LS based GM small-block engine
Not to be confused with the Chevrolet small-block engine. The LS based small-block engine is the primary V-8 used in General Motors' line of rear-wheel-drive cars and trucks. Introduced in January 1995, it is a "clean sheet" design with only rod bearings and bore spacing in common with the longstanding Chevrolet small block V8 that preceded it as the basis for GM small-block V8s; the basic LS variations use cast iron blocks, while performance editions are all aluminium with cast iron cylinder liners. The LS small-block has been manufactured in three Generations – III, IV, V – with preceding Generations I and II of modular GM small-block engines having been based on the Chevrolet small-block V8 designed in 1955. GM recycled the "LT" designation beginning with the LS Generation V "LT1" in 2014. Several versions of the LS were used in the Chevrolet Corvette, beginning with the LS1 in 1997 through the LS9 and others in 2013. Variants of the LT version of the GM small-block have been used since; the GM Generation I and Generation II engine families are both derived from the longstanding Chevrolet small block V8.
The Generation III small-block V8 was a "clean sheet" design, which replaced the Gen I and Gen II engine families in 2003 and 1996 respectively. Like the previous two generations, the Buick and Oldsmobile small blocks, the gen III/IV can be found in many different brands; the engine blocks were cast in aluminium for car applications, iron for most truck applications. The architecture of the LS series makes for an strong engine block with the aluminium engines being nearly as strong as the iron generation I and II engines; the LS engine used coil-near-plug style ignition to replace the distributor setup of all previous small-block based engines. The traditional five-bolt pentagonal cylinder head pattern was replaced with a square four-bolt design, the pistons are of the flat-topped variety, while all other variants, including the new LS9 and LQ4 truck engine received a dished version of the GM hypereutectic piston; the cylinder firing order was changed to 1-8-7-2-6-5-4-3, so that the LS series now corresponds to the firing pattern of other modern V8 engines.
The first of the Generation IIIs, the LS1 was the progenitor of the new architecture design that would transform the entire V8 line and influence the last of the Big Blocks. The Generation III 5.7 L shares little other than similar displacement, external dimensions, rod bearings, with its predecessor. It is an all-aluminium 5,665 cc pushrod engine with a bore and a stroke of 99 mm × 92 mm. LS1 When introduced in the 1997 Corvette the LS1 was rated at 345 hp at 5,600 rpm and 350 lb⋅ft at 4,400 rpm. After improvements to the intake and exhaust manifolds in 2001 the rating improved to 350 hp and 365 lb⋅ft; the LS1 was used in the Corvette from 97-04. It was used in 98-02 GM F-Body cars with a rating of over 305–325 bhp, rumored to be conservative; the extra horsepower was claimed to come from the intake ram-air effect available in the SS and WS6 models. In Australia, continuous modifications were made to the LS1 engine throughout its lifetime, reaching 380 hp/365 ft-lb in the HSV's YII series, a Callaway modified version named "C4B" was fitted to HSV GTS models producing 400 bhp and 405 lb⋅ft of torque.
LS6 The LS6 designation was used on a 454 CID Chevrolet Big-Block engine of the 1970s, as well as an iteration of the GM Iron Duke engine from the late 1970sThe LS6 is a higher-output version of GM's LS1 engine and retains the same capacity. The initial 2001 LS6 produced 385 bhp and 385 lb⋅ft, but the engine was modified for 2002 through 2004 to produce 405 bhp and 400 lb⋅ft of torque; the LS6 was only used in the high-performance C5 Corvette Z06 model, with the Cadillac CTS V-Series getting the 400 bhp engine later. The V-Series used the LS6 for two years before being replaced by the LS2 in 2006. For 2006, the Z06 replaced the LS6 with the new LS7; the LS6 shares its basic block architecture with the GM LS1 engine, but other changes were made to the design such as windows cast into the block between cylinders, improved main web strength and bay to bay breathing, an intake manifold and MAF-sensor with higher flow, a camshaft with higher lift and more duration, a higher compression ratio of 10.5:1, sodium-filled valves, a revised oiling system better suited to high lateral acceleration.
