and of former Green MPs Nándor Tánczos and Sue Bradford.
The party formally launched on 30 April 2011. On 4 May 2011 Harawira stated his intention to resign his seat in order to be recognised as a candidate of the Mana Party in any subsequent by-election. Following criticism by Labour, the Greens and the Māori Party that the by-election would be "a ridiculous publicity stunt" and would cost the NZ taxpayer $500,000, Harawira put his resignation on hold, saying that he wanted to take the decision back to the people of his Te Tai Tokerau electorate, he announced his resignation from Parliament, forcing the Te Tai Tokerau by-election, on 11 May 2011. Possible candidates for other constituencies included Māori lawyer and party co-vice president Annette Sykes and former Alliance organiser and party chairman Matt McCarten. Harawira stated that he hoped that five Mana MPs would enter the 50th New Zealand Parliament after the 26 November 2011 New Zealand general election; the party applied for registration on 24 May 2011. Registration was granted on 24 June 2011.
In September 2011 the Electoral Commission registered the party's logo. The Mana Party did not receive taxpayer-funded television airtime during the 2011 general-election campaign, as it was formed after the 17 March deadline for funding applications. Mana ran seven candidates in 14 in General seats. Harawira comfortably retained his seat in Te Tai Tokerau and Annette Sykes polled over 5,000 votes in the Maori stronghold of Waiariki. Countrywide, Mana gained just under 1 % of the electorate. Due to the New Zealand MMP electoral system, gaining an electorate seat was an important achievement for the party as this is the first step in achieving a long term parliamentary presence, as shown by Peter Dunne and Jim Anderton; this was achieved against strong competition for the Maori vote within the electorate. In the June 2013 Ikaroa-Rāwhiti by-election Mana candidate and former Maori Television presenter Te Hamua Nikora came second place with 26.1% of the vote. John Minto stood as the Mana Party candidate for Auckland mayor in the 2013 local body elections.
Minto's flagship policy was free public transport for Auckland. On the John Minto for Mayor ticket there were multiple candidates standing for councillor and local board positions across Auckland for the 2013 local body elections. Minto was the fifth-highest polling candidate for mayor, with Len Brown re-elected by a significant margin. In May 2014, Mana leader Hone Harawira and Internet Party chief executive, Vikram Kumar, announced an alliance between the parties. Mana member Sue Bradford resigned in response; the Internet Party named Laila Harre as its first leader shortly afterwards, with the Mana Party having "had a hand" in her selection. The combined entity, the Internet Party and Mana Movement, contested the 2014 general election; the memorandum of understanding between the Mana Movement and Internet Party gave Mana the first and fourth places on the Internet Mana Party list. Electorate candidates stood only as members of the Mana Movement rather than Internet Party and Mana Movement; the agreement will remain in force until at least six weeks after polling day.
The two component parties agreed to review their arrangement within five weeks of the election. Despite being funded
Whakapapa, or genealogy, is a fundamental principle in Māori culture. A person reciting their whakapapa proclaims their identity, places themselves in a wider context, links themselves to land and tribal groupings and the mana of those. Experts in whakapapa can trace and recite a lineage not only through the many generations in a linear sense, but between such generations in a lateral sense. Raymond Firth, an acclaimed New Zealand economist and anthropologist during the early 20th century, asserted that there are four different levels of Maori kinship terminology that are as follows: Maori Term Literal Translation Kingroup Term Whanaau'to give birth' extended family Hapuu'pregnancy' ramage Iwi'bones'. Most Māori would attribute this to ancestor reverence. Tribes and sub-tribes are named after an ancestor: for example, Ngati Kahungunu means'descendants of Kahungunu'. Many physiological terms are genealogical in'nature'. For example, the terms'iwi','hapu', and'whānau' can be translated in order as'bones','pregnant', and'give birth'.
The prize winning Māori author, Keri Hulme, named her best known novel as The Bone People: a title linked directly to the dual meaning of the word'iwi as both'bone' and' people'. Most formal orations begin with the "nasal" expression - Tihei Mauriora! This is translated as the'Sneeze of Life'. In effect, the orator is announcing that'his' speech has now begun, that his'airways' are clear enough to give a suitable oration. Whakapapa is defined as the "genealogical descent of all living things from the gods to the present time. "Since all living things including rocks and mountains are believed to possess whakapapa, it is further defined as "a basis for the organisation of knowledge in the respect of the creation and development of all things". Hence, whakapapa implies a deep connection to land and the roots of one’s ancestry. In order to trace one’s whakapapa it is essential to identify the location where one’s ancestral heritage began. "Whakapapa links all people back to the land and sea and sky and outer universe, the obligations of whanaungatanga extend to the physical world and all being in it".
