The term web service is either a service offered by an electronic device to another electronic device, communicating with each other via the World Wide Web, or a web service implemented in the particular technology or brand, e.g W3C Web Services. In a web service, the Web technology such as HTTP—originally designed for human-to-machine communication—is utilized for machine-to-machine communication, more for transferring machine-readable file formats such as XML and JSON. In practice, a web service provides an object-oriented web-based interface to a database server, utilized for example by another web server, or by a mobile app, that provides a user interface to the end user. Many organizations that provide data in formatted HTML pages will provide that data on their server as XML or JSON through a web service to allow syndication, for example Wikipedia's Export. Another application offered to the end user may be a mashup, where a web server consumes several web services at different machines, compiles the content into one user interface.
Restful APIs do not require XML-based web service protocols to support their interfaces. In relation to W3C Web Services, the W3C defined a web service as: A web service is a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network, it has an interface described in a machine-processable format. Other systems interact with the web service in a manner prescribed by its description using SOAP-messages conveyed using HTTP with an XML serialization in conjunction with other web-related standards. W3C Web Services may use SOAP over HTTP protocol, allowing less costly interactions over the Internet than via proprietary solutions like EDI/B2B. Besides SOAP over HTTP, web services can be implemented on other reliable transport mechanisms like FTP. In a 2002 document, the Web Services Architecture Working Group defined a web services architecture, requiring a standardized implementation of a "web service." The term "web service" describes a standardized way of integrating web-based applications using the XML, SOAP, WSDL and UDDI open standards over an Internet Protocol backbone.
XML is the data format used to contain the data and provide metadata around it, SOAP is used to transfer the data, WSDL is used for describing the services available and UDDI lists what services are available. A web service is a method of communication between two electronic devices over a network, it is a software function provided at a network address over the web with the service always on as in the concept of utility computing. Many organizations use multiple software systems for management. Different software systems need to exchange data with each other, a web service is a method of communication that allows two software systems to exchange this data over the internet; the software system that requests data is called a service requester, whereas the software system that would process the request and provide the data is called a service provider. Different software may use different programming languages, hence there is a need for a method of data exchange that doesn't depend upon a particular programming language.
Most types of software can, interpret XML tags. Thus, web services can use XML files for data exchange. Rules for communication between different systems need to be defined, such as: How one system can request data from another system. Which specific parameters are needed in the data request. What would be the structure of the data produced. What error messages to display when a certain rule for communication is not observed, to make troubleshooting easier. All of these rules for communication are defined in a file called WSDL. A directory called. So when one software system needs one particular report/data, it would go to the UDDI and find out which other system it can contact for receiving that data. Once the software system finds out which other system it should contact, it w
Bulgaria the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and North Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, the Black Sea to the east; the capital and largest city is Sofia. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians and ancient Macedonians; the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script; this state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II.
After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc; the ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy. Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political and economic centralisation; the population of seven million lives in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces, the country has suffered significant demographic decline since the late 1980s.
Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, the Council of Europe. Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture. Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; the name Bulgaria is derived from a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country. Their name is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak; the meaning may be further extended to "rebel", "incite" or "produce a state of disorder", i.e. the "disturbers". Ethnic groups in Inner Asia with phonologically similar names were described in similar terms: during the 4th century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers". Neanderthal remains dating to around 150,000 years ago, or the Middle Paleolithic, are some of the earliest traces of human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria.
The Karanovo culture arose circa 6,500 BC and was one of several Neolithic societies in the region that thrived on agriculture. The Copper Age Varna culture is credited with inventing gold metallurgy; the associated Varna Necropolis treasure contains the oldest golden jewellery in the world with an approximate age of over 6,000 years. The treasure has been valuable for understanding social hierarchy and stratification in the earliest European societies; the Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless; the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered most of present-day Bulgaria in the 6th century BC and retained control over the region until 479 BC. The invasion became a catalyst for Thracian unity, the bulk of their tribes united under king Teres to form the Odrysian kingdom in the 470s BC.
