Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane known as DDT, is a colorless and odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine developed as an insecticide, becoming infamous for its environmental impacts. It was first synthesized in 1874 by the Austrian chemist Othmar Zeidler. DDT's insecticidal action was discovered by the Swiss chemist Paul Hermann Müller in 1939. DDT was used in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops. Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods" in 1948. By October 1945, DDT was available for public sale in the United States. Although it was promoted by government and industry for use as an agricultural and household pesticide, there were concerns about its use from the beginning. Opposition to DDT was focused by the 1962 publication of Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring, it cataloged environmental impacts that coincided with widespread use of DDT in agriculture in the United States, it questioned the logic of broadcasting dangerous chemicals into the environment with little prior investigation of their environmental and health effects.
The book claimed that DDT and other pesticides had been shown to cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife birds. Its publication was a seminal event for the environmental movement and resulted in a large public outcry that led, in 1972, to a ban on DDT's agricultural use in the United States. A worldwide ban on agricultural use was formalized under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, but its limited and still-controversial use in disease vector control continues, because of its effectiveness in reducing malarial infections, balanced by environmental and other health concerns. Along with the passage of the Endangered Species Act, the United States ban on DDT is a major factor in the comeback of the bald eagle and the peregrine falcon from near-extinction in the contiguous United States. DDT is similar in structure to the acaricide dicofol, it is hydrophobic and nearly insoluble in water but has good solubility in most organic solvents and oils.
DDT does not occur and is synthesised by a Friedel–Crafts hydroxyalkylation reaction between chloral and chlorobenzene, in the presence of an acidic catalyst. DDT has been marketed under trade names including Anofex, Chlorophenothane, Dinocide, Guesapon, Gyron, Neocid and Zerdane. Commercial DDT is a mixture of several closely–related compounds; the major component is p' isomer. The o,p' isomer is present in significant amounts. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane make up the balance. DDE and DDD are environmental breakdown products. DDT, DDE and DDD are sometimes referred to collectively as DDX. DDT has been formulated in multiple forms, including solutions in xylene or petroleum distillates, emulsifiable concentrates, water-wettable powders, aerosols, smoke candles and charges for vaporizers and lotions. From 1950 to 1980, DDT was extensively used in agriculture – more than 40,000 tonnes each year worldwide – and it has been estimated that a total of 1.8 million tonnes have been produced globally since the 1940s.
In the United States, it was manufactured by some 15 companies, including Monsanto, Montrose Chemical Company and Velsicol Chemical Corporation. Production peaked in 1963 at 82,000 tonnes per year. More than 600,000 tonnes were applied in the US before the 1972 ban. Usage peaked in 1959 at about 36,000 tonnes. In 2009, 3,314 tonnes were produced for malaria visceral leishmaniasis. India is the only country still manufacturing DDT, is the largest consumer. China ceased production in 2007. In insects, DDT opens sodium ion channels in neurons, causing them to fire spontaneously, which leads to spasms and eventual death. Insects with certain mutations in their sodium channel gene are resistant to DDT and similar insecticides. DDT resistance is conferred by up-regulation of genes expressing cytochrome P450 in some insect species, as greater quantities of some enzymes of this group accelerate the toxin's metabolism into inactive metabolites. Genomic studies in the model genetic organism Drosophila melanogaster revealed that high level DDT resistance is polygenic, involving multiple resistance mechanisms.
DDT was first synthesized in 1874 by Othmar Zeidler under the supervision of Adolf von Baeyer. It was further described in 1929 in a dissertation by W. Bausch and in two subsequent publications in 1930; the insecticide properties of "multiple chlorinated aliphatic or fat-aromatic alcohols with at least one trichloromethane group" were described in a patent in 1934 by Wolfgang von Leuthold. DDT's insecticidal properties were not, discovered until 1939 by the Swiss scientist Paul Hermann Müller, awarded the 1948 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his efforts. DDT is the best-known of several chlorine-containing pesticides used in the 1950s. With pyrethrum in short supply, DDT was used extensively during World War II by the Allies to control the insect vectors of typhus – nearly eliminating the disease in many parts of Europe. In the South Pacific, it was sprayed aerially for malaria and dengue fever control with spectacular effects. While DDT's chemical and insectici
Le Monde is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, published continuously since its first edition. It is one of the most important and respected newspapers in the world. Le Monde is one of the French newspapers of record, counting Libération, Le Figaro, the main publication of La Vie-Le Monde Group, it reported an average circulation of 323,039 copies per issue in 2009, about 40,000 of which were sold abroad. It has had its own website since 19 December 1995, is the only French newspaper obtainable in non-French-speaking countries, it should not be confused with the monthly publication Le Monde diplomatique, of which Le Monde has 51% ownership, but, editorially independent. The paper's journalistic side has a collegial form of organization, in which most journalists are not only tenured, but financial stakeholders in the enterprise as well, participate in the elections of upper management and senior executives.
In the 1990s and 2000s, La Vie-Le Monde Group expanded under editor Jean-Marie Colombani with a number of acquisitions. However, its profitability was not sufficient to cover the large debt loads it took on to fund this expansion, it sought new investors in 2010 to keep the company out of bankruptcy. In June 2010, investors Matthieu Pigasse, Pierre Bergé, Xavier Niel acquired a controlling stake in the newspaper. In contrast to other world newspapers such as The New York Times, Le Monde was traditionally focused on offering analysis and opinion, as opposed to being a newspaper of record. Hence, it was considered less important for the paper to offer maximum coverage of the news than to offer thoughtful interpretation of current events. For instance, on the 10th anniversary of the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, the newspaper directly implicated François Mitterrand, the French president at the time, in the operation. In recent years the paper has established a greater distinction between opinion.
Le Monde was founded in 1944 at the request of General Charles de Gaulle after the German army was driven from Paris during World War II, took over the headquarters and layout of Le Temps, the most important newspaper in France before but whose reputation had suffered during the Occupation. Beuve-Méry demanded total editorial independence as the condition for his taking on the project. In 1981 it backed the election of socialist François Mitterrand, in part on the grounds that the alternation of the political party in government would be beneficial to the democratic character of the state; the paper endorsed centre-right candidate Édouard Balladur in the 1995 presidential election, Ségolène Royal, the Socialist Party candidate, in the 2007 presidential election. According to the Mitrokhin Archive investigators, Le Monde was the KGB's key outlet for spreading anti-American and pro-Soviet disinformation to the French media; the archive identified two senior Le Monde journalists and several contributors who were used in the operations.
Michel Legris, a former journalist with the paper, wrote Le Monde tel qu'il est in 1976. According to him, the journal minimized the atrocities committed by the Cambodian Khmer Rouge. In their 2003 book titled La Face cachée du Monde, authors Pierre Péan and Philippe Cohen alleged that Colombani and then-editor Edwy Plenel had shown, amongst other things, partisan bias and had engaged in financial dealings that compromised the paper's independence, it accused the paper of dangerously damaging the authority of the French state by having revealed various political scandals. This book remains controversial, but attracted much attention and media coverage in France and around the world at the time of its publication. Following a lawsuit, the authors and the publisher agreed in 2004 not to proceed to any reprinting. Le Monde has been found guilty of defamation for saying that Spanish football club FC Barcelona was connected to a doctor involved in steroid use; the Spanish court fined the newspaper nearly $450,000.
In April 2016, a Le Monde reporter was denied a visa to visit Algeria as part of the French Prime Minister press convoy to Algeria. Le Monde had published names of Algerian officials directly involved with the Panama papers corruption scandal. Le Monde is published around midday, the date on the masthead is the following day's. For instance, the issue released at midday on 15 March shows 16 March on the masthead, it is available on newsstands in France on the day of release, received by mail subscribers on the masthead date. The Saturday issue is a double one, for Sunday, thus the latest edition can be found on newsstands from Monday to Friday included, while subscribers will receive it from Tuesday to Saturday included. In December 2006, on the 60th anniversary of its publishing début, Le Monde moved into new headquarters in Boulevard Auguste-Blanqui, 13th arrondissement of Paris; the building—formerly the headquarters of Air France—was refashioned by Bouygues from the designs of Christian de Portzamparc.
The building's façade has an enormous fresco adorned by doves flying towards Victor Hugo, symbolising freedom of the press. It will move into a new headquarters in the 13th arrondissement, around 2017
A website or Web site is a collection of related network web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are identified with a common domain name, published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, amazon.com. Websites can be accessed via a public Internet Protocol network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network, by a uniform resource locator that identifies the site. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are part of an intranet. Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language, they may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors.
Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which may optionally employ encryption to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content; some websites require user subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. End users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers and smart TVs; the World Wide Web was created in 1990 by the British CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee.
On 30 April 1993, CERN announced. Before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server; these protocols offer a simple directory structure which the user navigates and where they choose files to download. Documents were most presented as plain text files without formatting, or were encoded in word processor formats. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites can be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose. Any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, can be blurred. Websites are written in, or converted to, HTML and are accessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including desktop computers, tablet computers and smartphones.
A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server called an HTTP server. These terms can refer to the software that runs on these systems which retrieves and delivers the web pages in response to requests from the website's users. Apache is the most used web server software and Microsoft's IIS is commonly used; some alternatives, such as Nginx, Hiawatha or Cherokee, are functional and lightweight. A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format, sent to a client web browser, it is coded in Hypertext Markup Language. Images are used to effect the desired appearance and as part of the main content. Audio or video might be considered "static" content if it plays automatically or is non-interactive; this type of website displays the same information to all visitors. Similar to handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a static website will provide consistent, standard information for an extended period of time. Although the website owner may make updates periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text and other content and may require basic website design skills and software.
Simple forms or marketing examples of websites, such as classic website, a five-page website or a brochure website are static websites, because they present pre-defined, static information to the user. This may include information about a company and its products and services through text, animations, audio/video, navigation menus. Static websites can be edited using four broad categories of software: Text editors, such as Notepad or TextEdit, where content and HTML markup are manipulated directly within the editor program WYSIWYG offline editors, such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver, with which the site is edited using a GUI and the final HTML markup is generated automatically by the editor software WYSIWYG online editors which create media rich online presentation like web pages, intro, blogs, an
A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of numbers or a combination of both. "Ticker symbol" refers to the symbols. Stock symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market. A stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, is a way to uniquely identify that stock; the symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape, to make it easy to recognize by traders and investors. The allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are between 1 and 4 letters and represent the company name where possible. For example, US-based computer company stock Apple Inc. traded on the NASDAQ exchange has the symbol AAPL, while the motor company Ford's stock, traded on the New York Stock Exchange has the single-letter ticker F.
In Europe, most exchanges use three-letter codes, for example Dutch consumer goods company Unilever traded on the Amsterdam Euronext exchange has the symbol UNA. While in Asia, numbers are used as stock tickers to avoid issues for international investors when using non-Latin scripts. For example, the bank HSBC's stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005. Symbols sometimes change to reflect mergers. Prior to the 1999 merger with Mobil Oil, Exxon used a phonetic spelling of the company "XON" as its ticker symbol; the symbol of the firm after the merger was "XOM". Symbols are sometimes reused. In the US the single-letter symbols are sought after as vanity symbols. For example, since Mar 2008 Visa Inc. has used the symbol V, used by Vivendi which had delisted and given up the symbol. To qualify a stock, both the ticker and the exchange or country of listing needs to be known. On many systems both must be specified to uniquely identify the security; this is done by appending the location or exchange code to the ticker.
Although stock tickers identify a security, they are exchange dependent limited to stocks and can change. These limitations have led to the development of other codes in financial markets to identify securities for settlement purposes; the most prevalent of these is the International Securities Identifying Number. An ISIN uniquely identifies a security and its structure is defined in ISO 6166. Securities for which ISINs are issued include bonds, commercial paper and warrants; the ISIN code is a 12-character alpha-numerical code that does not contain information characterizing financial instruments, but serves for uniform identification of a security at trading and settlement. The ISIN identifies not the exchange on which it trades. For instance, Daimler AG stock trades on twenty-two different stock exchanges worldwide, is priced in five different currencies. ISIN cannot specify a particular trade in this case, another identifier the three- or four-letter exchange code will have to be specified in addition to the ISIN.
While a stock ticker identifies a security that can be traded, stock market indices are sometimes assigned a symbol though they can not be traded. Symbols for indices are distinguished by adding a symbol in front of the name, such as a caret or a dot. For example, Reuters lists the Nasdaq Composite index under the symbol. IXIC. In Canada the Toronto Stock Exchange TSX and the TSXV use the following special codes after the ticker symbol: In the United Kingdom, prior to 1996, stock codes were known as EPICs, named after the London Stock Exchange's Exchange Price Information Computer. Following the introduction of the Sequence trading platform in 1996, EPICs were renamed Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics, but they are still referred to as EPICs. Stocks can be identified using their SEDOL number or their ISIN. In the United States, modern letter-only ticker symbols were developed by Standard & Poor's to bring a national standard to investing. A single company could have many different ticker symbols as they varied between the dozens of individual stock markets.
The term ticker refers to the noise made by the ticker tape machines once used by stock exchanges. The S&P system was standardized by the securities industry and modified as years passed. Stock symbols for preferred stock have not been standardized; some companies use a well-known product as their ticker symbol. Belgian brewer InBev, the brewer of Budweiser beer, uses "BUD" as its three-letter ticker for American Depository Receipts, symbolizing its premier product in the United States, its rival, Molson Coors Brewing Company, uses a beer-related symbol, "TAP". Southwest Airlines pays tribute to its headquarters at Love Field in Dallas through its "LUV" symbol. Cedar Fair Entertainment Company, which operates large amusement parks in the United States, uses "FUN" as its symbol. Harley-Davidson uses "HOG" for its Harley Owners Group. Yamana Gold uses "AUY", because on the periodic table of elements. Sotheby's uses the symbol "BID". While most symbols come from the company's name, sometimes it happens the other way around.
Tricon Global, owner of KFC, Pi
C8 (French TV channel)
C8 is a private national French TV channel, owned by Canal+ Group. The channel was launched in 2012, replacing Direct 8, it was owned by Bolloré Group. D8 was rebranded C8 on 5th September 2016. Touche pas à mon poste!, presented by Cyril Hanouna Voyage au bout de la nuit Domino Day, presented by Valérie Bénaïm Le Grand Bêtisier, presented by Justine Fraioli & Caroline Ithurbide Le Zap La folle soirée du Palmashow L'Œuf ou la Poule?, presented by Sebastien Cauet Still Standing, presented by Julien Courbet Guess My Age, presented by Jean-Luc Lemoine Hold Up!, presented by Benjamin Castaldi Couple ou pas couple?, presented by Jean-Luc Lemoine Focus, presented by Guy Lagache Les Mystères, presented by Cécile de Ménibus Au cœur de l'enquête, presented by Adrienne de Malleray Histoire interdite, presented by Guy Lagache C8 le JT, presented by Émilie Besse Langue de bois s'abstenir, presented by Philippe Labro La Nouvelle Édition, presented by Daphné Bürki Salut les Terriens!, presented by Thierry Ardisson Les Animaux de la 8, presented by Élodie Ageron and Sandrine Arcizet À vos régions, presented by Grégory Galiffi À vos recettes, presented by Grégory Galiffi Élodie Ageron Capucine Anav Sandrine Arcizet Thierry Ardisson Valérie Bénaïm Émilie Besse Laurent Boyer Benjamin Castaldi Cécile de Ménibus Caroline Delage Alexandre Delpérier Justine Fraioli Grégory Galiffi Cyril Hanouna Caroline Ithurbide Philippe Labro Vincent Lagaf' Jean-Luc Lemoine William Leymergie Victor Robert Carole Rousseau Patrick Sabatier Pascal Soetens Francesca Antoniotti Agathe Auproux Laurent Baffie Damien Canivez Christophe Carrière Bertrand Chameroy Jean-Michel Cohen Tatiana-Laurens Delarue Matthieu Delormeau Rokhaya Diallo Raquel Garrido Franz-Olivier Giesbert Maxime Guény Stéphanie Loire Émilie Lopez Mathieu Madénian Géraldine Maillet Jean-Michel Maire Bernard Montiel Danielle Moreau Isabelle Morini-Bosc Tanguy Pastureau Natacha Polony Ludivine Rétory Renaud Revel Hapsatou Sy Titoff Gilles Verdez Thibaud Vézirian Tom Villa Alex Vizorek Raymond Aabou Rachid Arhab Brahim Asloum Élé Asu Roselyne Bachelot Nadège Beausson-Diagne Nabilla Benattia Magali Bertin Élisabeth Bost Daphné Bürki Cartman Sébastien Cauet Élise Chassaing Jérémy Chatelain Christelle Chollet Laurie Cholewa Camille Combal Julien Courbet Estelle Denis Miguel Derennes Nicolas Domenach Raymond Domenech Issa Doumbia Jean-Philippe Doux Éric Dussart Dominique Farrugia Jérémy Ferrari Laurence Ferrari Aude Gogny-Goubert Élodie Gossuin-Lacherie Dominique Grimault Stéphane Guillon Jeremstar Shera Kerienski Chantal Ladesou Alexia Laroche-Joubert Marc-Antoine Le Bret Catherine Laborde Guy Lagache Fabien Lecœuvre Xavier Leherpeur Annie Lemoine Angela Lorente Gérard Louvin Énora Malagré Adrienne de Malleray Hélène Mannarino Nathalie Marquay Sebastian Marx Ariane Massenet Emmanuel Maubert Pierre Ménès Julia Molkhou Thierry Moreau Louis Morin Erika Moulet Véronique Mounier Jean-Pierre Montanay Clio Pajczer Julien Pasquet Florent Peyre Guillaume Pley Audrey Pulvar Stéphanie Renouvin Daniel Riolo Bruno Roger-Petit Daphné Roulier Gyselle Soares Sophie Thalmann Aïda Touihri Philippe Vandel Mélody Vilbert François Viot Myriam Weil Ariel Wizman Canal+ Group Direct 8 Canal Star Official website
ARTE is a Franco-German free-to-air television network that promotes cultural programming. It is made up of three separate companies: the Strasbourg-based European Economic Interest Grouping ARTE GEIE, plus two member companies acting as editorial and programme production centres, ARTE France in Paris and ARTE Deutschland in Baden-Baden; as an international joint venture, its programmes focuses to audiences in both countries. Due to this, the channel features two audio tracks and two subtitle tracks, each in French and German. 80% of ARTE's programming are provided by its French and German subsidiaries, each making half of the programmes available, while the remainder is being provided by the European subsidiary and the channel's European partners. ARTE France was known as La Sept. ARTE Deutschland TV GmbH is a subsidiary of the two main public German TV networks ARD and ZDF. Selected programmes are available with English and Polish subtitles online. ARTE began transmission in 1992, filling frequencies left unused by the demise of La Cinq, the first French commercial television network.
The opening night on 30 May 1992 was broadcast live from the Strasbourg Opera House. ARTE started out as an evening-only service. In the daytime, the frequencies were shared with other channels. A public channel called Télé emploi occupied the French frequencies for about a month during 1994, before the start of La Cinquième in December that year. For German viewers, ARTE was assigned a frequency on the Astra 1D satellite in late 1994, it was shared with Nickelodeon Germany replaced by the new public children's channel Kinderkanal. In 1996, it started offering an afternoon schedule with reruns for viewers on digital satellite and digital cable. A "proper" afternoon schedule with programmes between 2 p.m. and 7 p.m. was introduced on 6 January 2001. The channel got its own analogue frequency on the Astra satellites. Since 2005 ARTE broadcasts 24/7. In 2007 the catch-up service ARTE+7 is launched, offering internet users free access to a broad range of programs within seven days of their original transmission.
ARTE programmes are available with multi-channel audio: all programmes go out in French and in German. Further the original version is screened whenever possible with subtitles in French and German and the hearing or visually impaired may get subtitles or an audio description. Since 2015 a selection of programmes are available with English and Spanish subtitles online, with Polish to follow in late 2016; the channel enjoys a major footprint in Europe. Both the German and the French version can be received in nearly whole Europe via the satellite Astra1, the French version is available via Hot Bird. In addition ARTE is relayed not only by all cable networks in Germany and France, but by numerous cable networks in Austria, Finland, Switzerland, in the Netherlands too. Since 2008 ARTE broadcasts in France. Like the national channels of its own respective countries, the German HDTVversion of ARTE broadcasts in 720p50, while the French one broadcasts in 1080i25. In April 2016 ARTE co-produced a live Ultra-high-definition television broadcast of the Le Corsaire ballet from the Vienna State Opera.
The programme was transmitted free-to-air on the UHD1 demonstration channel from the Astra 19.2°E satellites. Online ARTE programmes can be streamed live or watched on catch-up TV for at least 7 and up to 700 days on ARTE+7 and the theme platforms ARTE Concert, Info, Future or Cinema. In Africa, ARTE is broadcast via satellite, cable, MMDS and ADSL in many other countries, via the digital service CanalSat Horizons. Many French-language ARTE programs are broadcast in Canada on the Ici ARTV cable channel owned by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and ARTE itself; the Australian Special Broadcasting Service translates many ARTE programs into English for broadcast on its own television network and overseas. ARTE has more viewers in France than in Germany. In 2015, its share of overall viewing was about 1 % in Germany; the differences can be put down to the different television markets in both countries. In France, ARTE was for a long time available to everyone as one of six analogue terrestrial channels.
Few French households received cable and satellite television, the other terrestrial channels didn't compete with ARTE. Meanwhile, thanks to widespread roll-out of cable television, the vast majority of German households had access to about three dozen channels, including several from the public broadcasters with content similar to Arte. After the introduction of digital terrestrial television in France, ARTE's market share has fallen there, while it has been more or less flat in Germany. Abenteuer Arte – documentary series Arte Journal – information program Arte Reportage – current affairs program Arte Themenabend – special topics show A Very Secret Service – spy comedy Bagdad, le bac sous les bombes / Die Jungs von der Bagdad-High – documentary film Die Nacht/La Nuit – late-night news Do Not Track, a 2015 Arte co-produced web documentary Durch die Nacht mit … Geo 360° Karambolage – a show about French/German customs Kurzschluss Metropolis Le dessous des cartes – geopolitical documentary Tracks – music program WunderWelten Venice New Year's Concert ARTE offers programmes on all sorts of screens that are free and without advertising.
The new media formats complement the on-air programming. A
Compagnie Nationale à Portefeuille
Compagnie Nationale à Portefeuille SA, is a Belgian non-listed holding company. Together with Groupe Bruxelles Lambert, CNP is one of the main pillars of Groupe Frère-Bourgeois and can rely on a stable shareholders’ base: it is controlled by the Frère family. CNP directly holds stakes in a number of industrial companies, which at the end of 2014 included: Total, the fifth-largest publicly traded integrated international oil and gas company in the world, active both on the upstream and downstream segments M6, a multimedia group that revolves around M6, France’s second commercial TV channel, includes a family of complementary digital channels and diversification activities developed around a powerful brand Transcor Astra Group that operates in the petroleum products, gas and coke trading and distribution sectors, through owned or rented assets Affichage Holding, Switzerland's leading Out of Home advertising company and specialist in the provision of digital and analog Out of Home solutions Cheval Blanc Finance, that holds 50% of the Société Civile du Cheval Blanc, which owns the Saint Emilion Premier Grand Cru Classé A estate, la Tour du Pin and Quinault l’Enclos vineyards Caffitaly,Caffitaly International Duty Free, the operator of retail shops at the main Belgian airports and at Brussels international train station In March 2011 CNP was delisted, after a successful takeover bid from Groupe Frère-Bourgeois and BNP Paribas for the 27.8% of CNP they did not own.
The CNP share was removed from the BEL 20 index on 2 May 2011. Groupe Frère-Bourgeois acquired BNP Paribas’s stake in CNP at the end of 2013; as a result, CNP is now controlled by Groupe Frère-Bourgeois, alongside management and personnel. Official website