Cheyenne is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County. It is the principal city of the Cheyenne, Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Laramie County; the population was 59,466 at the 2010 census. Cheyenne is the northern terminus of the extensive and fast-growing Front Range Urban Corridor that stretches from Cheyenne to Pueblo, Colorado which has a population of 4,333,742 according to the 2010 United States Census. Cheyenne is situated on Dry Creek; the Cheyenne, Wyoming Metropolitan Area had a 2010 population of 91,738, making it the 354th-most populous metropolitan area in the United States. On July 5, 1867, General Grenville M. Dodge and his survey crew plotted the site now known as Cheyenne in Dakota Territory; this site was chosen as the point at which the Union Pacific Railroad crossed Crow Creek, a tributary of the South Platte River. The city was not named by Dodge, as his memoirs state, but rather by friends who accompanied him to the area Dodge called "Crow Creek Crossing".
It was named for the American Indian Cheyenne tribe, one of the most famous and prominent Great Plains tribes allied with the Arapaho. The construction of the Union Pacific Railroad brought hopes of prosperity to the region when it reached Cheyenne on November 13, 1867; the population at the time numbered over 4,000, grew rapidly. This rapid growth earned the city the nickname "Magic City of the Plains". In 1867, Fort D. A. Russell was established, three miles west of the city; the fort was renamed Francis E. Warren Air Force Base; the Wyoming State Capitol was constructed between 1886 and 1890, with further improvements being completed in 1917. The Wyoming Stock Growers Association met at The Cheyenne Club, which acted as an interim government for the territory. Many of the WSGA's rules and regulations became state laws; the Cheyenne Regional Airport was opened in 1920 serving as a stop for airmail. It soon developed into a civil-military airport, serving various military craft. During World War II, hundreds of B-17s, B-24s, PBYs were outfitted and upgraded at the airfield.
Today, it serves a number of military functions, as well as a high-altitude testbed for civilian craft. Lying near the southeast corner of the state, Cheyenne is one of the least centrally located state capitals in the nation. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.63 square miles, of which 24.52 square miles is land and 0.11 square miles is water. Cheyenne, like most of the rest of Wyoming, has a cool semi-arid climate, is part of USDA Hardiness zone 5b, with the suburbs falling in zone 5a. Winters are cold and moderately long, but dry, with a December average of 28.8 °F, highs that fail to breach freezing occur 35 days per year, lows dip to the 0 °F mark on 9.2 mornings. However, the cold is interrupted, with chinook winds blowing downslope from the Rockies that can bring warm conditions, bringing the high above 50 °F on twenty days from December to February. Snowfall is greatest in March and April, seasonally averaging 60 inches ranging from 13.1 inches between July 1965 and June 1966 up to 121.5 inches between July 1979 and June 1980, yet thick snow cover stays.
Summers are warm, with a high diurnal temperature range. Spring and autumn are quick transitions, with the average window for freezing temperatures being September 29 thru May 14, allowing a growing season of 106 days. Official record temperatures range from −38 °F on January 9, 1875, up to 100 °F on June 23, 1954, the last of four occurrences; the annual precipitation of 15.9 inches tends to be concentrated from May to August and is low during fall and winter. The city averages below 60% daily relative humidity in each month and receives an average 2,980 hours of sunshine annually. On July 16, 1979 an F3 tornado struck Cheyenne causing 40 injuries, it was the most destructive tornado in Wyoming history. At the 2005–2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, the city's population was 87.2% White or European American, 12.7% Hispanic or Latino, 4.5% Black or African American, 2.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.1% Asian and 6.4% from some other race. 22.5 % of the total population had higher.
As of the census of 2010, there were 59,467 people, 25,558 households, 15,270 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,425.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 27,284 housing units at an average density of 1,112.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 77.44% European American, 2.88% African American, 0.96% Native American, 1.24% Asian, 0.20% Pacific Islander, 4.0% from other races, 3.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.45% of the population. There were 25,558 households of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.3% were non-families. 33.5%
A streamliner is a vehicle incorporating streamlining in a shape providing reduced air resistance. The term is applied to high-speed railway trainsets of the 1930s to 1950s, to their successor "bullet trains". Less the term is applied to faired recumbent bicycles; as part of the Streamline Moderne trend, the term was applied to passenger cars and other types of light-, medium-, or heavy-duty vehicles, but now vehicle streamlining is so prevalent that it is not an outstanding characteristic. In land speed racing, it is a term applied to the long, custom built, high-speed vehicles with enclosed wheels; the first high-speed streamliner in Germany was the "Schienenzeppelin", an experimental propeller driven single car, built 1930. On 21 June 1931, it set a speed record of 230.2 km/h on a run between Hamburg. In 1932 the propeller was removed and a hydraulic system installed; the Schienenzeppelin made 180 km/h in 1933. The Schienenzeppelin led to the construction of the diesel-electric DRG Class SVT 877 "Flying Hamburger".
