Konidela Siva Sankara Vara Prasad, better known by his stage name Chiranjeevi, is an Indian film actor and politician. He was the Minister of State with independent charge for the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India from 27 October 2012 to 15 May 2014. Prior to politics, Chiranjeevi had attended the Madras Film Institute and had worked in Telugu cinema in addition to Tamil and Hindi films, he made his acting debut in 1978 with the film Punadhirallu. However, Pranam Khareedu was released earlier at the box office. Known for his breakdancing skills, Chiranjeevi starred in over 150 feature films. In 1987, he starred in Swayam Krushi, dubbed into Russian and was screened at the Moscow International Film Festival. Chiranjeevi won the 1988 Cinema Express Best Actor Award and the state Nandi Award for Best Actor awards for his performance in the film. In the same year, Chiranjeevi was one of the Indian delegates at the 59th Academy Awards. In 1988, he co-produced Rudraveena which won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration.
Chiranjeevi's 1992 film Gharana Mogudu, directed by K. Raghavendra Rao, is the first Telugu film to gross over ₹10 crore at the box office; the film was screened at the 1993 International Film Festival of India in the mainstream section. It made Chiranjeevi the highest-paid actor in India at the time catapulting him to the cover pages of national weekly magazines in India; the entertainment magazines Filmfare and India Today named him "Bigger than Bachchan", a reference to Bollywood's Amitabh Bachchan. News magazine The Week hailed him as "the new money machine", he was paid a remuneration of ₹1.25 crore for the 1992 film Aapadbandhavudu. In 2002, Chiranjeevi was given the Samman Award for the Highest Income Tax Payer for the 1999–2000 assessment year by the Minister of State for Finance. A poll conducted by CNN-IBN in 2006 named Chiranjeevi the most popular star of the Telugu film industry. In a film career spanning thirty-nine years, he won four state Nandi Awards, including the Raghupathi Venkaiah Award, ten Filmfare Awards South including the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award – South.
In 2006, Chiranjeevi was honored with the Padma Bhushan, India's third-highest civilian award, for his contributions to Indian cinema and was presented with an honorary doctorate from Andhra University. In 2013, he inaugurated the Incredible India Exhibition, a joint participation of the Ministry of Tourism and Ministry of Information and Broadcasting at the 66th Cannes Film Festival. Chiranjeevi represented Incredible India at the 14th International Indian Film Academy Awards ceremony held in Macau. In 2013, IBN LIVE named him as one of "the men who changed the face of the Indian Cinema". Chiranjeevi's 150th film was announced in May 2015. Chiranjeevi was born in a village near Narsapur, West Godavari, his father was transferred on a regular basis. He spent his childhood in his native village with his grandparents. Chiranjeevi did his schooling in Nidadavolu, Bapatla, Ponnuru and Mogalturu, he was an NCC cadet. Chiranjeevi had participated in the Republic Day Parade in New Delhi as being an NCC cadet in the early 70s.
He was interested in acting from a young age. He did his Intermediate at C. S. R. Sarma College in Ongole. After graduating with a degree in commerce from Sri Y N College at Narsapur, Chiranjeevi moved to Chennai and joined the Madras Film Institute in 1976 to pursue a career in acting. On 20 February 1980, Chiranjeevi married Surekha, the daughter of Telugu comedic actor Allu Ramalingaiah. Since his family worshipped Anjaneya, a Hindu deity, his mother advised him to take the screen name "Chiranjeevi", meaning "live forever", a reference to the belief of Hanuman living forever, he has two daughters and Srija, a son, Ram Charan Teja an actor in Tollywood. One of Chiranjeevi's brothers, Nagendra Babu, is a film producer and has acted in several films, his youngest brother, Pawan Kalyan, is an actor in Tollywood too and he the founder of the Jana Sena Party. Allu Aravind, his brother-in-law, is a film producer. Chiranjeevi is the uncle of Allu Sirish, Varun Tej and Sai Dharam Tej. Chiranjeevi started his film career with Punadhirallu.
