The Ontonagon River is a river flowing to Lake Superior on the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan in the United States. The main stem of the river is 25 miles long and is formed by a confluence of several longer branches, portions of which have been collectively designated as a National Wild and Scenic River. Several waterfalls occur on the river including Bond Falls; the Ontonagon River's principal tributaries are its West, South and East branches, all of which flow in part through the Ottawa National Forest: The West Branch Ontonagon River is contained in Ontonagon County. It begins at the outlet of Lake Gogebic near the community of Bergland and flows east-northeastwardly for 34.5 miles, collecting the South Branch and passing through a dam which forms the Victoria Reservoir. The South Branch Ontonagon River is formed in southwestern Ontonagon County by the confluence of the short Tenmile Creek and the Cisco Branch Ontonagon River; the Cisco Branch starts in Cisco Lake in eastern Gogebic County and flows north-northeastwardly for 32.7 miles to the South Branch, which flows northwardly for 33.3 miles, passing the community of Ewen, to join the West Branch.
The Middle Branch Ontonagon River, 70.7 miles long, issues from Crooked Lake in eastern Gogebic County and flows eastwardly, passing the community of Watersmeet. After collecting the Tamarack River, the Middle Branch turns northwardly into Ontonagon County, where it collects the Baltimore River and joins the East Branch; the East Branch Ontonagon River, 59.3 miles long, issues from Jingle Lake in northern Iron County and flows northwestwardly through Houghton County into Ontonagon County, where it joins the Middle Branch. Below the confluence of its various branches, the Ontonagon River flows north-northwestwardly for 24.7 miles in Ontonagon County to the village of Ontonagon, where it flows into Lake Superior. On March 3, 1992, the following reaches of the Ontonagon's upper tributaries were collectively designated the Ontonagon National Wild and Scenic River: The upper courses of the East and Middle branches in the Ottawa National Forest. During the mid-19th century, a large mass of solid, nearly pure copper, the Ontonagon Boulder, was removed from the Ontonagon River.
It now is in the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D. C. List of Michigan rivers
M-63 (Michigan highway)
M-63 is a state trunkline highway in the US state of Michigan that runs from M-139 at Scottdale through the cities of Benton Harbor and St. Joseph to Interstate 196/US Highway 31 at exit 7 just outside Hagar Shores; the trunkline runs through residential areas south of St. Joseph and through the central business districts of the twin cities. Further north, M-63 runs along the Lake Michigan shoreline. All of M-63's routing was part of US 33 before that highway's truncation south of Niles in 1986. A previous designation of M-63 was used farther north in Lake and Osceola counties from 1919 until 1961. Since the current designation was created, the Michigan Department of Transportation has worked on reconfiguring parts of the roadway in the early part of the 21st century; the bridge M-63 uses to cross the St. Joseph River, the Blossomland Bridge, has been identified as an historic structure using a rare design; the bridge itself dates back to the late 1940s. M-63 begins at the intersection of Niles and Miners roads southwest of St. Joseph in Royalton Township.
M-139 runs on Niles Road northwest from Berrien Springs to this point and on Scottdale Road north of the intersection. M-63 follows Miners Road west and Niles Road northwest of the junction, parallel to the St. Joseph River through residential areas on the outskirts of the twin cities; the highway meets Interstate 94 at the latter's exit 27 and continues through St. Joseph Township to the city of St. Joseph. In the city, after Washington Avenue, Niles Road turns north; as part of its maintenance duties, the MDOT tracks traffic volumes on the state highways in a metric called average annual daily traffic, a calculation of the average traffic level for any day of a year. The roadway segment along Niles Avenue north of the Napier Avenue intersection in 2009 had the highest traffic levels along all of M-63 at 22,263 vehicles. At Main Street, Niles Avenue ends, M-63 joins Business Loop I-94 on Main Street into and through the downtown business district; the two highways continue together running concurrently to Port streets.
