Te Aute College
Te Aute College is a school in the Hawke's Bay region of New Zealand. It opened in 1854 with twelve pupils under Samuel Williams, an Anglican missionary, nephew and son-in-law of Bishop William Williams, it has a strong Māori character. It was built on land provided by a hapū of the Ngāti Kahungunu iwi. In 1857, a Deed of Gift transferred the land from Te Whatuiapiti to the Crown, with a request that it be granted to the Bishop of New Zealand and his successors. Te Aute is situated within a valley of significant strategic importance to local hapū; the nearby Roto-a-Tara pā had been the key stronghold for Te Whatuiapiti during the Musket Wars, was still a key settlement during the 1850s. From as early as 1840 the Anglican Bishop William Williams had established a mission station at Gisborne and was proselytizing among the East Coast tribes, William Colenso had established a mission in Napier. Plans to establish a school for the local hapū were in motion from as early as 1851, when large blocks of Māori land in the region were acquired by the Crown.
When Colenso was dismissed from his mission in 1851, Williams' nephew Samuel Williams took up residence in the region, began advancing the plan to establish a school. He met with Te Whatuiapiti representatives at Roto-a-Tara pā on 17 April 1853, accompanied by the Governor Sir George Grey, who provided the Crown's backing for the plan. An agreement was made at that meeting for a school to be established at Te Aute, with the crown supplying 4000 acres of land and Te Whatuiapiti hapū gifting an additional 3397 acres. In recent decades, the original acquisition of the Crown's portion of land gifted for the school has been the subject of a Waitangi Tribunal claim, presently in the settlement process. After only five years in operation, a fire destroyed much of the college and forced its closure in 1859. Samuel Williams began fundraising for the reconstruction of the college, accumulating £700 by 1870 — in part thanks to financial assistance from an aunt, Catherine Heathcote. Rebuilding began in 1871 and was completed in 1872.
The college was reopened in 1872 under John Reynolds as headmaster. It began to grow with 24 Māori and 3 English boarders in attendance by 1874, some day pupils; the college chapel was constructed in a design by architect Charles Natusch. Between 1878 and 1912 Te Aute was led by headmaster John Thornton, who implemented a curriculum developed along the lines of an English grammar school. In 1883 the college was visited by James Henry Pope, the government-appointed inspector of native schools, received praise for Thornton's curriculum. Pope described the standards reached at Te Aute in mathematics and science as'equal to those of any secondary school in the country.' I tried from the first to raise the standard of the school, … conceived the idea of preparing Maori boys for the matriculation examination of the New Zealand University... I saw that the time would come when the Maoris would wish to have their own doctors, their own lawyers, their own clergymen, I felt it was only just to the race to provide facilities for their doing so.
By 1900 Te Aute was renowned for high academic standards and had become pre-eminent among Māori boarding colleges, as it was sending several boys onto university each year. In 1906 a Royal Commission of Inquiry was established to investigate the effectiveness of teaching at Te Aute and other Māori boarding colleges. George Hogben, the newly appointed inspector of native schools, recommended that the college discontinue instruction in Latin and algebra, increase agricultural and manual instruction, his view was that the most academically able students could be sent to ordinary secondary schools, he predicted that Te Aute would have no role to play in preparing boys for university. Thornton defended the existing academic curriculum, arguing that Māori opinion favoured academic instruction and that Māori parents relied on Te Aute for academic rather than vocational education; the commission recommended that greater emphasis be placed on manual and technical instruction in agriculture, the college's trustees complied under pressure from the Department of Education.
In the following years the college's attempted pivot toward vocational instruction began alienating academically gifted students, notably Golan Maaka. In 1922, Maaka became disillusioned with the heavy focus on agricultural instruction and the lack of Māori cultural studies at the college, he completed his schooling in Dannevirke instead. In 1918 the college was damaged by fire again; this coincided with the impact of the 1918 influenza epidemic forcing the college to close temporarily. Reconstruction planning began with college trustees opting for more modern brick buildings. While construction planning continued, the college reopened in 1919 under a new headmaster E. G. Loten. Loten was a proponent of agricultural education, satisfied the Department of Education's wish for an agriculturally intensive curriculum. On 9 September 1922 the foundation stone of the first new brick facility was laid by Churchill Julius, the Archbishop of New Zealand, it was named The Julius Wing and was opened in April 1923.