However, his first released film was Pranam Khareedu. Mana Voori Pandavulu, directed by Bapu, gave Chiranjeevi recognition from the Telugu audience, he played a small role in Tayaramma Bangarayya. He played the anti-hero in films I Love You and K. Balachander's Idi Katha Kaadu, starring Kamal Haasan. In a remake of the Tamil film Avargal, Chiranjeevi portrayed the character played by Rajinikanth in the original. In 1979, Chiranjeevi had eight major film releases and 14 films in the following year, he played lead antagonist in works such as Mosagadu, Rani Kasula Rangamma, 47 Natkal /47 Rojulu, Nyayam Kavali and Ranuva Veeran. Chiranjeevi began to appear in lead roles with films such as Intlo Ramayya Veedilo Krishnayya, directed by Kodi Ramakrishna, a hit at the box office, he starred in Shubhalekha, directed by K. Viswanath, which dealt with the social malady of the dowry system, it brought him his first Filmfare Award for Best Actor – Telugu and Viswanath's third Filmfare Award for Best Director – Telugu.
He appeared in movies such as Idi Pellantara, Tingu Rangadu, Bandhalu Anubandhalu and Mondi Ghatam. He acted in multi-star movies such as Patnam Vachina Pativrathalu and Billa Ranga, appeared in Manchu Pallaki. Khaidi was Chiranjeevi attained stardom with this movie. In 1984, he continued doing action films. A series of box office hits at this time include.
Rudraiah Chockalingam was an Indian film director most known for directing the film, Aval Appadithan which starred Kamal Haasan and Sripriya. He graduated with a bachelor's degree in economics from St. Joseph's College and went on to pursue a diploma in film direction from Film and Television Institute of Tamil Nadu, Chennai, his directorial debut Aval Appadithan'made an impact at the time of its release because its story and dialogues were different from many other Tamil films. The photography throughout the film emphasises moods by using shadows, close-up shots are used extensively. Jump cuts are common throughout the film. Aval Appadithan is considered as a milestone in Tamil film history. Indian filmmaker Mrinal Sen remarked that the film "was far ahead of the times". Rudraiah's second film, Gramathu Athiyayam was a rural tale set in a rustic Tamil village. Despite the success of his first film, Rudraiah found it difficult to continue making films as a result of the changing style of the film industry and the audience's preference for star-driven projects.
In 1982, he began a venture titled Raja Ennai Mannithuvidu featuring Kamal Haasan, Chandrahasan and Sumalatha, which dealt with conflicts between two brothers. The film was shot in Telugu and was 40% complete, when Kamal Haasan pulled out citing he wanted to work on scripts with more star value, the film was thereafter shelved; the songs recorded for the film by Ilaiyaraaja were used in other ventures. Rudraiah announced another film titled Unmayai Thedi which failed to materialise, before he began work on the road movie, TXT7 in 1988. Written by Sujatha Rangarajan, the team signed on Raghuvaran to play the lead role of a taxi driver and L. Vaidyanathan to compose music; however financial problems meant. The failure for his own productions to take off meant that by 1990, Rudraiah was open to directing films for other producers and began work on a tragic love story titled Kadalpurathil featuring Archana. Soon after production began, the makers decided to change the lead actress and create it as a television film instead, it was premièred on Doordarshan.
Rudraiah died in Chennai on 18 November 2014 at the age of 67 after an illness. Aval Appadithan Gramathu Athiyayam Rudraiah, my father [https://www.thehindu.com/thread/reflections/article9357726.ece An Outsider who saw within - Ganga Rudraiah
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Indian Institute of Technology Madras is a public engineering institute located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. As one of the Indian Institutes of Technology, it is recognised as an Institute of National Importance. Founded in 1959 with technical and financial assistance from the former government of West Germany, it was the third IIT, established by the Government of India. IIT Madras has been ranked as the top engineering institute in India for four years in a row by the National Institutional Ranking Framework of the Ministry of Human Resource Development. IIT Madras is a residential institute that occupies a 2.5 km² campus, part of the adjoining Guindy National Park. The institute has 8,000 students and 1,250 administrative and supporting staff. Growing since it obtained its charter from the Indian Parliament in 1961, much of the campus is a protected forest, carved out of the Guindy National Park, home to large numbers of chital, black buck and other rare wildlife. A natural lake, deepened in 1988 and 2003, drains most of its rainwater.