While some family and community health organisations may require details of whakapapa as part of client assessment, it is better if whakapapa is disclosed voluntarily by whanau, if they are comfortable with this. Details of a client’s whakapapa are not required since sufficient information can be obtained through their iwi identification. Cases where whakapapa may be required include adoption cases or situations where whakapapa information may be of benefit to the client’s health and well-being. Whakapapa is believed to determine an individual’s intrinsic tapu. "Sharing whakapapa enables the identification of obligations...and gaining trust of participants". Additionally since whakapapa is believed to be "inextricably linked to the physical gene" concepts of tapu would still apply. Therefore, it is essential to ensure. Misuse of such private and privileged information is of great concern to Māori. While whakapapa information may be disclosed to a kaimatai hinengaro in confidence, this information may be stored in databases that could be accessed by others.
While most health professions are embracing technological advances of data storage, this may be an area of further investigation so that confidential information pertaining to a client’s whakapapa cannot be disclosed to others. Additionally, it may be beneficial to find out if the client is comfortable with whakapapa information being stored in ways that have the potential to be disclosed to others. To combat such issues, a Māori Code of Ethics has been suggested. A Māori Code of Ethics may prevent "the mismanagement or manipulation of either the information or the informants". Although not rigorously applied in the past, people have to prove whakapapa to become members of the international New Zealand Māori rugby union team, New Zealand Māori rugby league team and New Zealand Māori cricket team to qualify
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand. Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyages some time between 1250 and 1300. Over several centuries in isolation, the Polynesian settlers developed a unique culture, with their own language, a rich mythology, distinctive crafts and performing arts. Early Māori formed tribal groups based on organisation. Horticulture flourished using plants; the arrival of Europeans to New Zealand, starting in the 17th century, brought enormous changes to the Māori way of life. Māori people adopted many aspects of Western society and culture. Initial relations between Māori and Europeans were amicable, with the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, the two cultures coexisted as part of a new British colony. Rising tensions over disputed land sales led to conflict in the 1860s. Social upheaval, decades of conflict and epidemics of introduced disease took a devastating toll on the Māori population, which fell dramatically.
By the start of the 20th century, the Māori population had begun to recover, efforts have been made to increase their standing in wider New Zealand society and achieve social justice. Traditional Māori culture has thereby enjoyed a significant revival, further bolstered by a Māori protest movement that emerged in the 1960s. In the 2013 census, there were 600,000 people in New Zealand identifying as Māori, making up 15 percent of the national population, they are the second-largest ethnic group in New Zealand, after European New Zealanders. In addition, more than 140,000 Māori live in Australia; the Māori language is spoken to some extent by about a fifth of all Māori, representing 3 per cent of the total population. Māori are active in all spheres of New Zealand culture and society, with independent representation in areas such as media and sport. Disproportionate numbers of Māori face significant economic and social obstacles, have lower life expectancies and incomes compared with other New Zealand ethnic groups.
They suffer higher levels of crime, health problems, educational under-achievement. A number of socioeconomic initiatives have been instigated with the aim of "closing the gap" between Māori and other New Zealanders. Political and economic redress for historical grievances is ongoing. In the Māori language, the word māori means "normal", "natural" or "ordinary". In legends and oral traditions, the word distinguished ordinary mortal human beings—tāngata māori—from deities and spirits. Wai māori denotes "fresh water", as opposed to salt water. There are cognate words in most Polynesian languages, all deriving from Proto-Polynesian *maqoli, which has the reconstructed meaning "true, genuine"; the spelling of "Māori" with or without the macron is inconsistent in general-interest English-language media in New Zealand, although some newspapers and websites have adopted the standard Māori-language spelling. Early visitors from Europe to New Zealand referred to the indigenous inhabitants as "New Zealanders" or as "natives".
The Māori used the term Māori to describe themselves in a pan-tribal sense. Māori people use the term tangata whenua to identify in a way that expresses their relationship with a particular area of land; the term can refer to the Māori people as a whole in relation to New Zealand as a whole. The Māori Purposes Act of 1947 required the use of the term "Māori" rather than "Native" in official usage; the Department of Native Affairs was renamed as the Department of Māori Affairs. Before 1974, the government required documented ancestry to determine the legal definition of "a Māori person". For example, bloodlines or percentage of Māori ancestry was used to determine whether a person should enroll on the general electoral roll or the separate Māori roll. In 1947, the authorities determined that a man, five-eighths Māori had improperly voted in the general parliamentary electorate of Raglan; the Māori Affairs Amendment Act 1974 changed the definition, allowing individuals to self-identify as to their cultural identity.
