The R-29RM Shtil was a liquid propellant, submarine-launched ballistic missile in use by the Russian Navy. It had the alternate Russian designations RSM-54 and GRAU index 3M27, it was designed to be launched from the Delta IV submarine, each of, capable of carrying 16 missiles. They were replaced with the newer R-29RMU Sineva and with the enhanced variant R-29RMU2 Layner. On 6 August 1991 at 21:09 Novomoskovsk, under the command of Captain Second Rank Sergey Yegorov, became the world's only submarine to launch an all-missile salvo, launching 16 R-29RM ballistic missiles of total weight of 700 tons in 244 seconds; the first and the last missiles hit their targets. The largest number of missiles launched from a submerged SSBN was four Trident II missiles; the R-29RM had a range of about 8,500 kilometres. The last boat carrying R-29RM, K-51 Verkhoturye, went into refit to be rearmed with the newer R-29RMU Sineva on 23 August 2010. Several R-29RM were retrofitted as Shtill carrier rockets to be launched by Delta-class submarines, the submarines being mobile can send a payload directly into a heliosynchronic orbit, notably used by imaging satellites.
Outside the confines of the Russian military, this capability has been used commercially to place three out of four microsatellites into a low earth orbit with one cancellation assigned to the Baikonur Cosmodrome for better financial terms. Russian Navy Soviet Navy R-29 Vysota R-29RMU Sineva R-29RMU2 Layner RSM-56 Bulava Kanyon UGM-133 Trident II M45 M51 JL-1 JL-2 K Missile family Pukkuksong-1 R-39 Rif R-39M CSIS Missile Threat SS-N-23 IDB RSM-54 3M37, SS-N-23 "Skiff" Russian nuclear delivery systems at the Center for Defense Information
French submarine Le Terrible (S619)
Le Terrible is a Triomphant-class strategic nuclear submarine of the French Navy. The boat was launched on 21 March 2008 On 27 January 2010, at 9h25, Le Terrible launched an M51 SLBM from underwater, in Audierne Bay; the missile reached its target 2,000 kilometres off North Carolina. The submarine was put into service on 20 September 2010 armed with the 16 M51 missiles. Terrible is fitted with a new SYCOBS combat system which will be installed on the new Barracuda class SSNs. In July 2017 French president Macron visited the submarine in the Atlantic and took part in a simulated missile launch. List of submarines of France
Galileo (satellite navigation)
Galileo is the global navigation satellite system that went live in 2016, created by the European Union through the European GNSS Agency, headquartered in Prague in the Czech Republic, with two ground operations centres, Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich in Germany and Fucino in Italy. The €10 billion project is named after the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei. One of the aims of Galileo is to provide an independent high-precision positioning system so European nations do not have to rely on the U. S. GPS, or the Russian GLONASS systems, which could be disabled or degraded by their operators at any time; the use of basic Galileo services will be open to everyone. The higher-precision capabilities will be available for paying commercial users. Galileo is intended to provide horizontal and vertical position measurements within 1-metre precision, better positioning services at higher latitudes than other positioning systems. Galileo is to provide a new global search and rescue function as part of the MEOSAR system.
The first Galileo test satellite, the GIOVE-A, was launched 28 December 2005, while the first satellite to be part of the operational system was launched on 21 October 2011. As of July 2018, 26 of the planned 30 active satellites are in orbit. Galileo started offering Early Operational Capability on 15 December 2016, providing initial services with a weak signal, is expected to reach Full Operational Capability in 2019; the complete 30-satellite Galileo system is expected by 2020. It is expected that the next generation of satellites will begin to become operational by 2025 to replace older equipment. Older systems can be used for backup capabilities. There are 22 satellites in usable condition, 2 satellites are in "testing" and 2 more are marked as not available. In 1999, the different concepts of the three main contributors of ESA for Galileo were compared and reduced to one by a joint team of engineers from all three countries; the first stage of the Galileo programme was agreed upon on 26 May 2003 by the European Union and the European Space Agency.
The system is intended for civilian use, unlike the more military-oriented systems of the United States and China. The European system will only be subject to shutdown for military purposes in extreme circumstances, it will be available at its full precision to both military users. The countries that contribute most to the Galileo Project are Italy; the European Commission had some difficulty funding the project's next stage, after several "per annum" sales projection graphs for the project were exposed in November 2001 as "cumulative" projections which for each year projected included all previous years of sales. The attention, brought to this multibillion-euro growing error in sales forecasts resulted in a general awareness in the Commission and elsewhere that it was unlikely that the program would yield the return on investment, suggested to investors and decision-makers. On 17 January 2002, a spokesman for the project stated that, as a result of US pressure and economic difficulties, "Galileo is dead."A few months however, the situation changed dramatically.
