Māui (Māori mythology)
In Māori mythology, as in other Polynesian traditions, Māui is a culture hero and a trickster, famous for his exploits and cleverness. Māui is credited with catching a giant fish using a fishhook taken from his grandmother's jaw-bone. In some traditions, his waka became the South Island, known as Te Waka a Māui, his last trick, which led to his death, involved the Goddess Hine-nui-te-pō. While attempting to make mankind immortal, Māui changed into a worm and entered her vagina, intent on leaving through her mouth while she slept. However, he was crushed by the obsidian teeth in her vagina. Māui-tikitiki Māui-tikitiki-a-Taranga Māui-pōtiki. Maui te whare kino; the offspring of Tū increased and multiplied and did not know death until the generation of Māui-tikitiki. Māui is the son of the wife of Makeatutara, he has a miraculous birth – his mother threw her premature infant into the sea wrapped in a tress of hair from her topknot – hence Māui is known as Māui-tikitiki-a-Taranga. Ocean spirits wrap the child in seaweed.
His divine ancestor, Tama-nui-te-rā takes the child and nourishes him to adolescence. Māui emerged from the sea and traveled to his mother's house, finding his four brothers, Māui-taha, Māui-roto, Māui-pae, Māui-waho. Māui's brothers are at first wary of the newcomer, but after he performed feats such as transforming himself into different kinds of birds, they acknowledged his power and admired him. At first, Taranga does not recognise Māui as her child; when he became old enough, he came to his relatives while they were gathered in the marae and being merry. Maui sat down behind his brothers. Soon his mother called the children and found a strange child, who proved to be her son, was taken in as one of the family; some of the brothers were jealous. In the days of peace remember the proverb,'When you are on friendly terms, settle your disputes in a friendly way, it is better for brothers, to be kind to other people. These are the ways by which men gain influence – by laboring for an abundance of food to feed others, by collecting property to give to others, by similar means by which you promote the good of others.
Thus Maui was received in his home. Māui's older brothers always refused to let him come fishing with them. One night, he wove for himself a flax fishing line and enchanted it with a karakia to give it strength, he stowed away in the hull of his brothers' waka. The next morning, when the waka was too far from land to return, he emerged from his hiding-place, his brothers would not lend him any bait, so he struck himself on the nose and baited the hook with his blood. Māui hauled a great fish, thus the North Island of New Zealand is known as Te Ika-a-Māui. When it emerged from the water, Māui left to find a tohunga to perform the appropriate ceremonies and prayers, leaving his brothers in charge. They, did not wait for Māui to return but began to cut up the fish, which writhed in agony, causing it to break up into mountains and valleys. If the brothers had listened to Māui, the island would have been a level plain, people would have been able to travel with ease on its surface. In Northern Māori traditions of New Zealand, Māui's waka became the South Island, with Banks Peninsula marking the place supporting his foot as he pulled up that heavy fish.
Besides the official name of Te Waipounamu, another Māori name for the South Island is Te Waka-a-Māui, the canoe of Māui. In southern traditions, the South Island is known instead as Te Waka o Aoraki and predates Māui's expedition. Māui sailed a canoe called Maahanui and after he had pulled up the North Island he left Maahanui on top of a mountain in the foothills behind what is now Ashburton; that mountain now bears the name Maahanui, the coastline between Banks Peninsula and the Waitaki River is called Te tai o Maahanui. Māui wanted to know where fire came from, so one night he went among the villages of his people and put all the fires out. Māui's mother Taranga, their rangatira, said that someone would have to ask Mahuika, the goddess of fire, for more. So Māui offered to find her. Mahuika lived in a cave in a burning mountain at the end of the earth, she gave Māui one of her burning fingernails to relight the fires, but Māui extinguished fingernail after fingernail until Mahuika became angry and sent fire to pursue Māui.
Māui transformed himself into a hawk to escape, but to no avail, for Mahuika set both land and sea on fire. Māui prayed to his great ancestors Tāwhirimātea, god of weather, Whaitiri-matakataka, goddess of thunder, who answered by pouring rain to extinguish the fire. Mahuika threw her last nail at Māui, but it missed him and flew into some trees including the māhoe and the kaikōmako. Māui brought back dry sticks of these trees to his village and showed his people how to rub the sticks together and make fire. Māui went fishing with the husband of his sister Hina. During the expedition, he became annoyed with Irawaru. In some, Māui was jealous of Irawaru's success at fishing.