These two streets form a one-way pair running east to carry BL I-94 to and from a separate bridge over the St. Joseph River. M-63 continues along Main Street across the river into Benton Harbor, Michigan where it follows the Lake Michigan shoreline along a short expressway segment; the trunkline exits Benton Harbor near the headquarters of the Whirlpool Corporation. North of town, the highway provides access to many lakeshore properties north of Benton Harbor at it continues northeasterly along the shoreline to the community of Lake Michigan Beach; when the highway meets Hagar Shore Road, M-63 turns east along that roadway to an interchange with I-196/US 31. The shoreline roadway continues northeast as A-2 while M-63 terminates at an interchange with I-196/US 31; this northernmost segment of the highway had the lowest AADT measurement in 2009 when calculated by MDOT at 2,855 vehicles. Various highways in the United States are listed as a part of the National Highway System, a system of roads important to the nation's economy and mobility.
M-63 has been listed as a part of the NHS from its southern terminus to the northern junction with BL I-94 in St. Joseph; as the closest state highway to Lake Michigan in the area, M-63 from the southern junction with BL I-94 to its northern terminus has been used as a part of the Lake Michigan Circle Tour, a tourist route that circles Lake Michigan. M-63 ran from Peacock in Lake County west through Luther to M-13 in Osceola County on July 1, 1919; this highway was extended in 1930 along US 131 to Tustin and to a terminus with M-66 in Marion. At the same time, M-37 was extended north from Baldwin to meet M-63 east of Peacock; this eastern extension was truncated in 1932 when it was redesignated as part of M-61. A short connector roadway, M-179, was designated in 1935 between M-63 and US 131, forming a small triangle of highways; the western end was shortened in 1939 so that M-63 ended at M-37 instead of continuing west to Peacock. The M-179 designation was decommissioned in 1959 or 1960, removing that short highway from the state trunkline highway system.
M-63 was decommissioned in 1961. The current designation of M-63 was created in 1986. Before the designation, US 33 ran north into Michigan south of Niles. From there it ran alone to St. Joseph and Benton Harbor; when US 33 was truncated back to Niles, M-63 was commissioned in its place along the route it now follows. The numbering change happened in September 1986; the expressway portion of M-63 is a relic of a now revised plan of a freeway corridor through the St. Joseph–Benton Harbor area; the highway was reconfigured in 2000–2002, with the overpass over the industrial access road to Whirlpool's warehouse in Benton Harbor and a rail line removed and rebuilt in late 2000 through early 2001, one of the two grade-separated interchanges, at Klock Road and downgraded to an at-grade intersection in 2002. Today, there are only two overpasses over smaller roads existing on this stretch of expressway. In 2016, all of M-63 was designated as part of the West Michigan Pike Pure Michigan Byway; the Blossomland Bridge over the St. Joseph River is eligible to be listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The span is a type of moveable bridge. The bridge was built as part of a 1940s plan to relocate US 31 through Benton Harbor; those plans were delayed by World War II. The bridge was completed in late 1948 using the rare design prepared by a firm from Chicago that specialized in bascule bridges; the st
White Pine, Michigan
White Pine is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Ontonagon County in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, its population was 474. White Pine is located at 46°45′14″N 89°35′03″W in Carp Lake Township between Bergland and Silver City and east of the Porcupine Mountains Wilderness State Park; the Copper Range Company operated a copper mine in White Pine. It was a station on Minneapolis and St. Paul Railway. Thomas H. Wilcox, a mining engineer, found mass copper in the Mineral River and formed the White Pine Copper Company to mine it; the settlement was given a post office as "White Pine Mine" in June 1915. The White Pine ZIP code 49971 is a post office box only office serving two noncontiguous areas in Carp Lake Township. Mine Site Visit: Copper Range Company White Pine Mine. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste, observations from EPA site visit May 5 and 6, 1992
U.S. Route 45 in Michigan
US Highway 45 is a part of the United States Numbered Highway System that runs from Mobile, Alabama, to the Upper Peninsula of the state of Michigan. The highway forms a part of the state trunkline highway system, maintained by the Michigan Department of Transportation, it enters the state from Wisconsin south of Watersmeet, ending at an intersection with Ontonagon Street in Ontonagon. In between, the roadway crosses the UP running for 54 3⁄4 miles through the Ottawa National Forest and parallel to the Ontonagon River; the highway dates back to the 1930s in Michigan. At the time it was extended into the state, it replaced sections of M-26 and M-35. An eight-mile segment was reconstructed in the late 1950s, an alignment change in the 1970s moved the routing of US 45 near Rockland before it was reversed soon afterwards. A segment of roadway that carried US 45 is the site of the Paulding Light, a local phenomenon whose origins were scientifically described in 2010. US 45 crosses from Wisconsin to Michigan near Land O' Lakes, east of the Sylvania Wilderness area of the Ottawa National Forest.