In matters involving financial benefits provided by the government to people of Māori ethnicity—scholarships, for example, or Waitangi Tribunal settlements—authorities require some documentation of ancestry or continuing cultural connection but no minimum "blood" requirement exists as determined by the government. The most current reliable evidence indicates that the initial settlement of New Zealand occurred around 1280 CE, at the end of the medieval warm period. Previous dating of some kiore bones at 50–150 has now been shown to have been unreliable. Māori oral history describes the arrival of ancestors from Hawaiki, in large ocean-going waka. Migration accounts vary among tribes, whose members may identify with several waka in their genealogies. In the last few decades, mitochondrial-DNA research has allowed an estimate to be made of the number of women in the founding population—between 50 and 100. Evidence fro
Māori and conservation
The Māori people have a strong and changing conservation ethic from the time of their discovery and settlement of New Zealand until the present day and is tied to spiritual beliefs. The Maori people first arrived in New Zealand beginning in 950 AD. At the time, the biodiversity of New Zealand was much greater than the current state with the only mammals being three species of bats; as a result, a large and diverse bird population inhabited the forests of the land. The largest species of eagle known, Haast's eagle, was native to the South Island; the Maori people would have adverse impacts, hunting the flightless moa to extinction and clearing large swathes of forests, both to make way for settlements and to light fires in order to more hunt birds. Half the native forests of New Zealand were destroyed within the first several hundred years. Without their primary foodsource Haast's Eagle would go extinct sometime in the 15th century. Most devastating to the local bird populations, the Maori people introduced the Polynesian Rat to New Zealand.
Most the rats were brought as a food source by the Maori settlers, but would escape and soon infest the island. This was harmful to the avian species of New Zealand which had evolved no behavioural defence against the rats having long had few, if any, natural predators; the Maori's daily life was dictated by the season. The planting season was in the harvest in February. Trapping rats and birds was practised by the forest tribes. Despite a small population, the tribes claimed ownership of the entire island, periodically visiting land to substantiate claims. For the Maori, the land was not a resource, but a connection to ancestors; the mana of the tribe was associated with the lands of that tribe. From this came the Maori proverb "Man perishes, but the land remains." The Maori beliefs included Atua, invisible spirits connected to natural phenomena such as rainbows, trees, or stones. Sacred pools were known as wai tapu, it is the policy position of the New Zealand Green Party to return wai tapu to the iwi, as some are under control of the Conservation Estate.
Large number of New Zealand pigeons flocking to feed on the fruit of the toromiro is an indicator of the mana of the forest. Because of this, this bird is only hunted for special occasions. Rāhui is a form of protection of natural resources that Maori implemented as a conservation measure as well as other reasons. A Cultural Health Index for waterways has been developed that links Western science and the cultural knowledge from Māori about stream health. Maori belief dictates that the god of forest and birds, created the first man. In Maori society, special status is granted to those known as the tangata whenua'people of the land', or Maori who have resided in the local district for many generations; this is in contrast with the Maori with no ancestral connection to the land, known variously as tangata haere mai'people who have come in', rawaho'outsiders' or tauiwi'foreigners'. Depending on the remoteness of the community, the percentage of tangate haere mai can vary from as few as 5% to in excess of 70%.
Today, the term tangata whenua is used to broadly differentiate between Māori and other groups. Important to Maori's relation with nature was the concept of tapu, a dangerous energy that had to be properly nullified through ritual; every natural resource had this, meaning, at least in theory, exploitation of natural resources was limited by tapu. Maori land laws, which dictate equal partitioning of inheritances among children, have had the effect of preserving the land by making individual land blocks too small for economic use. Compounded with this, Maori of the older generation are culturally disinclined to sell their shares to developers, making the primary economic activity on these lands cutting firewood or cultivating small gardens. Maori blame European prohibition laws, many of which were implemented during the colonial era, for usurping the mana and contributing to the declining biodiversity of New Zealand. In particular, Maori pointed to the continuing decline to the New Zealand Pigeon in spite of prohibitions on hunting, claiming Tane was removing them as they were no longer being used by the people.
Regaining responsibility for the environment of New Zealand is seen not only as important from a conservation standpoint, but critical to be tangata whenua. A team of researchers studied Maori traditional ecological knowledge of the Tuatara, a reptile native to New Zealand through oral questioning of elders; this is important because the Tuatara is a living fossil, being the last living member of its taxonomic order. The Tuatara exists only on 37 offshore islands; the elders' testimony matched existing scientific knowledge regarding the physiology, diet and behavior. The researchers concluded that "In at least some cases, traditional ecological knowledge may persist as species decline and may serve as a valuable source of ecological information for conservation." They additionally discovered through the testimony seven more sites that the Tuatara inhabited in recent times. Culturally, the Tuatara are considered a bad omen, though 20% of elders report Tuatara being kept as pets. Tuatara, which have a primitive "third eye", a long natural lifespan, are believed to have great knowledge and ability to see hidden things.