This two-car train set had a top speed of 160 km/h. During regular service starting on 15 May 1933, this train ran the 286 kilometres between Hamburg and Berlin in 138 minutes with an average speed of 124.4 km/h. The SVT 877 was the prototype for the DRG Class SVT 137, first built in 1935 for use in the FDt express train service. During test drives, the SVT 137 "Bauart Leipzig" set a world speed record of 205 km/h in 1936; the fastest regular service with SVT 137 was between Hannover and Hamm with an average speed of 132.2 km/h. This service lasted until 22 August 1939. In 1935 Henschel & Son, a major manufacturer of steam locomotives, introduced the 4-6-4 DRG Class 05 high speed streamliner locomotives for use on the Deutsche Reichsbahn Frankfurt am Main to Berlin route. Three examples were built during 1935-36. Built for top speeds of over 85 mph, they soon proved much faster in test runs. DRG 05-002 made seven runs during 1935-36 during which it attained top speeds of more than 177 km/h with trains up to 254 t weight.
On 11 May 1936 it set the world speed record for steam locomotives after reaching 200.4 km/h on the Berlin–Hamburg line hauling a 197 t train. The engine power was more than 2,535 kW ); that record was broken two years by the British LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard engine. On 30 May 1936 05-002 set an unbroken start stop speed record for steam locomotives: During the return run from a 190 km/h test on the Berlin-Hamburg route it did the ~113 kilometres from Wittenberg to a signal stop before Berlin-Spandau in 48 min 32 s, meaning 139.4 km/h average between start and stop. In the United Kingdom, development of streamlined passenger services began in 1934, with the Great Western Railway introducing low-speed streamlined railcars, the London and North Eastern Railway introducing the "Silver Jubilee" service using streamlined A4 class steam locomotives and full length trains rather than railcars. In 1938 on a test run, the locomotive Mallard built for this service set the official record for the highest top speed attained by a steam locomotive, reaching 126 mph.
That record stands to this day. The London Midland and Scottish Railway introduced streamline locomotives of the Princess Coronation Class shortly before the outbreak of war; the Ferrovie dello Stato developed a three-unit electric streamliner. The development started in 1934; these trains went into service in 1937. On 6 December 1937, an ETR 200 made a top speed of 201 km/h between Campoleone and Cisterna on the run Rome-Naples. In 1939 the ETR 212 made 203 km/h; the 219-kilometre journeys from Bologna to Milan were made in 77 minutes, meaning an average of 171 km/h. In the Netherlands, Nederlandse Spoorwegen introduced the Materieel 34, a three unit 140 km/h streamlined diesel-electric trainset in 1934. An electric version, Materieel 36, went into service in 1936. From 1940 the "Dieselvijf", a 160 km/h top speed five unit diesel-electric trainset based on DE3, completed the Dutch streamliner fleet. During test runs, a DE5 ran 175 km/h; that year the similar electric Materieel 40 were first built.
In the 1930s, NS developed a streamlined version of the class 3700/3800 steam locomotive, nicknamed "potvis". In Czechoslovakia in 1934, Czechoslovak State Railways ordered two motor railcars with maximum speed 130 km/h; the order was received by Tatra company, producing first streamlined mass-produced automobile Tatra 77 in that time. The railcar project received streamlined design. Both ČSD Class M 290.0 were delivered in 1936 with desired 130 km/h maximum speed, although during test runs one car reached 148 km/h mark. They were run on Czechoslovak prominent route Prague-Bratislava under Slovenská strela brand; the earliest known streamlined rail equipment in the United States were McKeen rail motorcars built for Union Pacific and Southern Pacific between 1905 and 1917. Most of them sported a pointed "wind splitter" front, a rounded rear, round porthole style windows in a style, as much nautically as aerodynamically inspired; the McKeen cars were unsuccessful because internal combustion drive technology for that application was unreliable at the time and the lightweight frames dictated by their limited power tended to break.