European Union member states decided it was important to have a satellite-based positioning and timing infrastructure that the US could not turn off in times of political conflict. The European Union and the European Space Agency agreed in March 2002 to fund the project, pending a review in 2003; the starting cost for the period ending in 2005 is estimated at €1.1 billion. The required satellites were to be launched between 2011 and 2014, with the system up and running and under civilian control from 2019; the final cost is estimated at €3 billion, including the infrastructure on Earth, constructed in 2006 and 2007. The plan was for private companies and investors to invest at least two-thirds of the cost of implementation, with the EU and ESA dividing the remaining cost; the base Open Service is to be available without charge to anyone with a Galileo-compatible receiver, with an encrypted higher-bandwidth improved-precision Commercial Service available at a cost. By early 2011 costs for the project had run 50% over initial estimates.
Galileo is intended to be an EU civilian GNSS. GPS reserved the highest quality signal for military use, the signal available for civilian use was intentionally degraded; this changed with President Bill Clinton signing a policy directive in 1996 to turn off Selective Availability. Since May 2000 the same precision signal has been provided to the military. Since Galileo was designed to provide the highest possible precision to anyone, the US was concerned that an enemy could use Galileo signals in military strikes against the US and its allies; the frequency chosen for Galileo would have made it impossible for the US to block the Galileo signals without interfering with its own GPS signals. The US did not want to lose their GNSS capability with GPS while denying enemies the use of GNSS; some US officials became concerned when Chinese interest in Galileo was reported. An anonymous EU official claimed that the US officials implied that they might consider shooting down Galileo satellites in the event of a major conflict in which Galileo was used in attacks against American forces.
The EU's stance is that Galileo is a neutra
Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle
A multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle is a missile payload containing several warheads, each capable of being aimed to hit a different target. The concept is invariably associated with intercontinental ballistic missiles carrying thermonuclear warheads if not being limited to them. By contrast, a unitary warhead is a single warhead on a single missile. An intermediate case is the multiple reentry vehicle missile which carries several warheads which are dispersed but not individually aimed. Only China, Russian Federation and United States are confirmed to possess functional MIRV missile systems. India and Israel are suspected to be developing or possessing MIRVs; the first true MIRV design was the Minuteman III, introduced in 1970, which held three smaller W62 warheads of about 170 kilotons in place of the single 1.2 megaton W56 used in the earlier versions of this missile. The smaller power of the warhead was offset by increasing the accuracy of the system, allowing it to attack the same hard targets as the larger, less accurate, W56.
The MMIII was introduced to address the Soviet construction of an anti-ballistic missile system around Moscow. The Soviets responded by adding MIRV to their R-36 design, first with three warheads in 1975, up to ten in versions. While the United States phased out the use of MIRVs in 2014 to comply with New START, Russia continues to develop new missile designs using the technology; the introduction of MIRV led to a major change in the strategic balance. With one warhead per missile, it was conceivable that one could build a defense that used missiles to attack individual warheads. Any increase in missile fleet by the enemy could be countered by a similar increase in interceptors. With MIRV, a single new enemy missile meant that multiple interceptors would have to be built, meaning that it was much less expensive to increase the attack than the defense; this cost-exchange ratio was so biased towards the attacker that the concept of mutual assured destruction became the leading concept in strategic planning and ABM systems were limited in the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty in order to avoid a massive arms race.
The military purpose of a MIRV is fourfold: Enhance first-strike proficiency for strategic forces. Providing greater target damage for a given thermonuclear weapon payload. Several small and lower yield warheads cause much more target damage area than a single warhead alone; this in turn reduces the number of missiles and launch facilities required for a given destruction level - much the same as the purpose of a cluster munition. With single warhead missiles, one missile must be launched for each target. By contrast, with a MIRV warhead the post-boost stage can dispense the warheads against multiple targets across a broad area. Reduces the effectiveness of an anti-ballistic missile system that relies on intercepting individual warheads. While a MIRV attacking missile can have multiple warheads, interceptors may have only one warhead per missile. Thus, in both a military and an economic sense, MIRVs render ABM systems less effective, as the costs of maintaining a workable defense against MIRVs would increase, requiring multiple defensive missiles for each offensive one.
Decoy reentry vehicles can be used alongside actual warheads to minimize the chances of the actual warheads being intercepted before they reach their targets. A system that destroys the missile earlier in its trajectory is not affected by this but is more difficult, thus more expensive to implement. MIRV land-based ICBMs were considered destabilizing because they tended to put a premium on striking first; the world's first MIRV—US Minuteman III missile of 1970—threatened to increase the US's deployable nuclear arsenal and thus the possibility that it would have enough bombs to destroy all of the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons and negate any significant retaliation. On the US feared the Soviet's MIRVs because Soviet missiles had a greater throw-weight and could thus put more warheads on each missile than the US could. For example, the US MIRVs might have increased their warhead per missile count by a factor of 6 while the Soviets increased theirs by a factor of 10. Furthermore, the US had a much smaller proportion of its nuclear arsenal in ICBMs than the Soviets.