The highway angles northeast from the state line before curving around to the north toward Watersmeet, where it intersects US 2. Watersmeet is home to the northern section of the Lac Vieux Desert Indian Reservation. Continuing north across the Gogebic–Ontonagon county line, US 45 crosses the boundary between the Central and Eastern time zones. In southern Ontonagon County, the highway runs west of the Bond Falls Flowage near Paulding. North of here, the trunkline enters Bruce Crossing and intersects M-28. After leaving town, US 45 runs northward parallel to the Middle Branch of the Ontonagon River, the highway crosses the river near a roadside park south of Rockland. East of Rockland, US 45 meets the southern terminus of M-26. US 45 enters the south side of Ontonagon on Rockland Road near the Holy Family Cemetery; the roadway turns due north. South of downtown, the highway crosses an intersection that serves as the joint termini of M-38 and M-64. M-64 ends at the intersection. M-38 comes into town from the east and ends at the same intersection.
US 45 continues north on Rockland Road and turns northwest on River Street along the eastern river bank through downtown. The northern terminus of US 45 is about 1,000 feet from Lake Superior. US 45 debuted in Michigan by 1935 on maps of the time; the highway terminated in Des Plaines, until it was extended northward to Michigan. US 45 replaced M-26 between the state line north toward Rockland, as well as M-35 between Rockland and Ontonagon; the Michigan State Highway Department rebuilt an eight-mile section of the highway in the Military Hills area of eastern Ontonagon County starting in 1957. As part of the project, tons of waste copper rock were hauled into the area to provide a base for the reconstructed roadway, quite steep through the hills and muddy during rains; the project included a new bridge over the Ontonagon River that opened in late 1959. Along with this bridge, the last eight miles of US 45 in the country were paved, connecting the Gulf of Mexico and Lake Superior with a hard-surfaced road.
A rerouting in late 1971 moved the US 45 designation along M-26 between Greenland. From Greenland, US 45 followed Ontonagon–Greenland Road to Ontonagon. In late 1973, MDOT reversed the rerouting—US 45 was restored to its previous routing on Rockland Road between Rockland and Ontonagon and M-26 was re-extended south from Greenland to Rockland. In 2010, students from Michigan Technological University solved the mystery of the Paulding Light, a local phenomenon attributed to paranormal activity; the phenomenon is viewable from a section of Robbins Pond Road, the former routing of US 45 in the Paulding area. According to area folklore, indicated on signs in the viewing area, the light is from the ghost of a railroad brakeman. Other explanations say; the students' investigation showed that the light comes from headlights of cars on US 45 in the Paulding area. Michigan Highways portal US 45 at Michigan Highways
Ontonagon County, Michigan
Ontonagon County is a county in the Upper Peninsula of the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 6,780, making it Michigan's third-least populous county; the county seat is Ontonagon. The county was set off in 1843, organized in 1848, its territory had been organized as part of Mackinac counties. With increasing population in the area, more counties were organized. After Ontonagon was organized, it was split to create Gogebic County, it is the westernmost U. S. county. The county is named after the Ontonagon River; the name is said to be derived from an Ojibwe language word Nondon-organ, meaning "hunting river." A French transliteration, identified the river on a 1670 French map. Alternatively, it is said to be derived from the Ojibwa onagon, which means "dish" or "bowl." See List of Michigan county name etymologies. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,741 square miles, of which 1,311 square miles is land and 2,430 square miles is water.