Streamlined rail motorcars would appear again in the early 1930s after the internal combustion-electric prop
A diesel locomotive is a type of railway locomotive in which the prime mover is a diesel engine. Several types of diesel locomotive have been developed, differing in the means by which mechanical power is conveyed to the driving wheels. Early internal combusition locomotives and railcars used gasoline as their fuel. Dr. Rudolf Diesel patented his first compression ignition engine in 1898, steady improvements in the design of diesel engines reduced their physical size and improved their power-to-weight ratio to a point where one could be mounted in a locomotive. Internal combustion engines only operate efficiently within a limited torque range, while low power gasoline engines can be coupled to a mechanical transmission, the more powerful diesel engines required the development of new forms of transmission; the first successful diesel engines used diesel–electric transmissions, by 1925 a small number of diesel locomotives of 600 hp were in service in the United States. In 1930, Armstrong Whitworth of the United Kingdom delivered two 1,200 hp locomotives using Sulzer-designed engines to Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway of Argentina.
In 1933, diesel-electric technology developed by Maybach was used propel the DRG Class SVT 877, a high speed intercity two-car set, went into series production with other streamlined car sets in Germany starting in 1935. In the USA, diesel-electric propulsion was brought to high speed mainline passenger service in late 1934 through the research and development efforts of General Motors from 1930–34 and advances in lightweight carbody design by the Budd Company; the economic recovery from the Second World War saw the widespread adoption of diesel locomotives in many countries. They offered greater flexibility and performance than steam locomotives, as well as lower operating and maintenance costs. Diesel–hydraulic transmissions were introduced in the 1950s, but from the 1970s onwards diesel–electric transmission has dominated; the earliest recorded example of the use of an internal combustion engine in a railway locomotive is the prototype designed by William Dent Priestman, examined by Sir William Thomson in 1888 who described it as a " mounted upon a truck, worked on a temporary line of rails to show the adaptation of a petroleum engine for locomotive purposes.".
In 1894, a 20 hp two axle machine built by Priestman Brothers. In 1896 an oil-engined railway locomotive was built for the Royal Arsenal, England, in 1896, using an engine designed by Herbert Akroyd Stuart, it was not a diesel because it used a hot bulb engine but it was the precursor of the diesel. Following the expiration of Dr. Rudolf Diesel's patent in 1912, his engine design was applied to marine propulsion and stationary applications. However, the massiveness and poor power-to-weight ratio of these early engines made them unsuitable for propelling land-based vehicles. Therefore, the engine's potential as a railroad prime mover was not recognized; this changed as development reduced the weight of the engine. In 1906, Rudolf Diesel, Adolf Klose and the steam and diesel engine manufacturer Gebrüder Sulzer founded Diesel-Sulzer-Klose GmbH to manufacture diesel-powered locomotives. Sulzer had been manufacturing Diesel engines since 1898; the Prussian State Railways ordered a diesel locomotive from the company in 1909, after test runs between Winterthur and Romanshorn the diesel–mechanical locomotive was delivered in Berlin in September 1912.
The world's first diesel-powered locomotive was operated in the summer of 1912 on the Winterthur–Romanshorn railroad in Switzerland, but was not a commercial success. During further test runs in 1913 several problems were found. After the First World War broke out in 1914, all further trials were stopped; the locomotive weight was 95 tonnes and the power was 883 kW with a maximum speed of 100 km/h. Small numbers of prototype diesel locomotives were produced in a number of countries through the mid-1920s. Adolphus Busch purchased the American manufacturing rights for the diesel engine in 1898 but never applied this new form of power to transportation, he founded the Busch-Sulzer company in 1911. Only limited success was achieved in the early twentieth century with internal combustion engined railcars, due, in part, to difficulties with mechanical drive systems. General Electric entered the railcar market in the early twentieth century, as Thomas Edison possessed a patent on the electric locomotive, his design being a type of electrically propelled railcar.
GE built its first electric locomotive prototype in 1895. However, high electrification costs caused GE to turn its attention to internal combustion power to provide electricity for electric railcars. Problems related to co-coordinating the prime mover and electric motor were encountered due to limitations of the Ward Leonard current control system, chosen. A significant breakthrough occurred in 1914, when Hermann Lemp, a GE electrical engineer and patented a reliable direct current electrical control system. Lemp's design used a single lever to control both engine and generator in a coordinated fashion, was the prototype for all internal combustion–electric drive control systems. In 1917–18, GE produced three experimental diesel–electric locomotives using Lemp's control design, the first known to be built in the United States. Following this development, the 1923 Kaufman Act banned steam locomotives from New York City because of severe pollution problems; the response to this law was to electrify high-traffic rail lines.