It was weakened and vassalized by Philip II of Macedon in 341 BC, attacked by Celts in the 3rd century, became a province of the Roman Empire in AD 45. By the end of the 1st century AD, Roman governance was established over the entire Balkan Peninsula and Christianity began spreading in the region around the 4th century; the Gothic Bible—the first Germanic language book—was created by Gothic bishop Ulfilas in what is today northern Bulgaria around 381. The region came under Byzantine control after the fall of Rome in 476; the Byzantines were engaged in prolonged warfare against Persia and could not defend their Balkan territories from barbarian incursions. This enabled the Slavs to enter the Balkan Peninsula as marauders through an area between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains known as Moesia; the interior of the peninsula became a country of the South Slavs, who lived under a democracy. The Slavs assimilated the Hellenized and Gothicized Thracians in the rural areas. Not l
Maxim Behar is a Bulgarian businessman of Jewish descent. He is the CEO and Chairman of the Board of M3 Communications Group, Inc, a public relations and public affairs company and a Hill+Knowlton Strategies partner since 2000. Behar is president of the International Communications Consultancy Organization, board member of PR Museum in New York, a frequent speaker at national and international events, he is Chairman of the Board of World Communications Forum in Davos. 1985-1989: Correspondent of Rabotnichesko delo daily in Shumen, Bulgaria. 1989-1991: Correspondent of Rabotnichesko delo daily in Warsaw, Poland. 1992-1995: Co-founder of the Standard Daily, one of the first private daily newspapers in Bulgaria, where he was the Managing Editor. 1994: Founded M3 Communications Group, Inc. 2003: Co-founder and shareholder, with former Nevada Governor Bob Miller, of a Bulgarian-American consultancy company Miller & Behar Strategies. 2003: Founder and Chairman of the Board of M3 Communications College, the first and the only licensed college in Bulgaria of Public communication studies, now associated with the Manhattan Institute of Management in New York.
1983: Graduated international economic relations at the Prague Economic University. 1999: Graduated the Full Corporate Program of Japanese Style of Management, AOTS, Yokohama Kenshu Center, Japan. 2011: Executive Management Training at the Pacific Institute by Lou Tice in Seattle, WA 1997-2000: Board member and Executive Director for the Bulgarian Investment Forum. 1999-2012: Member of the Boards of Junior Achievement Bulgaria. 1999-current: Full member of the International Public Relations Association. 2001-2007: President of the Bulgarian Business Leaders Forum. 2002-current: Founder and Chairman of the Bulgarian-Polish Business Club. 2002-current: Founding member of the Board of Trustees of Every Child Foundation. 2003-2011: Member of the Central Israelite Spiritual Council in Bulgaria. 2005-current: Full member of the Public Relations Society of America 2005-current: Vice-President of the Atlantic Club in Bulgaria. 2012-current: Chairman at Hill+Knowlton Strategies, Czech Republic. 2004: Appointed as Honorary Consul of the Republic of Seychelles to Bulgaria.
2005: Honorary citizen of Shumen. 2012: The Bulgarian monthly Economy magazine presented its yearly award to Maxim Behar for achievements in Business Communications. 2012: Named "Manager of the year" in an independent online vote by the Bulgarian Manager magazine and TV Channel bTV. 2012: The Association of Business Communications of India announced Behar as "Communicator of the Decade". 2015: The Gold Stevie Award. M3 Communications Group
The Superbrands organization publishes surveys related to brands. The organization publishes a series of brand-focused books and publications. Superbrands has offices in 55 countries. Superbrands was founded by advertising executive Marcel Knobil in London in 1994, it began as a radio show on GLR. The Superbrand organization was founded in 1995. In each country that Superbrands operates in, it elects a "Superbrands Council" which selects brands and awards them the title of "Superbrands"; each participating country publishes its own Superbrands book, which promotes brands in that country. Each brand’s editorial has sub-sections which cover the brand’s market, history, product or service, recent developments, promotional activities, brand values, a “things you didn’t know” boxed-section. Other publications in the Superbrands stable include Business Superbrands, CoolBrands, Sport BrandLeaders, eSuperbrands. In the United States, their publications are called America's Greatest Brands. BrandZ Brand Finance Media related to Superbrands at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics and logic since before Aristotle, though analysis as a formal concept is a recent development; the word comes from the Ancient Greek ἀνάλυσις. As a formal concept, the method has variously been ascribed to Alhazen, René Descartes, Galileo Galilei, it has been ascribed to Isaac Newton, in the form of a practical method of physical discovery. The field of chemistry uses analysis in at least three ways: to identify the components of a particular chemical compound, to identify the proportions of components in a mixture, to break down chemical processes and examine chemical reactions between elements of matter. For an example of its use, analysis of the concentration of elements is important in managing a nuclear reactor, so nuclear scientists will analyse neutron activation to develop discrete measurements within vast samples.