LS6 intake manifolds were used on all 2001+ LS1/6 engines. The casting number, located on the top rear edge of the block, is 12561168. Applications: 2001-2004 Corvette Z06 2004–2005 Cadillac CTS V-Series 2007 SSC Ultimate Aero TT The 4.8 L and the 5.3 L are smaller truck versions of the LS1 and were designed to replace the 305 and the 350 in trucks. Both the 4.8 L and the 5.3 L share the same engine block, heads and as they share architecture, some parts interchange between these engines and other variants in the LS family. The Vortec 4800 LR4 is a Generation III small block V8 truck engine. Displacement is 4,806 cc with a stroke of 96 mm × 83 mm, it is the smallest of the Generation III Vortec truck engines and was the replacement for the 5.0 L 5000 L30. The LR4 engines in 1999 produced 255 hp while the 2000 and above models made 270–285 hp and all have a torque rating between 285–295 lb⋅ft, depen
The Holden Commodore is a medium to large sedan sold by Holden since 1978. It was manufactured from 1978 to 2017 in Australia and from 1979 to 1990 in New Zealand, with production in Australia ending on 20 October 2017. From 2018 the Holden Commodore is imported from Germany. For the original model, Holden replaced the long-serving Kingswood and Premier large executive cars developed in Australia, with another rear wheel drive platform that was, based on a smaller European design by Opel, re-engineered for Australian conditions. Subsequent series became larger, culminating with the fourth generation Commodore developed in Australia and based on the GM Zeta platform. Introduced as a single sedan body style, the range expanded in 1979 to include a station wagon. From 1984, Holden began branding the flagship model as Holden Calais, with the Commodore Berlina introduced in 1984 gaining independent Holden Berlina nomenclature in 1988. Long-wheelbase Statesman/Caprice derivatives and Commodore utility body variants followed in 1990.
The third generation architecture spawned the most body styles, with a new Holden utility launched in 2000, reborn Monaro coupé in 2001, four-door Holden Crewman utility and all-wheel drive Holden Adventra crossover in 2003. Holden Special Vehicles in 1987 began official modification of high performance variants of the Commodore and its derivatives, under its own nameplate. Rivalry came predominantly from the Ford Falcon—also locally built. Prior to the second generation Commodore of 1988, the Holden was positioned a full class below the full-size Falcon. To varying degrees, competition came from mid-size offerings from Toyota Australia as well as Chrysler Australia, which morphed into Mitsubishi Motors Australia. Moreover, between 1989 and 1997, Australian federal government policy saw the launch of the Toyota Lexcen, a rebadged version of the second generation Commodore. With the introduction of the third generation in 1997, Holden implemented its largest export programs involving Commodore and its derivatives.
In the Middle East, South Africa and Brazil, the Commodore sold as a Chevrolet. High-performance export versions followed in North America, sold as Pontiac and Chevrolet. HSV exported to the United Kingdom as Vauxhall, in the Middle East as Chevrolet Special Vehicles and in New Zealand and Singapore as HSV. In December 2013, Holden announced that it would cease its local production by the end of October 2017 committing, however, to use the long-standing Commodore nameplate on its fifth-generation imported replacement, moving to a front-wheel drive /all-wheel drive platform. Introduced in October 1978, the VB Commodore development covered a period with the effects of the 1973 oil crisis still being felt. Hence, when Holden decided to replace the successful full-size HZ Kingswood with a new model line, they wanted the new car to be smaller and more fuel efficient. Holden looked at developing a new WA Kingswood, this project was dismissed. With no replacement in development, Holden looked towards Opel for providing the foundations of the VB, basing it loosely on the four-cylinder Rekord E bodyshell with the front grafted on from the Opel Senator A, both constructed using GM's V-body platform.
This change was necessitated to accommodate the larger Holden six- and eight-cylinder engines. Holden adopted the name "Commodore" from Opel, using the name since 1967. Opel went on to use Holden's Rekord-Senator hybrid as a foundation for its new generation Commodore C, slotting in between the two donor models; the VB series retained 96 percent of the preceding HZ Kingswood's interior space, despite being 14 percent smaller in overall dimensions, although five percent larger than the Torana. With the Commodore dropping a full class below the Kingswood and its Ford Falcon competitor, the smaller Commodore was predictably more fuel-efficient; this downsizing was first seen as a major disadvantage for Holden, as they had relinquished the potential of selling Commodores to the fleet and taxi industries. These sales losses were thought to be unrecoverable. During the VB's development, Holden realised that when driven at speed over harsh Australian roads, the Rekord would break in half at the firewall.
This forced Holden to rework the entire car for local conditions, resulting in only 35 percent commonality with the Opel. The Rekord's MacPherson strut front suspension was accordingly modified, the recirculating ball steering was replaced with a rack and pinion type; these modifications blew development costs beyond expectations to a reported A$110 million—a figure close to the cost of developing a new model independently. With such a large sum consumed by the VB development programme, Holden was left with insufficient finances to resource the development of a wagon variant. Added that the Commodore architecture was considered an unsuitable base for utility and long-wheelbase models, Holden was left with only a sedan, albeit one in three levels of luxury: a base, SL, SL/E. Desperate measures forced Holden to shape the Commodore front-end to the rear of the Rekord wagon; as the wagon-specific sheet metal had to be imported from Germany, the wagon, introduced in July 1979, suffered from inevitable component differences from the sedan.