However, electrification was u
American Car and Foundry Company
American Car and Foundry is an American manufacturer of railroad rolling stock. One of its subsidiaries was once a manufacturer of motor coaches and trolley coaches under the brand names of ACF and ACF-Brill. Today, ACF is based in St. Charles, Missouri, it is owned by investor Carl Icahn. American Car and Foundry was formed and incorporated in New Jersey in 1899 as the result of the merger of 13 smaller railroad car manufacturers; the company was made up of: Later in 1899 ACF acquired Bloomsburg Car Manufacturing Company. Two years ACF acquired Jackson and Sharp Company, the Common Sense Bolster Company; the unified company made a great investment in the former Jackson & Woodin plant in Pennsylvania, spending about $3 million. It was at this plant that ACF built the first all-steel passenger car in the world in 1904; the car was built for the Interborough Rapid Transit system of New York City, the first of 300 such cars ordered by that system. 1904 and 1905 saw ACF build several motor trailers for the London Underground.
In those two years, ACF acquired Southern Car and Foundry, Indianapolis Car and Foundry and Indianapolis Car Company. During World War I ACF produced artillery gun mounts and ammunition, submarine chasers and other boats, railway cars, other equipment to support the Allies. ACF ranked 36th among United States corporations in the value of World War II production contracts. 1899: American Car & Foundry is formed from the merger of 13 smaller companies. 1899: ACF acquires Bloomsburg Car Manufacturing Company 1901: ACF acquires Jackson and Sharp Company and Common Sense Bolster Company 1904: ACF builds the first all-steel passenger car in the world for the Interborough Rapid Transit 1904: ACF acquires Southern Car and Foundry of Memphis, Tennessee 1905: ACF acquires Indianapolis Car and Foundry and Indianapolis Car Company 1922: ACF diversifies into the automotive industry with the acquisition of Carter Carburetor Corporation March 31, 1924: ACF acquires Pacific Car and Foundry 1925: ACF acquires Fageol Motors Company of Ohio and Hall-Scott Motor Car Company 1926: ACF acquires J. G. Brill Company 1927: ACF acquires Shippers Car Line 1935: ACF builds lightweight Rebel streamline trains for the Gulf and Northern Railroad 1939: ACF's Berwick plant switches to construction of military tanks.
August 2, 1941: ACF's 1,000th military tank is completed for the United States military effort of World War II 1954: The company changes its name to ACF Industries, Inc. 1954: ACF purchases Engineering and Research Corporation. 1954–1955: ACF delivers 35 "Astra Dome" dome cars to the Union Pacific Railroad January 1961: ACF delivers its last passenger car, Berwick plant closed, sold, to re-open as Berwick Forge & Fabricating Corporation. 1977: Southern Pacific Railroad came up with the idea of the first double-stack intermodal car in 1977. SP designed the first car with ACF Industries that same year. 1984: ACF is purchased by Carl Icahn 1997: ACF reaches leasing agreement with GE Capital Railcar for 35000 of its 46000 railcars on 16 year leases with optional purchase agreements. 2003: ACF Industries LLC became a successor to ACF Industries, Incorporated on May 1, 2003. In the past ACF built passenger and freight cars, including covered hopper cars for hauling such cargo as corn and other grains.
One of the largest customers was the Union Pacific Railroad, whose armour-yellow carbon-steel lightweight passenger rolling stock was built by ACF. The famous dome-observation car Native Son was an ACF product. Another important ACF railroad production were the passenger cars of the Missouri River "Eagle", a Missouri Pacific streamliner put on service on march 1940; this train, in its original shape, consisted of six cars including one baggage, one baggage-mail, two coaches one food and beverage car and the observation lounge-parlor car. All the passenger equipment was styled by industrial designer Raymond Loewy. Today the U. S. passenger car market is erratic in production and is handled by specialty manufacturers and foreign corporations. Competitors Budd, Pullman-Standard, Rohr Industries, the St. Louis Car Company have all either left the market or gone out of business; the manufacturing facility in Milton, Pennsylvania, is served by the Norfolk Southern Railway and is capable of manufacturing railcars and all related railcar components.