In 1956, the West German Government offered technical assistance for establishing an institute of higher education in engineering in India. The first Indo-German agreement was signed in Bonn, West Germany in 1959 for the establishment of the Indian Institute of Technology at Madras. IIT Madras was started with technical and financial assistance from the Government of West Germany and was at the time the largest educational project sponsored by the West German Government outside their country; this has led to several collaborative research efforts with universities and institutions in Germany over the years. Although official support from the German government has ended, several research efforts involving the DAAD programme and Humboldt Fellowships still exist; the institute was inaugurated in 1959 by Prof Humayun Kabir, the Union Minister for Scientific Research and Cultural Affairs. In 1961, the IITs were declared to be Institutions of National Importance; these include the Indian Institutes of Technology located at Kharagpur, Chennai, Delhi, Guwahati, IIT Roorkee, IIT BHU Varanasi.
Madras celebrated its Golden Jubilee in 2009. Seven more IITs have been set up since 2008; the main entrance of IIT Madras is on Chennai's Sardar Patel Road, flanked by the residential districts of Adyar and Velachery. The campus is close to the official seat of the Governor of Tamil Nadu. Other entrances are located in Gandhi Road and Taramani gate; the campus is located 10 km from the Chennai Airport, 12 km from the Chennai Central Railway station, is well connected by city buses. Kasturba Nagar is the nearest station on the Chennai MRTS line. Two parallel roads, Bonn Avenue and Delhi Avenue, cut through the faculty residential area, before they meet at the Gajendra Circle, near the Administrative Block. Buses ply between the Main Gate, Gajendra Circle, the Academic Zone, the Hostel Zone; the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, is an autonomous statutory organisation functioning within the Institutes of Technology Act. The sixteen IITs are administered centrally by the IIT Council, an apex body established by the Government of India.
The Minister of Human Resource and Development, Government of India, is the Chairman of the Council. Each institute has a Board of Governors responsible for its control; the Senate decides its academic policy. It controls and approves the curriculum, courses and results, it appoints committees to examine specific academic matters. The Director of the institute serves as the Chairman of the Senate; the Director from 2001 to 2011 was M. S. Ananth, who stepped down at the end of July 2011; as of September 2011, Bhaskar Ramamurthi has taken over as Director. Three Senate Sub-Committees - The Board of Academic Research, The Board of Academic Courses and The Board of Students - help in academic administration and in the operations of the Institute; the Finance Committee advises on matters of financial policy, while the Building and Works Committee advises on buildings and infrastructure. The Board of Industrial Consultancy and Sponsored Research addresses industrial consultancy and the Library Advisory Committee oversees library matters.
Aerospace Engineering Applied Mechanics Biotechnology Chemical Engineering Chemistry Civil Engineering Computer Science and Engineering Electrical Engineering Engineering Design Humanities and Social Sciences Mechanical Engineering Management Studies Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Mathematics Ocean Engineering Physics IIT Madras offers undergraduate and research degrees across 16 disciplines in Engineering, Sciences and Management. About 360 faculty belonging to science and engineering departments and centres of the Institute are engaged in teaching and industrial consultancy; the institute has 16 academic departments and advanced research centres across disciplines of engineering and pure sciences, with nearly 100 laboratories. The academic calendar is organised around the semester; each semester provides a minimum of seventy days of instruction in English. Students are evaluated on a continuous basis throughout the semester. Evaluation is done by a consequence of the autonomous status granted to the Institute.
Research work is evaluated on the basis of the review thesis by p
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
P. C. Sreeram
P. C. Sreeram, ISC is an Indian cinematographer and film director who works in the Indian film industry, he is an alumnus of the Madras Film Institute. Apart from his cinematographic works, he was much appreciated for his directorial venture Kuruthipunal, submitted by India as its official entry to the Oscars in 1996. Sreeram is well known for his association with Mani Ratnam and received critical acclaim for his work in films such as Mouna Ragam, Agni Natchathiram, Thevar Magan, Alaipayuthey, O Kadhal Kanmani, he has worked as a cinematographer in over 30 films spanning across Tamil, Malayalam and Hindi language, besides directing three films and a few TV commercials. He is the founding member of Indian Society of Cinematographers. Though he was the leading cinematographer he didn't use anamorphic lenses until cinematographer A. Ramesh Kumar used it in "oomai vizhigal". Sreeram was born on 26 January 1956 in Madras, he has two sisters. Sreeram's aspiration towards films grew much during his childhood days.