A matrix can have a considerable effect on the way a chemical analysis is conducted and the quality of its results. Analysis can be done manually or with a device. Chemical analysis is an important element of national security among the major world powers with materials Chemists can use isotope analysis to assist analysts with issues in anthropology, food chemistry, geology, a host of other questions of physical science. Analysts can discern the origins of natural and man-made isotopes in the study of environmental radioactivity. Financial statement analysis – the analysis of the accounts and the economic prospects of a firm Fundamental analysis – a stock valuation method that uses financial analysis Technical analysis – the study of price action in securities markets in order to forecast future prices Business analysis – involves identifying the needs and determining the solutions to business problems Price analysis – involves the breakdown of a price to a unit figure Market analysis – consists of suppliers and customers, price is determined by the interaction of supply and demand Opportunity analysis – consists of customers trends within the industry, customer demand and experience determine purchasing behavior Requirements analysis – encompasses those tasks that go into determining the needs or conditions to meet for a new or altered product, taking account of the conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders, such as beneficiaries or users.
Competitive analysis – shows how online algorithms perform and demonstrates the power of randomization in algorithms Lexical analysis – the process of processing an input sequence of characters and producing as output a sequence of symbols Object-oriented analysis and design – à la Booch Program analysis – the process of automatically analysing the behavior of computer programs Semantic analysis – a pass by a compiler that adds semantical information to the parse tree and performs certain checks Static code analysis – the analysis of computer software, performed without executing programs built from that Structured systems analysis and design methodology – à la Yourdon Syntax analysis – a process in compilers that recognizes the structure of programming languages known as parsing Worst-case execution time – determines the longest time that a piece of software can take to run Agroecosystem analysis Input-output model if applied to a region, is called Regional Impact Multiplier System Analysts in the field of engineering look at requirements, mechanisms and dimensions.
Electrical engineers analyse systems in electronics. Life cycles and system failures are studied by engineers, it is looking at different factors incorporated within the design. The field of intelligence employs analysts to understand a wide array of questions. Intelligence agencies may use heuristics and deductive reasoning, social network analysis, dynamic network analysis, link analysis, brainstorming to sort through problems they face. Military intelligence may explore issues through the use of game theory, Red Teaming, wargaming. Signals intelligence applies cryptanalysis and frequency analysis to break ciphers. Business intelligence applies theories of competitive intelligence analysis and competitor analysis to resolve questions in the marketplace. Law enforcement intelligence applies a number of theories in crime analysis. Linguistics looks at individual languages and language in general, it breaks language down and analyses its component parts: theory and their meaning, utterance usage, word origins, the history of words, the meaning of words and word combinations, sentence construction, basic construction beyond the sentence level and conversation.
