The M7 is an electric multiple unit railroad car built by Bombardier, with delivery beginning in 2002, used by the MTA on the Long Island Rail Road and Metro-North Railroad. The M7 replaced the M1 railcars, which had provided electric service on these lines; the M7 fleets are powered from an electric third rail. A total of 1,172 M7 cars were built for the two railroads. Cars are arranged as married pairs, where each car contains a complete set of controls for an engineer, conductor, or brakeman. However, the'B' Cars contain a handicapped accessible restroom, larger than the restroom provided on the M1 and M3 railcars and designed to accommodate a wheelchair, as well as an attendant and/or service animal accompanying the passenger; the enlarged bathroom reduces the number of seats in the car. The M7 was built as two separate but similar models due to the different electrical and signaling systems on the LIRR and Metro-North, their most notable differences are in third rail shoe design between the M7 and M7A.
The Metro-North uses under-running third rails inherited from the former New York Central Railroad, the LIRR uses over-running third rails. Metro-North's M7As are not equipped with illuminated number boards. In late 1999, a contract was awarded to Bombardier for 836 LIRR M7s. Delivery began in early 2002, test trains for the LIRR M7 began on the Ronkonkoma Branch. After several successful tests, LIRR M7 revenue service began on the Long Beach Branch on October 30, 2002 and Metro-North's first M7A started scheduled service in April 2004. All M7s were delivered by early 2007. On February 3, 2015, an M7A train on Metro-North's Harlem Line was involved in a level crossing collision with a car stopped on the tracks in Valhalla, New York. Six people were killed and at least fifteen were injured. Car #4333 was destroyed in the subsequent fire. On January 4, 2017, an M7 train on Long Island Rail Road's Atlantic Branch overshot a bumper at Atlantic Terminal's track 6. Although no one was killed, over 100 were injured.
Car #7553 was damaged in the collision, after a broken rail pierced the underbody, creating a large hole. On February 26, 2019, an M7 on the Long Island Rail Road’s Ronkonkoma Branch struck a truck, causing the lead car to derail and strike the Westbury station platform. Car #7425 was damaged as a result. Three people in the truck were killed; the M7 cars swayed from side to side more than intended when introduced to service, required modifications to reduce the sway. In late 2006 the MTA began a replacement of all M7 armrests after paying out over $100,000 to customers who filed complaints; the factory-installed armrests were notorious for slipping into trouser pockets and tearing them when sitting. The new design is coated in a more fabric-friendly rubber; some passengers complained about having fewer seats per B car, a consequence of the larger ADA-compliant restrooms, about the width of the seats. Metro-North's management received feedback about the M7, which influenced the development of the M8 railcars for the New Haven Line.
In the fall of 2006, the M7As started to experience serious braking problems due to foliage on the right-of-way, a condition known as "Slip-Slide." This caused nearly 2/3 of the Metro-North fleet to be taken out of service, due to flat spots on wheels. While the LIRR fleet performed better, stripped M1s from both railroads were reactivated, diminished schedules were instituted until the M7 fleet was able to resume full operation; as of 2007, the fleet has the highest mean distance between failures out of the entire LIRR fleet. This had to do with the fleet's newness, so the fleet needed to be tested for reliability. M1/M3 M8 M9 Long Island Rail Road Metro-North Railroad MTA Long Island Rail Road official website MTA Metro-North Railroad official website Bombardier information page for M7
Dannel Patrick Malloy is an American politician, who served as the 88th governor of Connecticut from 2011 to 2019. A member of the Democratic Party, he chaired the Democratic Governors Association from 2016 to 2017. Born in Stamford, Malloy is a graduate of Boston College Law School. Malloy began his career as an assistant district attorney in New York in 1980 before moving back to Stamford and entering private practice, he served on the Stamford board of finance from 1984 to 1994 before being elected Mayor of Stamford. He served four terms as mayor from December 1995 to December 2009. Malloy ran unsuccessfully for Governor of Connecticut in 2006, losing the Democratic primary to John DeStefano, Jr. the Mayor of New Haven, defeated in the general election by incumbent Republican Governor Jodi Rell. He ran again in 2010 and comfortably won the primary, defeating Ned Lamont, the 2006 U. S. Senate nominee, by 57% of the vote to 43%. Rell did not run for reelection and Malloy faced former United States Ambassador to Ireland Thomas C. Foley in the general election, defeating him by fewer than 6,500 votes.