He was educated at the Vidya Mandir Senior Secondary School, Chennai. As a student he was not interested in studies and managed to pass the exams, he had a passion for photography and after many years of struggle he joined the Madras Film Institute to pursue a course in cinematography. Together with his friends Kamal Haasan, C. Rudhraiya, Santhana Bharathi, Radharavi, R. C. Sakthi and few others they were called "sanmac" group where they used to join together at a hotel in Chennai and share their learnings about cinema and future dreams of making a perfect cinema. Sreeram is married and had a daughter named Swetha who died in 2010, his son Skanda is pursuing his studies in Australia. His niece Preetha Jayaraman, a cinematographer in the Tamil Film industry, was inspired to her calling by her uncle's work in the field. Sreeram received his diploma in motion picture photography from the Madras Film Institute in 1979, made his cinematic debut in the early 1980s. One of his earlier works, Meendum Oru Kaathal Kathai, won the Indira Gandhi Award for Best Debut Film of a Director in 1984.
Following a few commercially unsuccessful releases, he worked with Mani Ratnam for the first time in Mouna Ragam. The film gave a much needed breakthrough for both of them. Following the film's success, the pair went on to work in Nayagan; the film went on to win three National Film Awards at the 35th National Film Awards. He used new techniques in the camera for their next film Agni Natchathiram and was praised much for his work. Sreeram shot all of Ratnam's films until Geethanjali; the film was both critically acclaimed and commercially successful besides winning the National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment and seven Nandi Awards—including the Best Story and Best Cinematography awards for Ratnam and Sreeram, respectively. During the early 1990s, Sreeram worked in Thevar Magan, he made his directional debut in 1992 with Meera, starring Aishwarya in the lead roles. The film was a poor grosser at the box-office; the following year, he renewed his association with Ratnam in the latter's Thiruda Thiruda.
Sreeram directed his second film Kuruthipunal, a police story based on the Hindi film Drohkaal. The film was India's official entry to the Oscars in 1996, it was showcased at the Rotterdam International Film Festival under the category "Director in Focus" eight years after its release. In 2004, he directed Vaanam Vasappadum, the first Indian film to make use of high-definition digital technology; the film was screened at the Mumbai International Film Festival and the ninth International Film Festival of Kerala. In 2007, Sreeram made his Bollywood debut with R. Balki's Cheeni Kum. Since Sreeram has shot all of Balki's films—Paa, Shamitabh, Ki & Ka and Pad Man. Sreeram is well known for his longtime association with Mani Ratnam and Kamal Haasan, he received critical acclaim for his work in films such as Mouna Ragam, Geetaanjali, Thevar Magan, Thiruda Thiruda and Alaipayuthey. He has mentored some of the prominent cinematographers in the Indian film industry including Jeeva, M. S. Prabhu, Chezhiyan, K. V. Anand, Balasubramaniem, K. V. Guhan and Nirav Shah.
In January 2016, Sreeram was elected as the president of South Indian Film Cinematographers Association. As cinematographer As director Meera Kuruthipunal Vaanam Vasappadum 1987 – National Film Award for Best Cinematography for Nayakan 1990 – Nandi Award for Best Cinematographer for Geethanjali 2000 - Filmfare Award for Best Cinematographer - South for Alaipayuthey 2006 – Vijay Award for Best Cinematographer 2013 – CineMAA Award for Best Cinematographer for Ishq 2013 – CineMAA Award for Life Time Contribution 2013 – Nominated: SIIMA Award for Best Cinematographer for Ishq Official Website P. C. Sreeram on IMDb
Tamil cinema refers to Tamil-language motion pictures, which are made in India. Based in the city of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, the hub of the Tamil film industry is in the Kodambakkam neighbourhood of Chennai. Kollywood is a colloquial term for this industry, the word being a portmanteau of Kodambakkam and Hollywood; the first Tamil silent film, Keechaka Vadham, was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar in 1918; the first talking motion picture, was a multilingual and was released on 31 October 1931, less than seven months after India's first talking motion picture Alam Ara. By the end of the 1930s, the legislature of the State of Madras passed the Entertainment Tax Act of 1939. Tamil cinema had a profound effect on other filmmaking industries of India, establishing Madras as a secondary hub for Hindi cinema, other South Indian film industries, as well as Sri Lankan cinema. Over the last quarter of the 20th century, Tamil films from India established a global presence through distribution to an increasing number of overseas theatres in Singapore, Sri Lanka, Japan, the Middle East, parts of Africa, Europe, North America and other countries.