That year, the foundation stone of the second brick facility was laid by the Governor General, The Viscount Jellicoe, the building was named The Jellicoe Wing. The third and final brick facility was the largest — it contained the college library, its assembly hall and its administration offices — and was named after Governor General Sir Charles Fergusson, who laid its foundation stone in 1926 and opened it in 1927. On 3 February 1931, the college was damaged by the Hawk
Taranaki is a region in the west of New Zealand's North Island, administered by the Taranaki Regional Council. It is named after its main geographical feature, the stratovolcano of Mount Taranaki; the main centre is the city of New Plymouth. The New Plymouth District is home to more than 65 per cent of the population of Taranaki. New Plymouth is in North Taranaki along with Inglewood and Waitara. South Taranaki towns include Hawera, Stratford and Opunake. Since 2005, Taranaki has used the promotional brand "Like no other". Taranaki is on the west coast of the North Island, surrounding the volcanic peak of Mount Taranaki; the region covers an area of 7258 km². Itd large bays north-west and south-west of Cape Egmont are the prosaically named North Taranaki Bight and South Taranaki Bight. Mount Taranaki or Mount Egmont, the second highest mountain in the North Island, is the dominant geographical feature of the region. A Māori legend says that Taranaki lived with the Tongariro and Ruapehu mountains of the central North Island but fled to its current location after a battle with Tongariro.
A near-perfect cone, it last erupted in the mid-18th century. The mountain and its immediate surrounds form Egmont National Park. Māori had called the mountain Taranaki for many centuries, Captain James Cook renamed it Egmont after the Earl of Egmont, the retired First Lord of the Admiralty who had encouraged his expedition; the mountain has two alternative official names, "Mount Taranaki" and "Mount Egmont". The region is exceptionally fertile thanks to generous rainfall and rich volcanic soil. Dairy farming predominates, with Fonterra's Whareroa milk factory just outside of Hawera producing the largest volume of dairy ingredients from a single factory anywhere in the world. There are oil and gas deposits in the region, both on- and off-shore; the Maui gas field off the south-west coast has provided most of New Zealand's gas supply and once supported two methanol plants, at Motunui. Fuel and fertiliser is produced at a well complex at Kapuni and a number of smaller land-based oilfields. With the Maui field nearing depletion, new offshore resources have been developed: The Tui field, 50 km south of Hawera, with reserves of 50,000,000 barrels of oil and the Pohokura gas field, 4.5 km north of Waitara.
The way the land mass projects into the Tasman Sea with northerly and southerly exposures, results in many excellent surfing and windsurfing locations, some of them considered world-class. Taranaki has a population of 119,600 as of Statistics New Zealand's June 2018, 2.4 percent of New Zealand's population. It is the tenth most populous region of New Zealand; the median age of Taranaki's population is 39.9 years, two years above the New Zealand median. Around 16.2 percent of the population is aged 65 or over while 21.1 percent is aged under 15. In 2013, there were 95.7 males for every hundred females in Taranaki. Just under half the residents live in New Plymouth, with Hawera being the only other town in the region with a population over 10,000; the region has had a strong Māori presence for centuries. The local iwi include Ngāti Mutunga, Ngāti Maru, Ngāti Ruanui, Taranaki, Te Āti Awa, Nga Rauru, Ngāruahinerangi and Ngāti Tama. Around 50.2 percent of Taranaki's population affiliate with Christianity and 2.7 percent affiliate with non-Christian religions, while 43.8 percent are irreligious.
Catholicism is the largest Christian denomination in Taranaki with 15.5 percent affiliating, while Anglicanism is the second-largest with 13.5 percent affiliating. The area became home to a number of Māori tribes from the 13th century. From about 1823 the Māori began having contact with European whalers as well as traders who arrived by schooner to buy flax. In March 1828 Richard "Dicky" Barrett set up a trading post at Ngamotu. Barrett and his companions, who were armed with muskets and cannon, were welcomed by the Āti Awa tribe because of their worth assisting in their continuing wars with Waikato Māori. Following a bloody encounter at Ngamotu in 1832, most of the 2000 Āti Awa living near Ngamotu, as well as Barrett, migrated south to the Kapiti region and Marlborough. In late 1839 Barrett returned to Taranaki to act as a purchasing agent for the New Zealand Company, which had begun on-selling the land to prospective settlers in England with the expectation of securing its title. Barrett claimed to have negotiated the purchase of an area extending from Mokau to Cape Egmont, inland to the upper reaches of the Whanganui River including Mt Taranaki.
A deed of sale included New Plymouth and all the coastal lands of North Taranaki, including Waitara. European settlement at New Plymouth began with the arrival of the William Bryan in March 1841. European expansion beyond New Plymouth, was prevented by Māori opposition to selling their land, a sentiment that deepened as links strengthened with the King Movement. Tension over land ownership continued to mount, leading to the outbreak of war at Waitara in March 1860. Although the pressure for the sale of the Waitara block resulted from the colonists' hunger for land in Taranaki, the greater issue fuelling the conflict was the Government's desire to impose British administration and civilisation on the Māori; the war was fought by more than 3500 imperial troops brought in from Australia, as well as volunteer soldiers and militia, against Māori forces that fluctuated from a few hundred and to 1500. Total losses among the imperial and militia troops are estimated to have been 238, while Māori casualties totalled about 200.
An uneasy truce was negotiated a year only to be broken in April 1863 as tensions over land occupation boiled over again
Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Toarangatira or Ngāti Toa Rangatira, is a Māori iwi in the lower North Island and upper South Island of New Zealand. Its rohe extends from Whanganui in the north, Palmerston North in the east, Kaikoura and Hokitika in the south. Ngāti Toa remains a small iwi with a population of only about 4500, it has four marae: Takapūwāhia and Hongoeka in Porirua, Whakatū and Wairau in the north of the South Island. Ngāti Toa's governing body has the name Te Rūnanga o Toa Rangatira; the iwi traces its descent from the eponymous ancestor Toarangatira. Ngāti Toa lived on the coastal west Waikato region until forced out by conflict with other Tainui iwi headed by Pōtatau Te Wherowhero. Ngāti Toa, Ngāti Rārua and Ngāti Koata led by Te Rauparaha, escaped south and invaded Taranaki and the Wellington regions together with three North Taranaki iwi, Te Āti Awa, Ngāti Tama and Ngāti Mutunga. Together they fought with and conquered the turangawaewae of Wellington, the Ngati Ira, wiping out their existence as an independent iwi.
After the 1820s the Ngāti Toa conquered region extended from Miria-te-kakara at Rangitikei to Wellington, across Cook Strait to Wairau and Nelson. A saying delineates the tribe's traditional boundaries: Mai i Miria-te-kakara ki Whitireia,Whakawhiti te moana Raukawa ki Wairau, ki Whakatū,Te Waka Tainui; however the tribe lives around Porirua and Nelson. An aphorism links tribal identity with ancestors and landmarks: Ko Whitireia te maungaKo Raukawa te moanaKo Tainui te wakaKo Ngāti Toarangatira te iwiKo Te Rauparaha te tangata Whitireia is the mountainRaukawa is the seaTainui is the wakaNgāti Toarangatira is the tribeTe Rauparaha is the man Tupahau, a descendant of Hoturoa, the captain of the Tainui canoe, received warning of an imminent attack by Tamure, a priest of Tainui, at once organised a plan of defence and attack. Tamure had an army of 2000 warriors whereas Tupahau had only 300. Tupahau and his followers won the battle, however Tupahau spared Tamure's life. Tamure responded to this by saying, Tēnā koe Tupahau, te toa rangatira!
Meaning "Hail Tupahau the chivalrous warrior!". Tupahau's daughter-in-law bore a son who received the name "Toarangatira" to commemorate both this event and the subsequent peace made between Tamure and Tupahau. Ngāti Toa trace their descent from Toarangatira. Parekowhatu of Ngāti Raukawa, the wife of Werawera of Ngāti Toa, gave birth to Te Rauparaha in about the 1760s. According to tribal tradition the birth took place at Pātangata near Kāwhia. Te Rauparaha became the foremost chief of Ngāti Toa, credited with leading Ngāti Toa forces against the Waikato and Ngāti Maniapoto iwi and after his defeat, with piloting the migration to, the conquest and settlement of, the Cook Strait region in the 1820s, he crossed Cook Strait to attack the Rangitane people in the Wairau valley. His attempt to conquer the southern South Island iwi was thwarted by an outbreak of measles which killed many of his warriors. Te Rauparaha signed the Treaty of Waitangi twice in May and June 1840: first at Kapiti Island and again at Wairau.
Te Rauparaha resisted European settlement in those areas. Disputes occurred over Porirua and the Hutt Valley, but the major clash came in 1843 when Te Rauparaha and his nephew Te Rangihaeata tried to prevent the survey of lands in the Wairau plains. These lands had been claimed by the New Zealand Company "on two grounds – alleged purchase by Captain Blenkinsop, master of a Sydney whaler in 1831-2. Te Rauparaha burnt down a whare; the Nelson magistrate deputised a number of citizens as police. Te Rauparaha resisted arrest and fighting broke out, resulting in the death of Te Rongo, the wife of Te Rangihaeata. Te Rangihaeata, known as a savage warrior killed the survey-party, who had surrendered, to avenge his wife's death in an act of utu; this became known as the Wairau Affray or until modern times, the Wairau massacre, as most of the Europeans were killed after the fighting had stopped. Following fighting in the Hutt Valley in 1846, Governor George Grey arrested Te Rauparaha after British troops discovered he was receiving and sending secret instructions to the local Maori who were attacking settlers.