Malloy was sworn in on January 5, 2011. He was reelected in a rematch with Foley in 2014, increasing his margin of victory to over 28,000 votes; as of July 2018, he had a 21% job approval rating and a 71% disapproval rating, making him the second least popular and third most disliked governor in the United States, after Mary Fallin of Oklahoma. On April 13, 2017, Malloy announced he would not seek reelection in 2018, he was succeeded in office by Democrat Ned Lamont on January 9, 2019. Dannel Patrick Malloy was born and raised in Stamford, the seventh of seven sons and youngest of the eight children of Agnes Veronica, a nurse, William Francis Malloy, he was raised as a Roman Catholic. As a child, Malloy suffered from learning difficulties with motor coordination, he did not learn to tie his shoes until the fifth grade. Malloy was diagnosed with dyslexia and learned the skills necessary to succeed academically, he does not write or type, reads from notes in public, but developed an extraordinarily useful memory.
He graduated magna cum laude from Boston College, where he met his wife Cathy, earned his J. D. degree from Boston College Law School. After passing the bar exam, Malloy served as an Assistant District Attorney in Brooklyn, New York from 1980-84. During his tenure as a prosecutor, Malloy tried 23 felony cases, four of them homicides, won 22 convictions, he was subsequently a partner in the Stamford law firm of Abate and Fox from 1984-95. He served on the Stamford Board of Finance from 1983-94. In 1995, he ran for Mayor of Stamford, defeating two-term Republican incumbent Stanley Esposito. At the same time, voters approved a measure to extend the Mayor's term of office from two years to four, effective at the next election, he was re-elected in 1997, 2001 and 2005. Malloy made crime reduction a priority during his tenure as mayor. Stamford is ranked as the 9th safest city in the United States and 3rd safest in the Northeast region and for the past six years has ranked in the top 11 safest cities with populations of 100,000 or more, according to the FBI.
Malloy wrote a blog known as "The Blog That Works", since deleted, until mid-January 2010. Budgeting and districting of the various fire departments throughout the city has been unstable since 2007, due to an extended legal conflict between the volunteer departments and the Malloy administration, which sought to consolidate the fire departments against the advice and wishes of the volunteer fire departments. In 2004, Malloy was the first candidate to announce his bid for the Democratic Party nomination for Governor of Connecticut. In a major upset in Malloy’s favor, he received the convention endorsement of the Democratic Party on May 20, 2006 by one vote. Malloy lost in the primary election however against New Haven Mayor John DeStefano, Jr. on August 8, 2006. On February 3, 2009, Malloy filed paperwork with Connecticut's State Elections Enforcement Commission to form a gubernatorial exploratory committee, subsequently announced that he did not intend to seek re-election as Mayor of Stamford.
On March 9, 2010, Malloy filed the required paperwork to run for governor. Malloy received the Democratic Party's endorsement for governor on May 22, 2010, in a 68-32 vote over 2006 Democratic senatorial candidate Ned Lamont. Connecticut's Democratic Party rules allow any candidate who received more than 15% of the vote at its nominating convention to challenge the endorsed candidate for the nomination in a primary, Lamont announced that he would challenge Malloy in the gubernatorial primary; the primary was held on August 10, 2010. Malloy won according to AP-reported unofficial results. According to preliminary numbers, he beat Lamont 101,354 to 73,875; as a Democratic candidate for governor prior to the Democratic state convention and subsequent primary, Malloy chose Nancy Wyman to be his running mate. Wyman is the only woman elected State Comptroller since the office was created in 1786. Malloy's choice was confirmed by the Democratic nominating convention on May 22, Wyman became the official 2010 Democratic candidate for lieutenant governor when she defeated primary opponent Mary Glassman on August 10.