The plant is capable of producing pressure vessels in sizes 18,000–61,000 gwc, including propane tanks, compressed gas storage, LPG storage, all related components, including heads. The plant, covering 48 acres, provides 500,000 square feet of covered work area and seven miles of storage tracks; the Huntington, West Virginia, production site ceased production in late 2009. The site continues only as a repair facility. American Car Company Canadian Car and Foundry Jan Rogers Kniffen - former company treasurer List of rolling stock manufacturers ACF Industries - Official site ACF Industries Archival Collection - University of Missouri History of ACF trucks - Trucksplanet
The Flying Yankee was a diesel-electric streamliner built in 1935 for the Maine Central Railroad and the Boston and Maine Railroad by Budd Company and with mechanical and electrical equipment from Electro-Motive Corporation. It was the name of a passenger train, the third streamliner train in North America after the Union Pacific Railroad's M-10000 and the Chicago and Quincy Railroad's Pioneer Zephyr, it ceased passenger service in 1957 and the train is now owned by the state of New Hampshire, which has plans to open it to public viewing some time in 2017. The lightweight train was constructed with welded stainless steel using Budd's patented process; the engine was an 8-cylinder Winton 201-A diesel. It was fitted with air conditioning in all cars. No dining car was provided; the train was delivered in February 1935, toured the BM-MEC railroad system before entering service on April 1. The daily route served began in Portland, Maine to Boston, followed by a return to Portland and continuing to Bangor, returning through Portland to Boston and returning to Portland late in the day, a distance of 750 miles per day.
This schedule was kept six days a week. The train proved successful, attracting new ridership and earning a profit for its owners. On, as newer equipment replaced it on one route, it would be switched to other routes, bearing the names The Cheshire, The Minuteman, The Mountaineer, The Business Man; as railroad passenger ridership declined in the 1950s the Yankee was getting old, thus the trainset, as The Minuteman, was retired, running its last on May 7, 1957. Most of the train's route is operated by Amtrak's Downeaster, which runs as far north as Brunswick, Maine; the railroad donated the trainset to the Edaville Railroad tourist/museum operation in Carver, Massachusetts, in 1957. The train remained on static display there for about 35 years until it was moved in 1993 to Glen, New Hampshire, after being purchased by Bob Morrell owner of Story Land. In 1997, the train was moved to the Claremont Concord Railroad's shops in Claremont, New Hampshire, for a restoration after it was purchased by the state of New Hampshire.
By 2004, the major structural restoration had been completed, detailed restoration of components is ongoing with the goal of restoring the train to running condition. The train was moved on August 2005, to the Hobo Railroad in Lincoln, New Hampshire. Plans to move it to Concord, New Hampshire, site of a former Boston & Maine railyard, fell through in 2017; the state hopes to open the train to public viewing in Lincoln. HO scale Orion Models/NJ Custom Brass. 1985. Imported scale brass model. Challenger Imports. Imported scale brass model. O scale Lionel. "pre-war", produced from 1935-1941. Not a scale model. "3 rail" AC power. Sunset/3rd Rail. Imported brass model. Available in both "3 rail" AC and "2 rail" DC power. Scale model, not "selectively compressed" Lionel. 2008. Reproduction of pre-war model. Colquhoun, Lorna. "Flying Yankee rolls into Hobo Railroad". New Hampshire Union Leader. Retrieved August 11, 2005. Lindblade, Carl E.. "The Story of the Flying Yankee". Retrieved December 19, 2004. Pinkepank, Jerry A..
The Second Diesel Spotter's Guide. Milwaukee, WI: Kalmbach Publishing Co. ISBN 0-89024-026-4; the Flying Yankee Restoration Group - The organization, undertaking the train's complete restoration
The Pioneer Zephyr is a diesel-powered railroad train formed of railroad cars permanently articulated together with Jacobs bogies, built by the Budd Company in 1934 for the Chicago and Quincy Railroad known as the Burlington. The train featured extensive use of stainless steel, was named the Zephyr, was meant as a promotional tool to advertise passenger rail service in the United States; the construction included innovations such as shotwelding to join the stainless steel, articulation to reduce its weight. On May 26, 1934, it set a speed record for travel between Denver and Chicago, when it made a 1,015.4-mile non-stop "Dawn-to-Dusk" dash in 13 hours 5 minutes at an average speed of 78 mph. For one section of the run it reached a speed of 112.5 mph, just short of the US land speed record of 115 mph. The historic dash inspired a 1934 film and the train's nickname, "The Silver Streak"; the train entered regular revenue service on November 11, 1934, between Kansas City, Omaha and Lincoln, Nebraska.
It operated this and other routes until its retirement in 1960, when it was donated to Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry, where it remains on public display. The train is regarded as the first successful streamliner on American railroads. In the early 1930s, the US was in the depths of the Great Depression. Without the money to purchase new goods, freight trains were not hauling as much as they had in the previous decade. People who could not buy goods could not afford to travel to the extent that they had before, so passenger revenues were down. Automobile travel had cut into rail ridership since the mid-1920s, making faster, more efficient service imperative for railroads to compete. Railroads needed a way to re-energize the traveling public and offer a bit of hope for the days to come. One of the railroad presidents who faced this challenge was Ralph Budd of the Great Northern Railway and now president of the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, who sought to develop a more efficient high speed train to replace conventional steam-powered heavyweight equipment to lower operating costs, attract more customers, restore profitability to passenger service.
The project hinged on two major elements: developing lighter railcars and developing an internal combustion driven power system adequate for high speed service. In 1932 Ralph Budd met Edward G. Budd, an automotive steel pioneer, founder and president of the Budd Company. Edward Budd was demonstrating his new Budd-Michelin rail motorcar built of stainless steel. Pneumatic-wheeled railcars never found popularity for actual service in the US — they tended to derail — but they demonstrated the successful construction of lightweight stainless steel unibody railcars. Stainless steel provided many benefits over traditional wood and hardened steel for railroad carbodies. Since the carbody was much lighter than similar cars, it would be able to carry a higher revenue load for the same cost. In developing the Budd-Michelin railcar, the Budd Company used the formed steel technology in which they were industry pioneers and solved the most difficult problem in using stainless steel for railcar construction: developing a welding technique that would not compromise the strength and corrosion resistance of the stainless steel.
On August 20, 1932, Earl J. Ragsdale, an engineer at the Budd Company, filed a patent application for a "Method and product of electric welding". Shotwelding, as Ragsdale termed his method, involved automatic control of the timing of individual spot welds. In spot welding, the two pieces of metal that are to be joined are pressed together with an electrode on each side of the joint. A high electric current is passed through the joint and fuses the two pieces of metal together. If a spot weld is heated too long, heat will spread from the weld at a middling temperature that weakens the stainless steel and compromises its corrosion-resistant properties unacceptably. With their patented welding process at the core of stainless steel railcar construction, the cars produced by Budd were a unique product; the other major problem Ralph Budd faced in developing a practical high speed lightweight train was to find a powerplant adequate to drive a trainset at a speed competitive with the faster steam trains.
The existing powerplants for motorized railcars were inadequate. Contemporary four-stroke marine and stationary diesel engines had low power-to-weight ratios and were only efficient under a narrow range of operating conditions, rendering them unsuitable for mobile use. Spark-ignited petroleum distillate engines suffered from low power-to-weight ratios along with being maintenance-intensive and smokey, gasoline engines showed limited potential for higher power hauling applications; the solution to Budd's problem presented itself in the new two-stroke diesel engines developed by the partnership of the Winton Engine Company and General Motors, which represented a factor-of-four improvement in power-to-weight ratio over the previous generation of diesel engines. Their efficient operating range was improved, owing to improvements in fuel injection developed by GM and Winton. A diesel-electric system driven by the new engine was used to power General Motors' automotive assembly exhibit
Twin Cities Zephyr
The Twin Cities Zephyr was a streamlined passenger train on the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, running between Chicago and the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul in Minnesota. It was the second Zephyr service introduced by CB&Q after the record-setting Denver–Chicago "dawn to dusk dash" of the Pioneer Zephyr trainset; the train competed with the Chicago and North Western's Twin Cities 400 which ceased operation in 1963, the Milwaukee Road's Twin Cities Hiawatha, like the Zephyr, ended with the coming of Amtrak in 1971. The CB&Q trains went west from Chicago to the Mississippi River and along that river to Saint Paul, while the North Western and Milwaukee Road trains traveled via Milwaukee. Two three-car trainsets, numbered 9901 and 9902, were delivered in April 1935. On April 6 number 9901 made a demonstration run from Chicago to Saint Paul in 5 hours 31 minutes, at speeds up to 104 mph and an average between endpoints of 77.65 mph. These two trainsets proved too small so a second pair of six-car trains with matching locomotives were ordered as replacements.