It is the third-largest county in Michigan by area. At a longitude of 89.5°W, it is the westernmost county in the United States contained within the Eastern Time Zone. US 45 – runs north-south through east-central part of county. Enters south line from Watersmeet, passes Paulding, Bruce Crossing, Rockland, ending at Ontonagon. M-26 – enters east line of county at 12 miles south of NE county corner. Runs SW, passing Mass City and Lake Mine, to intersection with M-38 east of Rockland. M-28 – runs east-west thru southern part of county. Enters 10.4 miles north of SE county corner. Runs westerly into Gogebic County. M-38 – enters east line of county at a point east of Mass City. Runs west to Lake Mine WNW to terminus at Ontonagon. M-64 – runs north-south through center part of county. Enters south line on west side of Lake Gogebic. Runs NE along shoreline to terminus at Ontonagon. Ontonagon County Airport serves surrounding communities. Keweenaw National Historical Park Ottawa National Forest The 2010 United States Census indicates Ontonagon County had a population of 6,780.
This decrease of 1038 people from the 2000 United States Census represents a -13.3% change in population. In 2010 there were 3,258 households and 1,954 families in the county; the population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 5,672 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile. 97.3% of the population were White, 1.1% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Black or African American, 0.1% of some other race and 1.3% of two or more races. 0.9% were Hispanic or Latino. There were 3,258 households out of which 15.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.0% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.06 and the average family size was 2.61. The county population contained 15.8% under the age of 18, 4.1% from 18 to 24, 16.7% from 25 to 44, 37.0% from 45 to 64, 26.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 52.7 years. The population is 48.4 % female. The median income for a household in the county was $34,786, the median income for a family was $46,845; the per capita income for the county was $22,195. About 9.0% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.2% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. In 1843, Michigan's Upper Peninsula was divided into Mackinac, Marquette, Schoolcraft and Ontonagon Counties. In 1845, a portion of Ontonagon County was partitioned to be part of Houghton County. In 1846, the village of Ontonagon was named as the county seat of Ontonagon County. Ontonagon County is balanced to Republican-leaning. Since 1876 its voters have selected the Republican Party nominee in 61% of the national elections through 2016. Ontonagon County operates the County jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services.
The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions – police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance etc. – are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. As of September 2018 Ontonagon White Pine Adventure List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Ontonagon County, Michigan National Register of Historic Places listings in Ontonagon County, Michigan Sawyer, Alvah Littlefield. A History of the Northern Peninsula of Michigan and Its People. Lewis Publishing Co. Ontonagon Chamber Of Commerce
U.S. Route 41 in Michigan
US Highway 41 is a part of the United States Numbered Highway System that runs from Miami, Florida, to the Upper Peninsula of the US state of Michigan. In Michigan, it is a state trunkline highway that enters the state via the Interstate Bridge between Marinette and Menominee, Michigan; the 278.769 miles of US 41 that lie within Michigan serve as a major conduit. Most of the highway is listed on the National Highway System. Various sections are rural two-lane highway, urbanized four-lane divided expressway and the Copper Country Trail National Scenic Byway; the northernmost community along the highway is Copper Harbor at the tip of the Keweenaw Peninsula. The trunkline ends at a cul-de-sac east of Fort Wilkins State Park after serving the Central Upper Peninsula and Copper Country regions of Michigan. US 41 passes through farm fields and forest lands, along the Lake Superior shoreline; the highway is included in the Lake Superior Circle Tour and the Lake Michigan Circle Tour and passes through the Hiawatha National Forest and the Keweenaw National Historical Park.