After the primaries, candidates for governor and lieutenant governor run together as a team on a single ticket. Thus and Wyman were both elected on November 2, 2010. Malloy faced Republican Thomas C. Foley, the former United States Ambassador to Ireland under President George W. Bush, in the race for governor. Tom Foley had never been elected to pub
Grand Central Terminal
Grand Central Terminal is a commuter rail terminal located at 42nd Street and Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Grand Central is the southern terminus of the Metro-North Railroad's Harlem and New Haven Lines, serving the northern parts of the New York metropolitan area, it contains a connection to the New York City Subway at Grand Central–42nd Street. The terminal is the third-busiest train station in North America, after Toronto Union Station and New York Penn Station; the distinctive architecture and interior design of Grand Central Terminal's station house have earned it several landmark designations, including as a National Historic Landmark. Its Beaux-Arts design incorporates numerous works of art. Grand Central Terminal is one of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions, with 21.9 million visitors in 2013, excluding train and subway passengers. The terminal's main concourse is used as a meeting place, is featured in films and television. Grand Central Terminal contains a variety of stores and food vendors, including a food court on its lower-level concourse.
Grand Central Terminal was named for the New York Central Railroad. Opened in 1913, the terminal was built on the site of two named predecessor stations, the first of which dates to 1871. Grand Central Terminal served intercity trains until 1991, when Amtrak began routing its trains through nearby Penn Station; the East Side Access project, which will bring Long Island Rail Road service to a new station beneath the terminal, is expected to be completed in late 2022. Grand Central covers 48 acres and has 44 platforms, more than any other railroad station in the world, its platforms, all below ground, serve 26 on the lower. 43 tracks are in use for passenger service. Another eight tracks and four platforms are being built on two new levels deep underneath the existing station as part of East Side Access. Unlike most stations in the Metro-North system, Grand Central Terminal is owned by Midtown Trackage Ventures, a private company, rather than by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which operates Metro-North and most of its stations, including Grand Central.
Grand Central Terminal was named by and for the New York Central Railroad, which built the station and its two precursors on the site. It has "always been more colloquially and affectionately known as Grand Central Station", the name of its immediate precursor that operated from 1900 until 1910 and which shares its name with the nearby U. S. Post Office station at 450 Lexington Avenue and, with the Grand Central–42nd Street subway station next to the terminal. Grand Central Terminal serves some 67 million passengers a year, more than any other Metro-North station. At morning rush hour, a train arrives at the terminal every 58 seconds. Three of Metro-North's five main lines terminate at Grand Central: Harlem Line to Wassaic, New York Hudson Line to Poughkeepsie, New York New Haven Line to New Haven, Connecticut New Canaan Branch to New Canaan, Connecticut Danbury Branch to Danbury, Connecticut Waterbury Branch to Waterbury, ConnecticutThrough these lines, the terminal serves Metro-North commuters traveling to and from the Bronx in New York City.
The New York City Subway's adjacent Grand Central–42nd Street station serves these routes: 4, 5, 6, <6> trains, situated diagonally under the Pershing Square Building, 42nd Street, Grand Hyatt New York 7 and <7> trains, under 42nd Street between Park Avenue and west of Third Avenue S train, under 42nd Street between Madison Avenue and Vanderbilt AvenueThese MTA Regional Bus Operations buses stop near Grand Central: NYCT Bus: M1, M2, M3, M4 and Q32 local buses at Madison Avenue and Fifth Avenue X27, X28, X37, X38, SIM4C, SIM6, SIM8, SIM8X, SIM11, SIM22, SIM25, SIM26, SIM30, SIM31 and SIM33C express buses at Madison Avenue X27, X28, X37, X38, SIM4C, SIM8, SIM8X, SIM25, SIM31 and SIM33C express buses at Fifth Avenue M42 local bus at 42nd Street M101, M102 and M103 local buses at Third Avenue and Lexington Avenue X27, X28, X63, X64 and X68 express buses at Third Avenue SIM6, SIM11, SIM22 and SIM26 express buses at Lexington Avenue MTA Bus: BxM3, BxM4, BxM6, BxM7, BxM8, BxM9, BxM10, BxM18, BM1, BM2, BM3, BM4 and BM5 express buses at Madison Avenue and Fifth Avenue BxM1 express bus at Lexington Avenue BxM1, QM21, QM31, QM32, QM34, QM35, QM36, QM40, QM42 and QM44 express buses at Third Avenue Academy Bus: SIM23 and SIM24 express buses at Madison Avenue and Fifth Avenue The terminal and its predecessors were designed for intercity service, which operated from the first station building's completion in 1871 until Amtrak ceased operations in the terminal in 1991.
Through transfers, passengers could connect to all major lines in the United States, including the Canadian, the Empire Builder, the San Francisco Zephyr, the Southwest Limited, the Crescent, the Sunset Limited under Amtrak. Destinations included San Francisco, Los Angeles, New Orleans and Montreal. Another notable former train was New York Central's 20th Century Limited, a luxury service that oper
Last mile (transportation)
Last mile is a term used in supply chain management and transportation planning to describe the movement of people and goods from a transportation hub to a final destination in the home. The term "last mile" was used in the telecommunications field but has since been applied to supply chain management. Transporting goods via freight rail networks and container ships is the most efficient and cost-effective manner of shipping. However, when goods arrive at a high-capacity freight station or port, they must be transported to their final destination; this last leg of the supply chain is less efficient, comprising up to 28% of the total cost to move goods. This has become known as the "last mile problem." The last mile problem can include the challenge of making deliveries in urban areas. Deliveries to retail stores and other merchants in a central business district contribute to congestion and safety problems. A related last mile problem is the transportation of goods to areas in need of humanitarian relief.
Aid supplies are sometimes able to reach a central transportation hub in an affected area but cannot be distributed due to damage caused by a natural disaster or a lack of infrastructure. As e-commerce continues to become a growth engine for many brands, the last leg of delivery, ending up at the consumer's home or business, has become more challenging. Thanks to the Amazon Effect, consumers want more convenient options for fast, free delivery, putting pressure on other businesses to compete for the perfect delivery experience -- today, 84% of shoppers won't return to a brand that misses their delivery. Unattended delivery has become a significant issue among delivery companies like UPS, FedEx, USPS, DHL and others. Leaving a parcel unattended exposes the item to weather, to the increasing chance of theft by "porch pirates", making delivery experience management crucial for retailers who want to balance the costs of last mile delivery with customer satisfaction. Retail companies like US based Amazon and China based Alibaba have researched and deployed drones for delivering goods purchased online to consumers.
Amazon has set up lockers in some urban centers as a way of consolidating packages. Automated parcel delivery is becoming a popular option these days. Europe has led the way in this with Germany and Poland being the first markets for these services. In Taiwan, many online vendors offer the option of delivery to a convenience store of the customer's choice, for pickup from the store by the customer. Payment for the purchase at the store may be offered; the main challenges of last mile delivery include minimizing cost, ensuring transparency, increasing efficiency, making delivery frictionless and improving infrastructure. "Last mile" has been used to describe the difficulty in getting people from a transportation hub railway stations, bus depots, ferry berths, to their final destination. When users have difficulty getting from their starting location to a transportation network, the scenario may alternatively be known as the "first mile problem." These issues are acute in the United States where land-use patterns have moved jobs and people to lower-density suburbs that are not within walking distance of existing public transportation options.