The industry inspired independent filmmaking in Sri Lanka and Tamil diaspora populations in Malaysia and the Western Hemisphere. In 1897, M. Edwards first screened a selection of silent short films at the Victoria Public Hall in Madras; the films all featured non-fictional subjects. The film scholar Stephen Hughes points out that within a few years there were regular ticketed shows in a hall in Pophams Broadway, started by one Mrs. Klug, but this lasted only for a few months. Once it was demonstrated as a commercial proposition, a Western entrepreneur, Warwick Major, built the first cinema theatre, the Electric Theatre, which still stands, it was a favourite haunt of the British community in Madras. The theatre was shut down after a few years; this building is now part of a post office complex on Anna Salai. The Lyric Theatre was built in the Mount Road area; this venue boasted a variety of events, including plays in English, Western classical music concerts, ballroom dances. Silent films were screened as an additional attraction.
Swamikannu Vincent, a railway draftsman from Tiruchirapalli, became a travelling exhibitor in 1905. He showed short movies in a tent in Esplanade, near the present Parry's Corner, using carbide jet-burners for projection, he bought the film projector and silent films from the Frenchman Du Pont and set up a business as film exhibitor. Soon, he tied up with Path, a well-known pioneering film-producing company, imported projectors; this helped new cinema houses to sprout across the presidency. In years, he produced talkies and built a cinema in Coimbatore. To celebrate the event of King George V's visit in 1909, a grand exhibition was organized in Madras, its major attraction was the screening of short films accompanied by sound. A British company imported a Crone megaphone, made up of a film projector to which a gramophone with a disc containing prerecorded sound was linked, both were run in unison, producing picture and sound simultaneously. However, there was no synched dialogue. Raghupathy Venkiah Naidu, a successful photographer, took over the equipment after the exhibition and set up a tent cinema near the Madras High Court.
With this equipment, he screened the short films Pearl Fish and Raja's Casket in the Victoria Public Hall. When this proved successful, he screened the films in a tent set up in Esplanade; these tent events were the true precursors of the cinema shows. Venkiah traveled with this unit to Burma and Sri Lanka, when he had gathered enough money, he put up a permanent cinema house in Madras—Gaiety, in 1914, the first cinema house in Madras to be built by an Indian, he soon added Crown Theatre in Mint and Globe in Purasawalkam. Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema of South India in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema" in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land close to a town or village to screen the films; the first of its kind was established in Madras, called "Edison's Grand Cinemamegaphone". This was due to the fact. Most of the films screened were shorts made in the United States and Britain. In 1909, an Englishman, T. H. Huffton, founded Peninsular Film Services in Madras and produced some short films for local audiences.
But soon, hour-long films, which narrated dramatic stories known as "drama films", were imported. From 1912 onwards, feature films made in Bombay were screened in Madras; the era of short films had ended. The arrival of drama films established cinema as a popular entertainment form. More cinema houses came up in the city. Fascinated by this new entertainment form, an automobile dealer in the Thousand Lights area of Madras, R. Nataraja Mudaliyar, decided to venture into film production. After a few days’ training in Pune with the cinematographer Stewart Smith, the official cinematographer of Lord Curzon's 1903 Durbar, he started a film production concern in 1916; the man who laid the foundations of south Indian cinema was A. Narayanan. After a few years in film distribution, he set up a production company in Madras, the General Pictures Corporation, popularly known as GPC. Beginning with The Faithful Wife/Dharmapathini, GPC made about 24 feature films. GPC functioned as a film school and its alumni included names such as Sundara Rao Nadkarni and Jiten Banerji.
The studio of GPC was housed in the Chellapalli bungalow on Thiruvottiyur High Road in Madras. This company, which produced the most number of Tamil silent films, had branc
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia