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Mohammad ibn Khwāndshāh ibn Mahmud, more commonly known as Mir-Khwānd (Persian: میرخواند‎, also transliterated as Mīr-Khwānd, Mirkhond, and Mirchond; 1433/1434–1498) was a Persian-language historian of the fifteenth century.


Born in 1433 in Bukhara, present-day Uzbekistan, the son of a pious man belonging to an old Bukhāran family of sādah or direct descendants of Muhammad, Mir-Khwānd grew up and died in Balkh. From his early youth he applied himself to historical studies and literature in general.[1]

In Herat, Afghanistan, where Mir-Khwānd spent the greater part of his life, he gained the favor of a famous patron of letters, Ali-Shir Nava'i (1440–1501), who served his old schoolfellow, the reigning Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara (r. 1469–1506), the last Tīmūrid ruler in Iran, first as keeper of the seal, afterwards as governor of Jurjan. At the request of Mir ʿAli-Shir, himself a distinguished statesman and writer, Mir-Khwānd began about 1474, in the quiet khanqah of Khilashyah, which his patron had founded in Herat as a house of retreat for literary men of merit, his great work on universal history, the Rawżat aṣ-ṣafāʾ (Arabic: روضة الصفا‎ "Garden of Purity").

Rawżat aṣ-ṣafāʾ[edit]

His Rawżat aṣ-ṣafāʾ "The Garden of Purity" is a history of the world since creation in seven volumes.[2]

Work online[edit]

  • Elliot, H. M. (Henry Miers), Sir; John Dowson (1871). "23. Rawżat aṣ-ṣafāʾ,of Mirkhond". The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians; the Muhammadan Period]] (Vol 4.). London : Trübner & Co.


  1. ^ Henry Miers Elliot, The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians: The Muhammadan Period, ed. John Dowson (London: Trübner and Co., 1872), 127-129; OCLC 3425271, available in full text from Google Books.
  2. ^ Arthur John Arberry Classical Persian literature - Page 390 - 1958 "Muhammad ibn Khavand Shah ibn Mahmud, better known as Mir Khvand (Mirchond) was born in 1433 and died in 1498; ......Into that 'Garden of Purity' he crowded (in seven huge volumes) all that had happened since Creation in the world known to Muslim historians; he chose Juvaini as the model of how to write Persian, but he was ambitious to better his master so ... A. Jourdain, J. A. Vullers and W. H. Morley had occupied themselves with editing or translating parts of the mammoth,