Therefore, transit use in these areas is less practical. Critics claim this promotes a reliance on cars, which results in more traffic congestion and urban sprawl. Traditional solutions to the last mile problem in public transit have included the use of feeder buses, bicycling infrastructure, urban planning reform. Other methods of alleviating the last mile problem such as bicycle sharing systems, car sharing programs, pod cars, motorized shoes have been proposed with varying degrees of adoption. Late in 2015, the Ford Motor Company received a patent for a "self-propelled unicycle engagable with vehicle", intended as a last mile commuter solution. Bicycle sharing programmes, have been successful in Europe and Asia, are beginning to be implemented on a large scale in North America. Starting in late 2017, micro-mobility services - dockless electric kick scooters and electric-assist bike sharing - have entered the marketplace and have gained popularity and user share. "First mile" can refer to material transport in indoor logistical situations, such as the entrance and flow of raw goods through a facility starting at the inbound deliveries department.
Last mile considerations have become wildly popular, yet material handling accounts for 30-70% of an item's total production cost. One strategy for minimizing this cost is moving less inventory using a just-in-time model. Mirco-mobility/active-mobility Electric bicycle Transit-oriented development – a method for solving the last mile problem by building high-density development within walking distance of a transit station
The M2, M4 and M6 were three similar series of electric multiple unit rail cars produced by the Budd Company, Tokyu Car Corporation, Morrison Knudsen for the Metropolitan Transportation Authority and the Connecticut Department of Transportation. Branded as the Cosmopolitans, the cars were more popularly known under their model names, M2, M4, M6, they ran on the New Haven Line for most of their service life. The M2 cars were built by General Electric in a consortium with the Budd Company, Canadian Vickers and Avco between 1972 and 1977, they were branded as Cosmopolitans. Final assembly of the M2 cars using Budd or Vickers bodies was completed at GE's Transportation Division in Erie, Pennsylvania. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the M2 design was licensed by the MTA and ConnDOT to two other companies to produce follow-up series. Tokyu Car produced 54 M4 cars in 1987-1988, Morrison-Knudsen produced 46 M6 cars in 1993-1995. All cars were equipped with GE 1259 DC motors with a rated output of 162 horsepower on all axles.
The M2 "Cosmopolitan" series replaced EMU cars dating from the early 1920s to 1954, including the Pullman 4400-series, which were manufactured for the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad. As with the cousin M1 series, the M2s accompanied an overhaul of the long-neglected main line and the New Canaan Branch in which longer, high level platforms were introduced along with other infrastructure improvements; the first M2s were accepted for service on April 16, 1973. 144 base order cars were built in 1972-1974, followed by a 100-car option in 1975. These cars had been scheduled for delivery in spring 1971, but were delayed due to technical problems. Aside from the technical differences of the New Haven Line, the cars are similar to the sister M1A order and, in times of equipment shortages or severe weather, the M2s have run on the Hudson and Harlem lines. Most of the other differences are in the interior and exterior appearance of the cars, such as red striping on the exterior rather than blue, the interior wallpaper having both the New York and Connecticut state seals and the obvious pantograph and mechanical apparatus on the roof.
Both the MTA and ConnDOT purchased bar cars, but complaints from riders from stations in New York, coupled with arrival of new equipment on the Hudson and Harlem lines, led to the conversion of the ten MTA-owned bar cars to standard coaches. The ten ConnDOT-owned bar cars, which ran on express trains to New Haven, South Norwalk and New Canaan, remained in service during weekdays until May 2014. 48 M2s were overhauled starting in 1994, with 24 returning to service in 1995. After the LIRR and Hudson/Harlem lines received an updated version of the original Metropolitan series of cars in 1984-86, plans were announced for a similar undertaking on the New Haven Line, it sought additional cars to increase service on the line after projections indicated an increase in ridership. Metro-North planned to purchase 44 additional M2s, but decided to award a contract for 54 M4 cars in 1987-1988 to Tokyu Car; the change was made due to the need to accommodate additional ridership, because of perceived improvements the M4 model.