The new trainsets were put on display. The second pair of Twin Cities Zephyrs entered service on December 18, 1936 as the Morning Zephyr and the Afternoon Zephyr. On the first run the two trainsets departed Chicago on parallel tracks with 44 pairs of twins as a publicity stunt. In 1935 Zephyrs were scheduled to cover 431 miles between Chicago and St Paul in six and a half hours reduced to six hours and 15 minutes. At first each trainset made one one-way trip a day, but in July 1935 each was making a round trip a day, leaving each terminal at 8:00 AM CST and returning at 10:59 PM. In 1940 the westbound Twin Cities Zephyr took six hours to travel from Chicago to Saint Paul, a start-to-stop average of 71 miles per hour, a faster average speed between endpoints than the Acela's average speeds in 2016 between Washington and Boston. According the Burlington, both trains had made the run in five and a half hours, an average of over 78 mph. For several years in the 1950s the schedules along the Mississippi from East Dubuque, Illinois to Prairie du Chien and from Prairie du Chien to La Crosse were the fastest in the world, in 1964 the Morning Zephyr had the fastest station-to-station time in the United States between Aurora and Rochelle, Illinois.
All three runs were made at over 80 miles per hour from start to station stop. By 1964 the timing from Chicago to Saint Paul had relaxed by five to ten minutes, but by 1970, the last full year of service, the journey took seven hours; the Burlington handled five passenger trains each way between Chicago and the Twin Cities, four of them in the daytime: the morning and afternoon Zephyrs and the premier trains of the Burlington's two owners, the North Coast Limited of the Northern Pacific Railroad and the Empire Builder of the Great Northern Railway, both of which ran to the West Coast. Although the railroad's passenger service as a whole carried more passengers in 1964 than in 1949, by 1964 all four daytime Zephyrs along the Mississippi operated at a loss. To save money, trains were consolidated in off-peak times starting in 1960, the four daytime trains were reduced to two, with the Afternoon Zephyr taking the Empire Builder and North Coast Limited to the Twin Cities, the Morning Zephyr taking the two trains to Chicago.
The Twin Cities Zephyr ran for 36 years until 1971 when Amtrak took over most intercity passenger trains in the United States. The first pair of three-car Twin Zephyr trainsets were similar to the original Pioneer Zephyr, were articulated trains riding on four trucks; this pair, delivered in April 1935 proved too small to cope with passenger loads, a second pair of six-car trains was delivered in November 1936. These trainsets were articulated. One train was called "The Train of the Goddesses" and the cars were named Ceres, Juno, Psyche and Vesta; the other trainset was known as "The Train of the Gods" and the cars were named for mythological figures Apollo, Jupiter, Mercury and Vulcan. Motive power for the second pair of trains was shovelnose diesel locomotives 9904 and 9905. On its way into Chicago on the evening of April 3, 1947, the "Train of the Goddesses" travelling at 75 miles per hour was derailed in Downers Grove, Illinois by a tractor that fell into its path from a freight train on a parallel track.
Two of the Zephyr's cars smashed into an unoccupied brick railroad station. Many people were injured in the derailment and two passengers and the engineer lost their lives. After a third pair of trains were delivered in 1947, the second pair of trains was reassigned as the Nebraska Zephyrs; the third sets were the first dome streamliner trains, after a company-built modified coach dome car was tested starting in 1945. The 1947 sets consisted of a baggage-refreshment car, four vista dome coaches, a dining car and a dome parlor observation car, they served as a prototype of the 1949 California Zephyr. In 1977 the "Train of the Gods" was refurbished and delivered to Saudi Arabia for use on the Dammam–Riyadh line; the Twin Cities Zephyr ran on the Burlington Route from Chicago to St. Paul. Today these lines belong to the BNSF Railway as these subdivisions of the BNSF Northern Transcon: Chicago Subdivision - Chicago, Illinois to Aurora, Illinois Aurora Subdivision - Aurora to La Crosse, Wisconsin St. Croix Subdivision - La Crosse to St. Croix Junction, Minnesota St. Paul Subdivision - St. Croix Junction to St. Paul and Minneapolis, MinnesotaThe Morning and Afternoon Zephyr trains were limited stop runs.
Because some s