In a surprise attack on his pa, Te Rauparaha, now quite elderly, was captured and taken prisoner of war. The government held him as a prisoner for 10 months and kept him under house arrest in Auckland on board a prison ship, the Driver. After his capture fighting stopped in the Wellington region. Te Rauparaha was released to attend a Maori peace conference at Kohimaramara in Auckland and given his liberty after giving up any claim to the Wairau valley. Te Rauparaha's last notable achievement came with the construction of Rangiātea Church in Ōtaki, he did not adopt Christianity. Te Rauparaha died on 27 November 1849, aged about 85, was buried near Rangiātea, in Otaki. Many remember him as the author of the haka "Ka mate, ka mate", which he composed after being hidden in a rua by a woman in the Taupo region after a defeat in battle. Ngāti Toa lived around the Kāwhia region for many generations until increasing conflicts with neighbouring Waikato–Maniapoto iwi forced a withdrawal from their homeland.
From the late eighteenth century Ngāti Toa and related tribes warred with the Waikato–Maniapoto tribes for control of the rich fertile land north of Kāwhia. The wars intensified
23rd New Zealand Parliament
The 23rd New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1928 general election in November of that year; the 1928 general election was held on Tuesday, 13 November in the Māori electorates and on Wednesday, 14 November in the general electorates, respectively. A total of 80 MPs were elected. 844,633 voters were enrolled and the official turnout at the election was 88.1%. The 23rd Parliament sat for five sessions, was prorogued on 12 November 1931; the Coates Ministry led by Gordon Coates of the Reform Party had come to power in May 1925. The Reform Party lost the 1928 election, suffering a humiliating defeat, dropping from 55 seats in 1925 to 28 only three years later. Parliament was called shortly after the election, Coates lost a no confidence vote and resigned as Prime Minister. Joseph Ward formed the second Ward Ministry on 10 December 1928 as leader of the United Party, a successor of the Liberal Party. Ward suffered several heart attacks. In May 1930, he was pressured by his colleagues to resign as Prime Minister.
Ward was succeeded by George Forbes, again of the United Party. The Forbes Ministry was in place until September 1931. During the difficult times of the Great Depression, Forbes wanted to form a grand coalition with the Labour Party and the Reform Party. Labour refused, but Reform went into a coalition government with United from September 1931. Key United Reform Labour Country Party Liberal–Labour Ratana Independent There were a number of changes during the term of the 23rd Parliament. Scholefield, Guy. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949. Wellington: Govt. Printer. Skinner, W. A. G.. The General Election, 1928. Government Printer. Retrieved 4 December 2013
1919 New Zealand general election
The New Zealand general election of 1919 was held on Tuesday, 16 December in the Māori electorates, on Wednesday, 17 December in the general electorates to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 20th session of the New Zealand Parliament. A total number of 560,673 voters turned out to vote. In 1919 women won the right to be elected to the House of Representatives; the law was changed late in 1919, with only three weeks notice, three women stood for Parliament in 1919. They were Ellen Melville in Grey Lynn, Rosetta Baume in Parnell, Aileen Cooke in Thames. Ellen Melville came second, she stood for Parliament several more times, but while polling well she never won a seat. Though Labour Party captured only eight seats it received nearly a quarter of the votes – a shock to conservative minds due to Labour being founded only three years earlier in 1916; the table below shows the results of the 1919 general election: Key A boundary redistribution resulted in the abolition of four electorates: Grey, held by Harry Holland Otago Central, held by Robert Scott Selwyn, held by William Dickie Taumarunui, held by William Thomas Jennings Wellington Suburbs and Country, held by Robert Alexander WrightAt the same time, four new electorates were created: Manawatu abolished in 1911 Roskill, first created through the 1918 electoral redistribution Rotorua, first created through the 1918 electoral redistribution Waitomo, first created through the 1918 electoral redistribution Wellington Suburbs abolished in 1911 Gustafson, Barry.
Labour's path to political independence: The Origins and Establishment of the New Zealand Labour Party, 1900–19. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland University Press. ISBN 0-19-647986-X. Lipson, Leslie; the Politics of Equality: New Zealand’s Adventures in Democracy. Wellington: Victoria University Press. ISBN 978-0-86473-646-8. McRobie, Alan. Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103
Minister of Health (New Zealand)
The Minister of Health styled Minister of Public Health, is a minister in the government of New Zealand with responsibility for the New Zealand Ministry of Health and the District Health Boards. The present Minister is a member of the Labour Party; the first Minister of Public Health was appointed during the premiership of Richard Seddon. The word "Public" was dropped from the title when Sir Māui Pōmare took over the portfolio from 27 June 1923, as "Minister of Health". In the health system reforms of the 1980s, the Department of Health lost responsibility for both the provision and funding of healthcare — these roles were transferred to separate Crown Health Enterprises and the Health Funding Authority, respectively; the only function remaining was policy-making. For a time, there was a separate Minister in Charge of Crown Health Enterprises, not the same as the Minister of Health. Further reforms have changed this, however — the Health Funding Authority has been re-absorbed into the Ministry of Health, the modern District Health Boards, while not part of the Ministry, are considered a responsibility of the Minister of Health.
New Zealand Ministry of Health
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were