Conversely, elders of the Ngai Wai Iwi report putting the reptiles under their shirts to stay cool. In the paper, Ramstad concludes "Our current understanding of Maori attitudes toward tuatara needs revising to accommodate this heterogeneity in traditional ecological knowledge. Not
The word pā can refer to any Māori village or defensive settlement, but refers to hillforts – fortified settlements with palisades and defensive terraces – and to fortified villages. Pā are in the North Island of New Zealand, north of Lake Taupo. Over 5000 sites have been located and examined although few have been subject to detailed analysis. No pā have been yet located from the early colonization period when early Polynesian-Māori colonizers lived in the lower South Island. Variations similar to pā are found throughout central Polynesia, in the islands of Fiji and the Marquesas Islands. In Māori culture, a great pā represented the mana and strategic ability of an iwi, as personified by a rangatira. Pā are located in various defensible locations around the territory of an iwi to protect fertile plantation sites and food supplies. All pā are found on prominent raised ground volcanic hills; the natural slope of the hill is terraced. Dormant volcanoes were used for pā in Auckland. Pā are multipurpose in function.
Pā that have been extensively studied after the New Zealand Wars and more were found to safeguard food and water storage sites or wells, food storage pits, small integrated plantations, maintained inside the pā. Recent studies have shown that in most cases, few people lived long term in a single pā, that iwi maintained several pā at once under the control of a hapū; the area in between pā were common residential and horticultural sites. A tourist attraction of authentic pā engineering is Auckland's Maungawhau / Mount Eden. Traditional pā took a variety of designs; the simplest pā, the tuwatawata consisted of a single wood palisade around the village stronghold, several elevated stage levels from which to defend and attack. A pā maioro, general construction used multiple ramparts, earthen ditches used as hiding posts for ambush, multiple rows of palisades; the most sophisticated pā was called a pā whakino, which included all the other features plus more food storage areas, water wells, more terraces, palisades, fighting stages, outpost stages, underground dug-posts, mountain or hill summit areas called "tihi", defended by more multiple wall palisades with underground communication passages, escape passages, elaborate traditionally carved entrance ways, artistically carved main posts.
An important feature of pā that set them apart from British forts was their incorporation of food storage pits. Pā locations include volcanoes, headlands, ridges and small islands, including artificial islands. Standard features included a community well for long term supply of water, designated waste areas, an outpost or an elevated stage on a summit on which a pahu would be slung on a frame that when struck would alarm the residents of an attack; the pahu was a large oblong piece of wood with a groove in the middle. A heavy piece of wood was struck from side to side of the groove to sound the alarm; the whare of the rangatira and ariki were built on the summit with a weapons storage. In the 17th and 18th centuries the taiaha was the most common weapon; the chief's stronghold on the summit could be bigger than a normal whare, some measuring 4.5 meters x 4 meters. Pā excavated in Northland have provided numerous clues to Māori tool and weapon manufacturing, including the manufacturing of obsidian and argillite basalt, pounamu chisels, adzes and ivory weapons, an abundance of various hammer tools which had accumulated over hundreds of years.
Chert, a fine-grained worked stone, familiar to Māori from its extensive use in Polynesia, was the most used stone, with thousands of pieces being found in some Northland digs. Chips or flakes of chert were used as drills for pā construction, for the making process of other industrial tools like Polynesian fish hooks. Another find in Northland pā studies was the use of what Māori call "kokowai", or red ochre, a red dye made from red iron or aluminium oxides, finely ground mixed with an oily substance like fish oil or a plant resin. Māori used the chemical compound to keep insects away in pā built in more hazardous platforms in war; the compound is still used on whare and waka, is used as a coating to prevent the wood from drying out. Pā studies showed that on lower pā terraces were semi-underground whare about 2.4m x 2m for housing kūmara. These houses or storage houses were equipped with wide racks to hold hand-woven kūmara baskets at an angle of about 20 degrees, to shed water; these storage whare had internal drains to drain water.
In many pā studies, kūmara were stored in rua. Common or lower rank Māori whare were on the lower or outer land, sometimes sunk into the ground by 300-400mm. On the lower terraces, the ngutu is situated, it had a low fence to force attackers to take an awkward high step. The entrance was overlooked by a raised stage so attackers were vulnerable. Most food was grown outside the pā, though in some higher ranked pā designs there were small terraces areas to grow food within the palisades. Guards were stationed on the summit during times of threat; the blowing of a polished shell trumpet or banging a large wooden gong signaled the alarm. In some pā in rocky terrain, boulders were used as weapons; some iwi such as Ngāi Tūhoe did not construct pā during early periods, but used forest locations for defense and refuge – called pā runanga. Leading British archaeologist, L