It examines the above using statistics and modeling, semantics. It analyses language in context of anthropology, evolution, history, neurology and sociology, it takes the applied approach, looking at individual language development and clinical issues. Literary criticism is the analysis of literature; the focus can be as diverse as the analysis of Freud. While not all literary-critical methods are analytical in nature, the main approach to the teaching of literature in the west since the mid-twentieth century, literary formal analysis or close reading, is; this method, rooted in the academic movement labelled The New Criticism, approaches texts – chiefly short poems such as sonnets, which by virtue of their small size and sign
Social media are interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks. The variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services available introduces challenges of definition. User-generated content, such as text posts or comments, digital photos or videos, data generated through all online interactions, is the lifeblood of social media. Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization. Social media facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user's profile with those of other individuals or groups. Users access social media services via web-based technologies on desktops and laptops, or download services that offer social media functionality to their mobile devices; as users engage with these electronic services, they create interactive platforms through which individuals and organizations can share, co-create and modify user-generated content or pre-made content posted online.
Networks formed through social media change the way groups of people communicate. They "introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations and individuals." These changes are the focus of the emerging fields of technoself studies. Social media differ from paper-based media and traditional electronic media such as TV broadcasting in many ways, including quality, frequency, usability and performance. Social media outlets operate in a dialogic transmission system; this is in contrast to traditional media which operates under a monologic transmission model, such as a newspaper, delivered to many subscribers, or a radio station which broadcasts the same programs to an entire city. Some of the most popular social media websites, with over 100 million registered users, include Facebook, YouTube, WeChat, Instagram, QQ, QZone, Twitter, Telegram, Baidu Tieba, LinkedIn, LINE, Pinterest, VK. Observers have noted a range of negative impacts of social media use. Social media can help to improve an individual's sense of connectedness with real or online communities, can be an effective communication tool for corporations, nonprofit organizations, advocacy groups, political parties, governments.
Social media may have been influenced by the 1840s introduction of the telegraph in the US, which connected the country. The PLATO system launched in 1960, developed at the University of Illinois and subsequently commercially marketed by Control Data Corporation, offered early forms of social media with 1973-era innovations such as Notes, PLATO's message-forum application. ARPANET, which first came online in 1967, had by the late 1970s developed a rich cultural exchange of non-government/business ideas and communication, as evidenced by the network etiquette described in a 1982 handbook on computing at MIT's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. ARPANET became the foundation of Usenet, conceived by Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis in 1979 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, established in 1980. A precursor of the electronic bulletin board system, known as Community Memory, had appeared by 1973. True electronic bulletin board systems arrived with the Computer Bulletin Board System in Chicago, which first came online on 16 February 1978.
Before long, most major cities had more than one BBS running on TRS-80, Apple II, Atari, IBM PC, Commodore 64, similar personal computers. The IBM PC was introduced in 1981, subsequent models of both Mac computers and PCs were used throughout the 1980s. Multiple modems, followed by specialized telecommunication hardware, allowed many users to be online simultaneously. Compuserve, Prodigy and AOL were three of the largest BBS companies and were the first to migrate to the Internet in the 1990s. Between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, BBSes numbered in the tens of thousands in North America alone. Message forums arose with the BBS phenomenon throughout early 1990s; when the Internet proliferated in the mid-1990s, message forums migrated online, becoming Internet forums due to cheaper per-person access as well as the ability to handle far more people than telco modem banks. GeoCities was one of the Internet's earliest social networking websites, appearing in November 1994, followed by Classmates in December 1995 and Six Degrees in May 1997.
According to CBS news, Six Degrees is "widely considered to be the first social networking site", as it included "profiles, friends lists and school affiliations" that could be used by registered users. Open Diary was launched in October 1998. 360° in March 2005.
Sofia is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria. The city is at the foot of Vitosha Mountain in the western part of the country. Being in the centre of the Balkan peninsula, it is midway between the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea, closest to the Aegean Sea. Sofia has been an area of human habitation since at least 7000 BC; the recorded history of Sofia begins with the attestation of the conquest of Serdica by the Roman Republic in 29 BC from the Celtic tribe Serdi, raided by Huns in 343-347 AD and 447 AD, conquered by Visigoths in 376-382 AD, conquered by Avars and Slavs in 617 AD, on 9th April, 809 Serdica was surrendered to Krum of Bulgaria. In 1018, the Byzantines ended Bulgarian rule; the town was conquered by the Pechenegs in 1048 and 1078, by the Magyars and Serbs in 1183, by the Crusaders in 1095 and 1190. The rule of the Second Bulgarian Empire lasted from 1194 until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1382.. From 1520 to 1836, Sofia was the regional capital of Rumelia Eyalet, the Ottoman Empire's key province in Europe.