Bombers could not be outfitted with MIRVs. Thus the US did not seem to have as much potential for MIRV usage as the Soviets. However, the US had a larger number of Submarine-launched ballistic missiles, which could be outfitted with MIRVs, helped offset the ICBM disadvantage, it is because of their first-strike capability that land-based MIRVs were banned under the START II agreement. START II was ratified by the Russian Duma on 14 April 2000, but Russia withdrew from the treaty in 2002 after the US withdrew from the ABM treaty. In a MIRV, the main rocket motor pushes a "bus" into a free-flight suborbital ballistic flight path. After the boost phase the bus maneuvers using small on-board rocket motors and a computerised inertial guidance system, it takes up a ballistic trajectory that will deliver a reentry vehicle containing a warhead to a target, releases a warhead on that trajectory. It maneuvers to a different trajectory, releasing another warhead, repeats the process for all warheads; the precise technical details are guarded military secrets, to hinder any d
The Triomphant class of ballistic missile submarines of the French Navy is the active lead boat class of four boats that entered service in 1997, 1999, 2004, 2010. These four superseded the older Redoutable class, they provide the ocean-based component of France's nuclear deterrent strike force, the Force de Frappe, their home port is Île Longue, Western Brittany. The first three boats are all armed with the French-produced and armed M45 intermediate-range missile, the fourth vessel, has tested and is equipped with the more advanced M51 missile; each of the first three boats are to be retrofitted to the M51 missile standard, starting with Vigilant in 2010 Triomphant, ending with Téméraire in 2018. In French, these are called Sous-Marin Nucléaire Lanceur d'Engins de Nouvelle Génération, abbreviated as SNLE-NG, they have replaced all of the Redoutable-class boats, with the last of those six boats being decommissioned in 2008. These submarines carry 16 submarine-launched ballistic missile launching tubes apiece.
This class produces 1/1000 of the detectable noise of the Redoutable-class boats, they are ten times more sensitive in detecting other submarines. Armed with the M45 missile, they are designed to carry the new M51 missile, which entered active service in 2010; as of October 2010, an M51 has been test-fired from one of these submarines across the Atlantic Ocean from near France to the west, is equipped on Terrible. These boats were all constructed by the DCNS, they carry an armament of 16 M45 SLBM or M51 SLBM missiles manufactured by the Aérospatiale company, plus conventional torpedoes and Exocet anti-ship missiles; the French Navy's goal is to operate a force of four ballistic missile submarines, of which two are expected to be on patrol at any given time. On 3 February or 4 February 2009, Le Triomphant collided with the Royal Navy submarine HMS Vanguard. Le Triomphant was reported to have proceeded to Brest under her own power, but with extensive damage to her sonar dome. List of submarines of France List of submarine classes in service Submarine forces Future of the French Navy Submarine-launched ballistic missile
The R-39 Rif was a submarine-launched ballistic missile that served with the Soviet Navy from its introduction in 1983 until 1991, after which it served with the Russian Navy until 2004. The missile had GRAU indices of 3M65, 3M20, 3R65, it was carried on board Typhoon-class submarines. An intercontinental missile, the R-39 had a three-stage solid-fuel boost design with a liquid-fuel post-boost unit carrying up to ten multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle warheads. Like other SLBMs the initial launch was powered by a gas generator in the bottom of the firing tube. During the missile's passage through the water additional motors produce a gaseous wall around the missile, reducing hydrodynamic resistance; the launch system was designated "D-19". Development work began at NII Mashinostroyeniya in 1971 and the design gained official approval in 1973. Initial test flights from 1979 found problems in the solid-fuel boost engines, over half of the early flights failed. Tests aboard a modified Typhoon-class submarine were more successful and deployment began in May 1983, with 20 missiles in each submarine.
At full deployment, 120 missiles were deployed with 1,200 total warheads. Under the terms of the START I and START II treaties, from 1996 a number of R-39 missiles were destroyed. Throughout the 1990s, Typhoon class submarines and the R-39 missiles they carried were withdrawn from service. All the missiles were decommissioned by 2004 and all the Typhoon class submarines have been retired, except for one, used as a test platform for the RSM-56 Bulava. A successor design, R-39M Grom /RSM-52V/SS-N-28 for D-19UTTKh launch system, suffered a succession of testing failures and was cancelled. Russian Navy Soviet Navy R-39M R-29 Vysota R-29RM Shtil R-29RMU Sineva R-29RMU2 Layner RSM-56 Bulava UGM-133 Trident II M45 M51 JL-1 JL-2 K Missile family Pukkuksong-1 Russian nuclear forces 2005, The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March/April 2005. GlobalSecurity.org data on R-39 GlobalSecurity.org data on R-39M GlobalSecurity.org data on Typhoon submarines
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i