Historical landmarks along the trunkline include the Marquette Branch Prison, Peshekee River Bridge and the Quincy Mine. The highway is known for a number of historic bridges such as a lift bridge, the northernmost span in the state and a structure referred to as "one of Michigan's most important vehicular bridges" by the Michigan Department of Transportation. Seven memorial highway designations have been applied to parts of the trunkline since 1917, one of them named for a Civil War general. US 41 was first designated as a US Highway in 1926. A section of the highway served as part of Military Road, a connection between Fort Wilkins and Fort Howard during the Civil War. US 41 replaced the original M-15 designation of the highway which dated back to the formation of the Michigan state trunkline highway system. M-15 ended in Copper Harbor. Realignments and construction projects have expanded the highway to four lanes in Delta and Marquette counties and have created three business loops off the main highway.
US 41 is a major highway for Michigan traffic in the Upper Peninsula. The 278.769-mile highway comprises two lanes. US 41/M-28 is a four-lane expressway along the "Marquette Bypass", segments of the highway in Delta and Marquette counties have four lanes; the route from the southern terminus to downtown Houghton is part of the National Highway System, a system of roadways considered important to the nation's economy and mobility. Sections of the trunkline are on the Lake Lake Michigan circle tours. US 41 enters Michigan on the Interstate Bridge connecting Marinette and Menominee, Michigan. In the city of Menominee, US 41 follows 10th Avenue and 10th Street just west of downtown; the highway meets the southern terminus of M-35, with the Menominee-Marinette Airport to its west, the waters of the Green Bay less than 1,000 feet to the east, following 10th Street out of town. The trunkline runs north through rolling farmland in the central Menominee County communities of Wallace and the twin communities of Carney and Nadeau.
At Powers, US 41 joins with US 2. US 2/US 41 crosses into the Hannahville Indian Community at the communities of Harris in Menominee County and Bark River in Delta County; the county line between the two communities marks the boundary between the Central and Eastern time zones. Just west of downtown Escanaba, US 2/US 41 joins M-35 at the intersection of Ludington Street and Lincoln Road, the center of the Escanaba street grid; the trunkline enters Escanaba from the west on Ludington Street, turns north on Lincoln Road, joins M-35. The combined highway runs north adjacent to Little Bay de Noc using a four-lane divided highway to the city of Gladstone, where M-35 turns west along 4th Avenue North. US 2/US 41 continues on a four-lane expressway north to Rapid River at the end of Little Bay de Noc. There, US 2 turns east, US 41 turns north and inland to cross the Upper Peninsula; the section of US 41 between Menominee and Escanaba illustrates an anomaly in the highway routing: between these two cities M-35 is the shortest state trunkline highway.
Under American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials guidelines, US Highways are to follow the most direct path between two locations, but US 41 runs inland and M-35 goes more directly up the Lake Michigan shoreline. According to the 2007 MDOT state highway map, the US 41 routing runs for 65 miles versus 55 miles for M-35; the original map for the US Highway System shows US 41 continuing north from Powers on a direct line to Marquette. This routing would be more direct than the current US 41 routing via Escanaba and Rapid River, but has not been built; this stretch of US 41 runs north through the western edge of the Hiawatha National Forest. At Trenary, US 41 turns northwest through the southwest corner of Alger County, crossing into Marquette County north of Kiva. M-94 follows US 41 for 2 miles near Skandia, before it turns westward to provide access to K. I. Saywer, a former air force base. US 41 continues northerly into the Chocolay Township community of Harvey, it meets the eastern junction with M-28 in Harvey, the two highways run concurrent for nearly 60 miles, during which they follow the Lake Superior Circle Tour.
US 41/M-28 runs north along the Lake Superior shoreline, passing the Marquette Branch Prison and crossing the Carp River before cresting Shiras Hill on the way into the city of Marquette, entering town on Front Stree
Upper Peninsula of Michigan
The Upper Peninsula known as Upper Michigan, is the northern of the two major peninsulas that make up the U. S. state of Michigan. The peninsula is bounded on the north by Lake Superior, on the east by the St. Marys River, on the southeast by Lake Michigan and Lake Huron. Geographically, the Upper Peninsula has a land boundary with Wisconsin, over-water boundaries with Minnesota and Ontario. Upper Peninsula counties include nearby islands such as Grand, Drummond and Bois Blanc, more distant Isle Royale; the Upper Peninsula contains 29% of the land area of Michigan but just 3% of its total population. Residents are called Yoopers and have a strong regional identity. Large numbers of French Canadian, Swedish and Italian immigrants came to the Upper Peninsula the Keweenaw Peninsula, to work in the area's mines and lumber industry; the peninsula includes the only counties in the United States where a plurality of residents claim Finnish ancestry. The peninsula's largest cities are Marquette, Sault Ste.