The MTA Board approved the $77.3 million contract on December 20, 1984. These cars were built in the Brooklyn Navy Yard. Nemko finished the cars for Mitsui, which shipped the parts made by Tokyu. In October 1986, these cars had been expected to enter service the following year; the first cars were expected to arrive in early 1987. Identical to the M2s, Tokyu Car gave the "Triplex" brand name to the M4 cars to highlight their being a three-car set, as opposed to the married pairs of the M2s; these cars came to be known as "triplets" by railroad personnel. During the development of the order, Metro–North's operation and planning groups sought increased flexibility in the utilization of cars on the New Haven Line, thus, decided on the triplets; the order was designed to improve reliability. The cars used fabricated boagies unlike previous cars in the M series; as part of the MTA's 1987 Capital Program, 60 additional M4s would have been ordered to accommodate increasing ridership. This number was revised down to 48 in its February 1989 amendment, with 30 to be purchased by CTDOT, 18 by the MTA.
The December 1990 amendment changed the car order to the M6 series cars. Similar to the change with the proposed purchase of M2 cars, the decision was made to purchase improved models following a reassessment of fleet requirements; the contract called for 39 cars, with an option for 9 more cars, was awarded to Morrison Knudsen in August 1990 for $91.5 million. Work was scheduled to begin 1991, continue until early 1993. Nearly identical to the M4s, these cars were completed at Hornell, New York with body shells from Mafersa. Morrison Knudsen was the last American builder of railcars, underbid on contracts, including on this contract, to gain a large share of the market. Morrison Knudsen had no experience in the design of passenger railcars, did not build a prototype for the M6; as a result, the first cars were rejected by Metro-North. In April 1995, the M6s were delayed by 18 months.
The Pelham station is a commuter rail stop on the Metro-North Railroad's New Haven Line, located in Pelham, New York. The station is one mile west of the New Haven Line's junction of the Northeast Corridor, is located just east of the end of third rail power and start of overhead catenary power. Pelham is 15.1 miles from Grand Central Terminal and the average travel time from Grand Central is 32 minutes. The Pelham station was built in 1893 by the New York, New Haven, Hartford Railroad; as with all New Haven Line stations in Westchester County, the station became a Penn Central station upon acquisition by Penn Central in 1969, became part of the MTA's Metro-North Railroad. As of August 2006, weekday commuter ridership was 2,284, there are 356 parking spots; the Pelham station has the lowest number of parking spaces among all New Haven Line stations in Westchester County. The two main parking lots consist of the one at the given address along Pelhamwood Avenue along the New York City-bound platforms, along First Street along the New Haven-bound platforms that can be entered across from the intersection with Corlies Avenue.
Both parking lots are between Wolf's Highbrook Avenue. Street-side parking is available along First Street west of the parking lot entrance across from Nyac Avenue; this station has two high-level side platforms, each 10 cars long. Metro-North Railroad - Pelham List of upcoming train departure times and track assignments from MTA 1999 Bill Kessler Photo Wolfs Lane entrance from Google Maps Street View
Fairfield is a town in Fairfield County, United States. It borders the city of Bridgeport and towns of Trumbull, Easton and Westport along the Gold Coast of Connecticut; as of the 2010 census, the town had a population of 59,404. In September 2014, Money magazine ranked Fairfield the 44th best place to live in the United States, the best place to live in Connecticut. In 1635, Puritans and Congregationalists in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, were dissatisfied with the rate of Anglican reform, sought to establish an ecclesiastical society subject to their own rules and regulations; the Massachusetts General Court granted them permission to settle in the towns of Windsor and Hartford, an area now known as Connecticut. On January 14, 1639, a set of legal and administrative regulations called the Fundamental Orders was adopted, established Connecticut as a self-ruling entity. By 1639 these settlers had started new towns in the surrounding areas. Roger Ludlowe, framer of the Fundamental Orders, purchased the land presently called Fairfield, established the name.
The name "Fairfield" is commendatory. According to historian John M. Taylor: "Early in 1639 the General Court granted a commission to Ludlow to begin a plantation at Pequannocke, he was on that errand, with a few others from Windsor, afterwards joined by immigrants from Watertown and Concord. He stole a large tract of land from the Pequannocke sachems, - afterwards enlarged by other purchases to the westward,- and recalling the attractive region beyond, which he had seen on the second Pequot expedition, he “set down” there, having purchased the territory embraced in the present town of Fairfield, to which he gave its name." Fairfield was one of the two principal settlements of the Connecticut Colony in southwestern Connecticut. The town line with Stratford was set in May 1661 by John Banks, an early Fairfield settler, Richard Olmstead, Lt. Joseph Judson, who were both appointed as a committee by the Colony of Connecticut; the town line with Norwalk was not set until May 1685. Over time, it gave rise to several new towns that incorporated separately.
The following is a list of towns created from parts of Fairfield. Redding in 1767 Weston in 1787 Easton, created from Weston in 1845 Bridgeport in 1821 and again in 1895 when the Black Rock section left Fairfield Westport in 1835 When the American Revolutionary War began in the 1770s, Fairfielders were caught in the crisis as much as, if not more than, the rest of their neighbors in Connecticut. In a predominantly Tory section of the colony, the people of Fairfield were early supporters of the cause for independence. Throughout the war, a constant battle was being fought across Long Island Sound as men from British-controlled Long Island raided the coast in whaleboats and privateers. Gold Selleck Silliman, whose home still stands on Jennings Road, was put in charge of the coastal defenses. In the spring of 1779, he was kidnapped from his home by Tory forces in preparation for a British raid on Fairfield County, his wife, Mary Silliman watched from their home as, on the morning of July 7, 1779 2,000 enemy troops landed on Fairfield Beach near Pine Creek Point and proceeded to invade the town.
When they left the following evening, the entire town lay in ruins, burned to the ground as punishment for Fairfield's support of the rebel cause. 10 years President George Washington noted that after traveling through Fairfield that "the destructive evidences of British cruelty are yet visible both in Norwalk and Fairfield. World War I brought Fairfield out of its agrarian past by triggering an unprecedented economic boom in Bridgeport, the center of a large munitions industry at the time; the prosperity created a housing shortage in the city, many of the workers looked to Fairfield to build their homes. The trolley and the automobile made the countryside accessible to these newly rich members of the middle class, who brought with them new habits, new attitudes, new modes of dress; the prosperity lasted throughout the twenties. By the time of the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the population had increased to 17,000 from the 6,000 it had been just before the war. During the Depression, the town kept expanding.
The grounding of a barge with two crewmen on Penfield Reef in Fairfield during a gale led to the 1st civilian helicopter hoist rescue in history, on November 29, 1945. The helicopter flew from the nearby Sikorsky Aircraft plant in Connecticut. Fairfield became the home of the corporate headquarters of General Electric, one of the world's largest companies. On May 8, 2017, GE relocated to Massachusetts; the opening of the Connecticut Turnpike in the 1950s brought another wave of development to Fairfield, by the 1960s the town's residential, suburban character was established. The town is on the shore of Long Island Sound. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 31.3 square miles, of which 30.0 square miles is land and 3.4 square kilometres, or 4.15%, is water. The Mill River, the waters of which feed Lake Mohegan, flows through the town. Fairfield consists of many neighborhoods; the best known are wealthy Southport, where General Electric Chief Executive Officer Jack Welch lived for many years, Greenfield Hill, with its large areas, famous dogwood trees, picturesque green with its white-spired Congregational church.
Other well established neighborhood