Bulgarian rule was restored in 1878. During World War II Sofia was bombarded by the UK and US Air Forces and at the end of the war, it was seized by the Soviet Army. Being Bulgaria's primate city, Sofia is a hometown of many of the major local universities, cultural institutions and commercial companies. Sofia is one of the top 10 best places for start-up businesses in the world in information technologies, according to Bulgarian National Television. Sofia was Europe's most affordable capital to visit in 2013; the population of Sofia declined down from 70,000 in the late 18th century, through 19,000 in 1870, to 11,649 in 1878 and began increasing. Sofia hosts some 1.23 million residents within a territory of 492 km2, a concentration of 17.5% of the country population within the 200th percentile of the country territory. The urban area of Sofia hosts some 1.54 million residents within 5723 km², which comprises Sofia City Province and parts of Sofia Province and Pernik Province, representing 5.16% of the country territory.
The metropolitan area of Sofia is based upon one hour of car travel time, stretches internationally and includes Dimitrovgrad in Serbia. Unlike most European metropolitan areas, it is not to be defined as a functional metropolitan area, but is of the type with "limited variety of functions"; the metropolitan region of Sofia is inhabited by a population of 1.68 million and is made up of the whole provinces Sofia City and Pernik, comprising more than 10,000 km². For the longest time the city possessed a Thracian name, derived from the tribe Serdi, who were either of Thracian, Celtic, or mixed Thracian-Celtic origin; the emperor Marcus Ulpius Traianus gave the city the combinative name of Ulpia Serdica. It seems that the first written mention of Serdica was made during his reign and the last mention was in the 19th century in a Bulgarian text. Other names given to Sofia, such as Serdonpolis and Triaditza, were mentioned by Byzantine Greek sources or coins; the Slavic name Sredets, related to "middle" and to the city's earliest name, first appeared on paper in an 11th-century text.
The city was called Atralisa by the Arab traveller Idrisi and Strelisa, Stralitsa or Stralitsion by the Crusaders. The name Sofia comes from the Saint Sofia Church, as opposed to the prevailing Slavic origin of Bulgarian cities and towns; the origin is in the Greek word sophia "wisdom", which may derive from the Egyptian word sbÅ "teach, learn or wise" provided b oftentimes turns into ph in Egyptian to Greek translations. The earliest works where this latest name is registered are the duplicate of the Gospel of Serdica, in a dialogue between two salesmen from Dubrovnik around 1359, in the 14th-century Vitosha Charter of Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman and in a Ragusan merchant's notes of 1376. In these documents the city is called Sofia, but at the same time the region and the city's inhabitants are still called Sredecheski, which continued until the 20th century; the city became somehow popular to the Ottomans by the name Sofya. In 1879 there was a dispute about what the name of the new Bulgarian capital should be, when the citizens created a committee of famous people, insisting for the Slavic name.
A compromise arose, officialisation of Sofia for the nationwide institutions, while legitimating the title Sredets for the administrative and church institutions, before the latter was abandoned through the years. The city's name is pronounced by Bulgarians with a stress on the'o', in contrast with the tendency of foreigners to place the stress on'i'; the female given name "Sofia" is pronounced by Bulgarians with a stress on the'i'. Sofia City Province has an area of 1344 km2. Sofia's development as a significant settlement owes much to its central position in the Balkans, it is situated in western Bulgaria, at the northern foot of the Vitosha mountain, in the Sofia Valley, surrounded by the Balkan mountains to the north. The valley has an average altitude of 550 metres. Unlike most European capitals, Sofia does not have any large rivers or bridges, but is surrounded by comparatively high mountains on all sides. Three mountain passes lead to the city, which have been key roads since antiquity, Vitosha being the watershed between Black and Aegean Seas.
A number of l