Marie, Menominee and Iron Mountain. The forested land and long, harsh winters make it poorly suited for agriculture; the economy is based on logging and tourism. The first known inhabitants of the Upper Peninsula were tribes speaking Algonquian languages, they arrived around A. D. subsisted chiefly from fishing. Early tribes included the Menominee and the Mishinimaki. Étienne Brûlé of France was the first European to visit the peninsula, crossing the St. Marys River around 1620 in search of a route to the Far East. French colonists laid claim to the land in the 17th century, establishing missions and fur trading posts such as Sault Ste. Marie and St. Ignace. Following the end of the French and Indian War in 1763, the territory was ceded to Great Britain. Sault Ste Marie, Michigan is the oldest European settlement in Michigan and the site of Native American settlements for centuries. American Indian tribes allied with the French were dissatisfied with the British occupation, which brought new territorial policies.
Whereas the French cultivated alliances among the Indians, the British postwar approach was to treat the tribes as conquered peoples. In 1763, tribes united in Pontiac's Rebellion to try to drive the British from the area. American Indians captured Fort Michilimackinac, at present-day Mackinaw City, Michigan the principal fort of the British in the Michilimackinac region, as well as others and killed hundreds of British. In 1764, they began negotiations with the British which resulted in temporary peace and changes in objectionable British policies. Although the Upper Peninsula nominally became United States territory with the 1783 Treaty of Paris, the British did not give up control until 1797 under terms of the Jay Treaty; as an American territory, the Upper Peninsula was still dominated by the fur trade. John Jacob Astor founded the American Fur Company on Mackinac Island in 1808; when the Michigan Territory was first established in 1805, it included only the Lower Peninsula and the eastern portion of the Upper Peninsula.
In 1819, the territory was expanded to include the remainder of the Upper Peninsula, all of what became Wisconsin, part of Minnesota. When Michigan applied for statehood in the 1830s, the proposal corresponded to the original territorial boundaries. However, there was an armed conflict known as the Toledo War with the state of Ohio over the location of their mutual border. Meanwhile, the people of Michigan approved a constitution in May 1835 and elected state officials in late autumn 1835. Although the state government was not yet recognized by the United States Congress, the territorial government ceased to exist. President Andrew Jackson's government offered the remainder of the Upper Peninsula to Michigan, if it would cede the Toledo Strip to Ohio. A constitutional convention of the state legislature refused, but a second convention, hastily convened by Governor Stevens Thomson Mason, consisting of his supporters, agreed in December 1836 to the deal. In January 1837, the U. S. Congress admitted Michigan as a state of the Union.
At the time, Michigan was considered the losing party in the compromise. The land in the Upper Peninsula was described in a federal report as a "sterile region on the shores of Lake Superior destined by soil and climate to remain forever a wilderness." This belief changed. The Upper Peninsula's mines produced more mineral wealth than the California Gold Rush after shipping was improved by the opening of the Soo Locks in 1855, docks in Marquette in 1859; the Upper Peninsula supplied 90% of America's copper by the 1860s. It was the largest supplier of iron ore by the 1890s, production continued to a peak in the 1920s, but declined shortly afterward; the last copper mine closed in 1995. Some iron mining continues near Marquette; the Eagle Mine, a nickel-copper mine, opened in 2014. Thousands of Americans and immigrants moved to the area during the mining boom, prompting the federal government to create Fort Wilkins near Copper Harbor to maintain order; the first wave were the Cornish from England, with centuries of mining experience.
During the 1890s, Finnish immigrants began settling there in large numbers, forming the population plurality in the n