Polynesia is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The indigenous people who inhabit the islands of Polynesia are termed Polynesians, share many similar traits including language family and beliefs, they had a strong tradition of sailing and using stars to navigate at night. The largest country in Polynesia is New Zealand; the term Polynesia was first used in 1756 by a French writer named Charles de Brosses, applied to all the islands of the Pacific. In 1831, Jules Dumont d'Urville proposed a restriction on its use during a lecture to the Geographical Society of Paris; the islands of the South Seas have been known as South Sea Islands, their inhabitants as South Sea Islanders though the Hawaiian Islands are located in the North Pacific. Another term, the Polynesian Triangle, explicitly includes the Hawaiian Islands, as they form its northern vertex. Polynesia is characterized by a small amount of land spread over a large portion of the mid and southern Pacific Ocean.
Most Polynesian islands and archipelagos, including the Hawaiian Islands and Samoa, are composed of volcanic islands built by hotspots. New Zealand, Norfolk Island, Ouvéa, the Polynesian outlier near New Caledonia, are the unsubmerged portions of the sunken continent of Zealandia. Zealandia is believed to have sunk 23 million years ago and resurfaced geologically due to a change in the movements of the Pacific Plate in relation to the Indo-Australian plate, which served to uplift the New Zealand portion. At first, the Pacific plate was subducted under the Australian plate; the Alpine Fault that traverses the South Island is a transform fault while the convergent plate boundary from the North Island northwards is called the Kermadec-Tonga Subduction Zone. The volcanism associated with this subduction zone is the origin of the Kermadec and Tongan island archipelagos. Out of 300,000 or 310,000 square kilometres of land, over 270,000 km2 are within New Zealand; the Zealandia continent has 3,600,000 km2 of continental shelf.
The oldest rocks in the region are found in New Zealand and are believed to be about 510 million years old. The oldest Polynesian rocks outside of Zealandia are to be found in the Hawaiian Emperor Seamount Chain and are 80 million years old. Polynesia is defined as the islands within the Polynesian Triangle, although some islands inhabited by Polynesian people are situated outside the Polynesian Triangle. Geographically, the Polynesian Triangle is drawn by connecting the points of Hawaii, New Zealand, Easter Island; the other main island groups located within the Polynesian Triangle are Samoa, the Cook Islands, Tokelau, Niue and Futuna, French Polynesia. Small Polynesian settlements are in Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, the Caroline Islands, Vanuatu. An island group with strong Polynesian cultural traits outside of this great triangle is Rotuma, situated north of Fiji; the people of Rotuma speak a non-Polynesian language. Some of the Lau Islands to the southeast of Fiji have strong cultural links with Tonga.
However, in essence, Polynesia is a cultural term referring to one of the three parts of Oceania. The following are the islands and island groups, either nations or overseas territories of former colonial powers, that are of native Polynesian culture or where archaeological evidence indicates Polynesian settlement in the past; some islands of Polynesian origin are outside the general triangle that geographically defines the region. The Phoenix Islands and Line Islands, most of which are part of Kiribati, had no permanent settlements until European colonization, but are sometimes considered to be inside the Polynesian triangle. In pre-colonial times, Polynesian populations existed in the Kermadec Islands, the Auckland Islands and Norfolk Island. However, when European explorers arrived, these islands were uninhabited. Anuta Bellona Island Emae Fiji Mele Nuguria Nukumanu Ontong Java Pileni Rennell Sikaiana Takuu Tikopia The United States Minor Outlying Islands Kapingamarangi Nukuoro Auckland Islands The Polynesian people are considered to be by linguistic and human genetic ancestry a subset of the sea-migrating Austronesian people.
Tracing Polynesian languages places their prehistoric origins in the Malay Archipelago, in Taiwan. Between about 3000 and 1000 BCE speakers of Austronesian languages began spreading from Taiwan into Island Southeast Asia. There are three theories regarding the spread of humans across the Pacific to Polynesia; these are outlined well by Kayser et al. and are as follows: Express Train model: A recent expansion out of Taiwan, via the Philippines and eastern Indonesia and from the northwest of New Guinea, on to Island Melanesia by 1400 BCE, reaching western Polynesian islands around 900 BCE. This theory is supported by the majority of curren
A hero or heroine is a real person or a main fictional character of a literary work who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, bravery or strength. On the other hand are post-classical and modern heroes, who perform great deeds or selfless acts for the common good instead of the classical goal of wealth and fame; the antonym of a hero is a villain. The concept of the hero can be found in classical literature, it is the main or revered character in heroic epic poetry celebrated through ancient legends of a people striving for military conquest and living by a continually flawed personal honor code. The definition of a hero has changed throughout time. Merriam Webster dictionary defines a hero as "a person, admired for great or brave acts or fine qualities." Examples of heroes range from mythological figures, such as Gilgamesh and Iphigenia, to historical figures, such as Joan of Arc, Giuseppe Garibaldi or Sophie Scholl, modern heroes like Alvin York, Audie Murphy and Chuck Yeager, fictional superheroes, including Superman and Wonder Woman.
The word hero comes from the Greek ἥρως, "hero" one such as Heracles with divine ancestry or given divine honors. Before the decipherment of Linear B the original form of the word was assumed to be *ἥρωϝ-, hērōw-, but the Mycenaean compound ti-ri-se-ro-e demonstrates the absence of -w-. According to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, the Proto-Indo-European root is *ser meaning "to protect". According to Eric Partridge in Origins, the Greek word Hērōs "is akin to" the Latin seruāre, meaning to safeguard. Partridge concludes, "The basic sense of both Hera and hero would therefore be'protector'." R. S. P. Beekes rejects an Indo-European derivation and asserts that the word has a Pre-Greek origin. A classical hero is considered to be a "warrior who lives and dies in the pursuit of honor" and asserts their greatness by "the brilliancy and efficiency with which they kill"; each classical hero's life focuses on fighting, which occurs during an epic quest. Classical heroes are semi-divine and extraordinarily gifted, like Achilles, evolving into heroic characters through their perilous circumstances.
While these heroes are resourceful and skilled, they are foolhardy, court disaster, risk their followers' lives for trivial matters, behave arrogantly in a childlike manner. During classical times, people regarded heroes with the highest esteem and utmost importance, explaining their prominence within epic literature; the appearance of these mortal figures marks a revolution of audiences and writers turning away from immortal gods to mortal mankind, whose heroic moments of glory survive in the memory of their descendants, extending their legacy. Hector was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War, known through Homer's The Iliad. Hector acted as leader of the Trojans and their allies in the defense of Troy, "killing 31,000 Greek fighters," offers Hyginus. Hector was known not only for his courage but for his noble and courtly nature. Indeed, Homer places Hector as peace-loving, thoughtful as well as bold, a good son and father, without darker motives. However, his familial values conflict with his heroic aspirations in The Iliad, as he cannot be both the protector of Troy and a father to his child.
Hector is betrayed by the gods when Athena appears disguised as his ally Deiphobus and convinces him to take on Achilles, leading to his death at the hands of a superior warrior. Achilles was a Greek Hero, considered the most formidable military fighter in the entire Trojan War and the central character of The Iliad, he was the child of Peleus, making him a demi-god. He wielded superhuman strength on the battlefield and was blessed with a close relationship to the Gods. Achilles famously refuses to fight after his dishonoring at the hands of Agamemnon, only returns to the war due to unadulterated rage after Hector kills his close friend Patroclus. Achilles was known for uncontrollable rage that defined many of his bloodthirsty actions, such as defiling Hector's corpse by dragging it around the city of Troy. Achilles plays a tragic role in The Iliad brought about by constant de-humanization throughout the epic, having his menis overpower his philos. Heroes in myth had close but conflicted relationships with the gods.
Thus Heracles's name means "the glory of Hera" though he was tormented all his life by Hera, the Queen of the Gods. The most striking example is the Athenian king Erechtheus, whom Poseidon killed for choosing Athena over him as the city's patron god; when the Athenians worshiped Erechtheus on the Acropolis, they invoked him as Poseidon Erechtheus. Fate, or destiny, plays a massive role in the stories of classical heroes; the classical hero's heroic significance stems from battlefield conquests, an inherently dangerous action. The gods in Greek Mythology, when interacting with the heroes foreshadow the hero's eventual death on the battlefield. Countless heroes and gods go to great lengths to alter their pre-destined fate, but with no success, as no immortal can change their prescribed outcomes by the three Fates; the most prominent example of this is found in Oedipus Rex. After learning that his son, will end up killing him, the King of Thebes, takes huge steps to assure his son's death by removing him from the kingdom.
But, Oedipus slays his father without an afterthought when he unknowingly encounters him in a dispute on the road many years
Mangareva is the central and largest island of the Gambier Islands in French Polynesia. It is surrounded by smaller islands: Taravai in the southwest and Akamaru in the southeast, islands in the north. Mangareva has a permanent population of 1,239 and the largest village on the island, Rikitea, is the chief town of the Gambier Islands; the island is 8 kilometres long and, at 15.4 square kilometres, it comprises about 56% of the land area of the whole Gambier group. Mangareva has a high central ridge; the highest point in the Gambiers is Mt. Duff, on Mangareva, rising to 441 m along the island's south coast; the island has a large lagoon 24 kilometres in diameter containing reefs whose fish and shellfish helped ancient islanders survive much more than on nearby islands with no reefs. The Mangarevan language suggests two waves of immigration from the Marquesas via the Eastern Tuamotus. A Marquesan influence is evident in the style of many ruined marae platforms. Basalt used for making local adze heads can be geochemically traced to quarries on the Marquesas and Society Islands to the north, to Pitcairn and Henderson Island to the east.
Strong similarities between the earliest artefacts here and those from Easter Island have been identified, suggesting that the island once served as a southern sailing hub comparable to the Society Islands in the more northerly trade wind belt. Mangareva was once forested and supported a large population that traded with other islands via canoes. However, excessive logging by the islanders during the 10th to the 15th centuries resulted in deforestation of the island, with disastrous results for its environment and economy; the first European to arrive at Mangareva was British Captain James Wilson in 1797 on the ship Duff. Wilson named the island group in honour of Admiral James Gambier, who had helped him to equip his vessel. Mangareva along with its dependencies in the Gambier Islands were ruled by a line of kings and regents until the French formally annexed the islands. A French protectorate was requested on 16 February 1844 by King Maputeoa but was never ratified by the French government.
On 4 February 1870, Prince Regent Arone Teikatoara and the Mangarevan government formally withdrew the protectorate request and asked the French to not intervene in the kingdom's affairs. After Father Honoré Laval was removed to Tahiti, the native government changed its stance and an agreement between Prince Regent Arone and the French colonial authority in Tahiti was signed reaffirming the protectorate status on 30 November 1871; the Gambier Islands were annexed on 21 February 1881 under Prince Regent Bernardo Putairi and approved by the President of France on 30 January 1882. Mangareva is reached by boat from the nearby airport across the lagoon. Mangareva is an important travel link to Pitcairn Island; the only way a traveler can reach Pitcairn Island is to fly to Tahiti to Mangareva. From there, a 32-hour boat ride will take the traveler to the island; some reach Pitcairn by commercial shipping traffic, but, less and less common as shipping lanes do not pass close to Pitcairn. Painter and author Robert Lee Eskridge's book Manga Reva: The Forgotten Islands offers first-hand observations of the environment and traditions of Mangareva.
It includes original photographs by the author. In 1962, adventure-fiction writer Garland Roark acknowledged Eskridge's work in a foreword to his novel The Witch of Manga Reva. Eskridge wrote and illustrated a children's book about his visit to Mangareva: South Sea Playmates; the Mangarevan people had developed a binary number system 300 years ahead of Europeans. The discovery of the binary system being used as far back as 1450 CE is surprising, given its location; this old way of common numbering has been all but lost. Because the islands were controlled by the French for such a long period, the Hindu–Arabic numerals with which the West is most familiar has taken its place. Researchers Andrea Bender and Sieghard Beller discovered that mathematicians on the island combined the two number systems into a novel binary system which allowed them to cut down on the number of digits involved in traditional binary systems: for example, 130 is represented in binary as 10000010. V stands for 80, T is 40, K is 10.
List of volcanoes in French Polynesia British Navigators, 1780 to 1800 Intrepid Polynesian Voyagers Mangareva, Tahiti - Death of a People Mangareva
The island of Maui is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's four islands, which include Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, unpopulated Kahoʻolawe. In 2010, Maui had a population of 144,444, third-highest of the Hawaiian Islands, behind that of Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi Island. Kahului is the largest census-designated place on the island with a population of 26,337 as of 2010 and is the commercial and financial hub of the island. Wailuku is the seat of Maui County and is the third-largest CDP as of 2010. Other significant places include Kīhei, Makawao, Pukalani, Pāʻia, Kula, Haʻikū, Hāna. Native Hawaiian tradition gives the origin of the island's name in the legend of Hawaiʻiloa, the navigator credited with discovery of the Hawaiian Islands. According to it, Hawaiʻiloa named the island after his son, who in turn was named for the demigod Māui; the earlier name of Maui was ʻIhikapalaumaewa.
The Island of Maui is called the "Valley Isle" for the large isthmus separating its northwestern and southeastern volcanic masses. Maui's diverse landscapes are the result of a unique combination of geology and climate; each volcanic cone in the chain of the Hawaiian Islands is built of dark, iron-rich/quartz-poor rocks, which poured out of thousands of vents as fluid lava over a period of millions of years. Several of the volcanoes were close enough to each other that lava flows on their flanks overlapped one another, merging into a single island. Maui is such a "volcanic doublet," formed from two shield volcanoes that overlapped one another to form an isthmus between them; the older, western volcano has been eroded and is cut by numerous drainages, forming the peaks of the West Maui Mountains. Puʻu Kukui is the highest of the peaks at 5,788 feet; the larger, younger volcano to the east, Haleakalā, rises to more than 10,000 feet above sea level, measures 5 miles from seafloor to summit. The eastern flanks of both volcanoes are cut by incised valleys and steep-sided ravines that run downslope to the rocky, windswept shoreline.
The valley-like Isthmus of Maui that separates the two volcanic masses was formed by sandy erosional deposits. Maui's last eruption occurred around 1790. Although considered to be dormant by volcanologists, Haleakalā is capable of further eruptions. Maui is part of a much larger unit, Maui Nui, that includes the islands of Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Molokaʻi, the now submerged Penguin Bank. During periods of reduced sea level, including as as 20,000 years ago, they are joined together as a single island due to the shallowness of the channels between them; the climate of the Hawaiian Islands is characterized by a two-season year and uniform temperatures everywhere, marked geographic differences in rainfall, high relative humidity, extensive cloud formations, dominant trade-wind flow. Maui itself has a wide range of climatic conditions and weather patterns that are influenced by several different factors in the physical environment: Half of Maui is situated within 5 miles of the island's coastline. This, the extreme insularity of the Hawaiian Islands account for the strong marine influence on Maui's climate.
Gross weather patterns are determined by elevation and orientation towards the Trade winds. Maui's rugged, irregular topography produces marked variations in conditions. Air swept inland on the Trade winds is shunted one way or another by the mountains and vast open slopes; this complex three-dimensional flow of air results in striking variations in wind speed, cloud formation, rainfall. Maui displays a unique and diverse set of climatic conditions, each of, specific to a loosely defined sub-region of the island; these sub-regions are defined by major physiographic features and by location on the windward or leeward side of the island. Windward lowlands – Below 2,000 feet on north-to-northeast sides of an island. Perpendicular to direction of prevailing trade winds. Moderately rainy. Skies are cloudy to cloudy. Air temperatures are more uniform than those of other regions. Leeward lowlands – Daytime temperatures are a little higher and nighttime temperatures are lower than in windward locations. Dry weather is prevalent, with the exception of sporadic showers that drift over the mountains to windward and during short-duration storms.
Interior lowlands – Intermediate conditions sharing characteristics of other lowland sub-regions. Experience intense local afternoon showers from well-developed clouds that formed due to local daytime heating. Leeward side high-altitude mountain slopes with high rainfall – Extensive cloud cover and rainfall all year long. Mild temperatures are prevalent. Leeward side lower mountain slopes – Rainfall is higher than on the adjacent leeward lowlands, but much less than at similar altitudes on the windward side.
Hina is the Eastern Polynesian variant for the given name Sina. Hina/Sina is the name assigned to a number of Polynesian queens. Among the Iwi of New Zealand, Hina is considered to be either the elder sister or the wife of Maui; the most common story that presents Hina as the wife of Maui tells of Te Tunaroa, the father of all eels, who one day visited the pool where Hina bathed. One day, as Hina was bathing, the eel-god rubbed against her; this occurred over a number of visits until Te Tunaroa grew bold enough to rub against Hina's genitals, molesting her. When Maui heard of this act he went and attacked Te Tunaroa cutting his body into bits, the tail landed in the sea and became the conger eel, whereas the other end landed in the swamps as the fresh water eels. Smaller pieces became hagfish. A number of stories are told about Hina as the elder sister of Maui; some iwi say that it was Hina who taught Maui to plait the ropes needed to capture the sun, using a strand of her own sacred hair to give the ropes supernatural strength.
This legend recognizes important ritual status. Hina was associated with phases of the moon under the names Hinauri; the moon is known by the name Mahina. Hinatea was married to a man named Irawaru. During a fishing trip Irawaru antagonized Maui. In revenge Maui assaulted Irawaru when they returned to shore, pushing his brother-in-law under the keel of their boat, breaking his back and other bones. Irawaru was turned into a dog one breed of, known as Irawaru; when Hina heard what Maui had done she threw herself into the sea, but did not die and was instead carried across the waves to Motutapu. Her name was changed to Hinauri due to her darker mood. Hinauri would be welcomed by the people of Motutapu and was taken to the house of chief Tinirau god of fishes, becoming his new wife; the existing wives were jealous and tried to assault Hinauri, but using her supernatural power Hinauri killed the other wives of Tinirau and so become the senior wife.. Hina was the mother of Tuhuruhuru, for whom the ritual intiation ritual was performed by the tohunga Kae.
After this is done, Tinirau lends Kae his pet whale to take him home. In spite of strict instructions to the contrary, Kae forces the whale, into shallow water, where it becomes stranded and is killed and eaten by Kae and his people; when he learns of this Tinirau is furious and sends Hinauri with a party of women to capture Kae. The sisters perform indecent dances to make him laugh; the women sing a magic song which puts Kae into a deep sleep, carry him back to Motutapu. When Kae wakes from his sleep he is in Tinirau's house. Tinirau taunts him for his treachery, kills him. A girl named. One day, as Hina was bathing, one of the eels transformed into a young man. Hina took him as her lover, his name was Tuna. After they had been together for a while, one day Tuna told Hina that there would be a great downpour the next day, he would be washed up onto the threshold of her house in his eel-form. When that happened, Tuna said, Hina must cut off his head and bury it, regularly visit the place where the head had been buried.
Hina obeyed Tuna. After many days, she saw. Another shoot appeared, the two shoots grew into a pair of coconut trees—the first coconut trees known to man. In Mangaian tradition, the coconut's white flesh is called "Tuna’s brains", it is said that one can see a face when one looks at the shell of a coconut. For a time, the goddess Hina lived as the wife of the god of eels, but she decided to seek love elsewhere. Telling Tuna that she was going to get him some delicious food, Hina went onto land. Hina went from place to place, but all the men she met were afraid to take Tuna’s wife, fearing the eel-god’s vengeance. She met Maui, whose mother Taranga urged him to take the goddess as his wife; when the people round about learned that Maui had taken Hina as his wife, they went to tell Tuna. At first, Tuna didn’t care, but the people annoyed him about it so much that he vowed to win back his wife from Maui. Along with four companions, Tuna rushed toward Maui’s home, carried by a huge wave, but Maui's power left Tuna and his companions beached on the reefs.
Maui killed three of Tuna's companions. Tuna himself Maui spared. Tuna lived in peace in Maui’s home for some time, but one day, Tuna challenged Maui to a duel. Each would take a turn trying to kill him. If Tuna killed Maui Tuna would take his wife back. Tuna’s turn came first: he made himself small and entered Maui’s body; when he came back out, Maui was intact. Now it was Maui’s turn: Maui made himself small and entered Tuna’s body, tearing it apart. Maui cut off Tuna’s head and, at his mother’s suggestion, buried it in a corner of his house. In time, a shoot grew into a coconut tree; that was. In Hawaiian mythology, there are variations of the name Hina, including Hina-puku-iʻa the goddess of fishermen, Hina-ʻopu-hala-koʻa who gave birth to all reef life. Many stories about the goddess Hina in connection with the moon, can be found in chapter
Dwayne Douglas Johnson known by his ring name The Rock, is an American actor and semi-retired professional wrestler. Johnson was a college football player for the University of Miami, with whom he won a national championship in 1991. After aspiring for a professional career in football, Johnson began training as a professional wrestler in the summer of 1995, after being cut from the Calgary Stampeders of the Canadian Football League. In 1996, Johnson secured a contract with the WWE when it was known as the World Wrestling Federation and was promoted as the first third-generation wrestler in the company's history as he is the son of Rocky Johnson and grandson of Peter Maivia, he gained mainstream fame after developing a charismatic persona of a boastful trash-talking wrestler named The Rock. He won his first WWF Championship in 1998 and subsequently ushered the WWF, alongside fellow mainstream industry star Stone Cold Steve Austin, as the principal leaders of the Attitude Era, a boom period in company business in the latter 1990s and early 2000s which still hold professional wrestling records for television ratings.
After pursuing an acting career full-time in 2004, he went on a seven-year hiatus from WWE and returned in 2011 as a part-time performer until 2013. Considered to be one of the greatest professional wrestlers and biggest draws of all-time, The Rock headlined the most bought professional wrestling pay-per-view event of all-time, WrestleMania XXVIII, was featured in some of the most watched WWE Raw and WWE SmackDown television episodes ever, he has won several championships in his career, being a two-time Intercontinental Champion, a five-time world tag team champion, a ten-time world champion. He is a Royal Rumble match winner and a Triple Crown champion. Johnson has attained success as an actor and writer. In 2000, he released an autobiography titled The Rock Says... which debuted at number one on The New York Times Best Seller list. Johnson played his first lead acting role in The Scorpion King and went on to star in numerous other films, including The Rundown, The Other Guys and Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle.
His most successful box office role has been a recurring role as Luke Hobbs in The Fast and the Furious franchise. In 2012, he founded his production company, Seven Bucks Productions, which has since produced several films. Ranked among the world's highest paid actors, Johnson was named by Time as one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2016. Johnson was born on May 2, 1972, in Hayward, California, to Ata Johnson and former professional wrestler Rocky Johnson. Growing up, Johnson lived in New Zealand with his mother's family, where he attended Richmond Road Primary School in Grey Lynn before returning to the United States of America, he attended Shepherd Glen Elementary School and Hamden Middle School in Hamden, Connecticut. Johnson spent his high school years in Honolulu, Hawaii at President William McKinley High School, in Nashville, Tennessee at Glencliff High School and McGavock High School, in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania at Freedom High School, he was arrested several times for theft during this time.
Johnson began playing sports, joining his high schools' gridiron football and field and wrestling teams. Johnson was a promising football prospect and received offers from many Division I collegiate programs, he decided on a full scholarship from the University of Miami where he played defensive tackle. In 1991, he was on the Miami Hurricanes' national championship team. After suffering a number of injuries, he was replaced the in the starting lineup by future Pro Football Hall of Famer Warren Sapp. After Johnson graduated in 1995 with a Bachelor of General Studies in criminology and physiology, he signed with the Calgary Stampeders of the Canadian Football League as a linebacker, he was cut two months into the season. After his football career, Johnson declared his intent to become a professional wrestler. Veteran wrestler Pat Patterson got Johnson several tryout matches with the World Wrestling Federation in 1996. Under his real name, he defeated The Brooklyn Brawler at a house show and lost matches to Chris Candido and Owen Hart.
After wrestling at Jerry Lawler's United States Wrestling Association as Flex Kavana and winning the USWA World Tag Team Championship twice with Bart Sawyer in the summer of 1996, Johnson signed a WWF contract. He received additional training alongside Achim Albrecht and Mark Henry. Johnson made his WWF debut as Rocky Maivia, a combination of his father and grandfather's ring names, although his real name was acknowledged by the announcers, he was reluctant to take this ring name but was persuaded by Vince McMahon and Jim Ross. He was given the nickname "The Blue Chipper" and his lineage was played to on TV, where he was hyped as the WWF's first third-generation wrestler. Maivia, a clean-cut face character, was pushed from the start despite his wrestling inexperience, he debuted on Monday Night Raw as a member of Marc Mero's entourage on November 4, 1996 and had his first match at Survivor Series on November 17, in an eight-man elimination tag match. On February 13, 1997, he won the Intercontinental Championship from Hunter Hearst Helmsley on Monday Night Raw.
Maivia defended the title at In Your House 13: Final Four against Hunter Hearst Helmsley and at WrestleMania 13 against The Sultan. He defeated Bret Hart by disqualification in a title defense on March 31. Behind the scenes, Hart m