Although infrequently criticised in the early years, quality problems were evident, with poor trim and panel fit problematic for all first generation Commodores. This coupled with mechanical dilemmas such as water pump failure and steering rack r
Holden known as General Motors-Holden, is an Australian automobile importer and former automobile manufacturer with its headquarters in Port Melbourne, Victoria. The company was founded in 1856 as a saddlery manufacturer in South Australia. In 1908 it moved into the automotive field, becoming a subsidiary of the United States-based General Motors in 1931, when the company was renamed General Motors-Holden's Ltd, it was renamed Holden Ltd in 1998, General Motors-Holden in 2005. Holden sells the remaining stock of the locally produced range of Commodore vehicles, imported GM models. Holden has offered badge engineered models in sharing arrangements with Chevrolet, Nissan, Suzuki and Vauxhall Motors. In 2013, the vehicle lineup consisted of models from GM Korea, GM Thailand, GM in the US, the self-developed Commodore and Ute. Holden distributed the European Opel brand in Australia in 2012 until its Australian demise in mid-2013, the American Cadillac brand in 2009 until the brand's full launch was delayed indefinitely.
From 1994 to 2017, all Australian-built Holden vehicles were manufactured in Elizabeth, South Australia, engines were produced at the Fishermans Bend plant in Melbourne. Production or assembly plants were operated in all mainland states of Australia; the consolidation of final assembly at Elizabeth was completed in 1988, but some assembly operations continued at Dandenong until 1994. General Motors assembly plants were operated in New Zealand from 1926 until 1990 by General Motors New Zealand Limited in an earlier and quite separate operation from Holden in Australia. Although Holden's involvement in exports has fluctuated since the 1950s, the declining sales of large cars in Australia led the company to look to international markets to increase profitability. From 2010 Holden incurred losses due to the strong Australian dollar, reductions of government grants and subsidies; this led to the announcement on 11 December 2013 that Holden would cease vehicle and engine production by the end of 2017.
On 20 October 2017, the last existing vehicle plant located in Elizabeth, South Australia was closed. Holden continues as an importer of vehicles. In 1852, James Alexander Holden emigrated to South Australia from Walsall, England and in 1856 established J. A. Holden & Co, a saddlery business in Adelaide. In 1879 J A Holden’s eldest son Henry James Holden, became a partner and managed the company. In 1885, German-born H. A. Frost joined the business as a junior partner and J. A. Holden & Co became Holden & Frost Ltd. Edward Holden, James' grandson, joined the firm in 1905 with an interest in automobiles. From there, the firm evolved through various partnerships and, in 1908, Holden & Frost moved into the business of minor repairs to car upholstery; the company began re-body older chassis using motor bodies produced by F T Hack and Co from 1914. Holden & Frost mounted the body and trimmed it; the company began to produce complete motorcycle sidecar bodies after 1913. After 1917, wartime trade restrictions led the company to start full-scale production of vehicle body shells.
H. J. Holden founded a new company in late 1917, registered Holden's Motor Body Builders Ltd on 25 February 1919 specialising in car bodies and using the former F T Hack & Co facility at 400 King William Street in Adelaide before erecting a large 4 story factory on the site. By 1923, HMBB were producing 12,000 units per year. During this time, HMBB assembled bodies for Ford Motor Company of Australia until its Geelong plant was completed. From 1924, HMBB became the exclusive supplier of car bodies for GM in Australia, with manufacturing taking place at the new Woodville plant; these bodies were made to suit a number of chassis imported from manufacturers such as Chevrolet and Dodge. In 1926 General Motors was established with assembly plants at Queensland. In 1930 alone, the still independent Woodville plant built bodies for Austin, Chrysler, DeSoto, Hillman, Humber and Willys-Overland as well GM cars; the last of this line of business was the assembly of Hillman Minx sedans in 1948. The Great Depression led to a substantial downturn in production by Holden, from 34,000 units annually in 1930 to just 1,651 units one year later.
In 1931 General Motors purchased Holden Motor Body Builders and merged it with General Motors Pty Ltd to form General Motors-Holden's Ltd. Throughout the 1920s Holden supplied tramcars to the Melbourne & Metropolitan Tramways Board, of which several examples have been preserved in both Australia and New Zealand. Holden's second full-scale car factory, located in Fishermans Bend, was completed in 1936, with construction beginning in 1939 on a new plant in Pagewood, New South Wales. However, World War II delayed car production with efforts shifted to the construction of vehicle bodies, field guns and engines. Before the war ended, the Australian Government took steps to encourage an Australian automotive industry. Both GM and Ford provided studies to the Australian Government outlining the production of the first Australian-designed car. Ford's proposal was the government's first choice, but required substantial financial assistance. GM's study was chosen because of its low level of government intervention.
After the war, Holden returned to producing vehicle bodies, this time for Buick, Chevrolet and Vauxhall. The Oldsmobile Ace was produced from 1946 to 1948. From here, Holden continued to pursue the goal of producing an Australian c
Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most automotive engines, by the means of an injector. All diesel engines use fuel injection by design. Petrol engines can use gasoline direct injection, where the fuel is directly delivered into the combustion chamber, or indirect injection where the fuel is mixed with air before the intake stroke. On petrol engines, fuel injection replaced carburetors from the 1980s onward; the primary difference between carburetors and fuel injection is that fuel injection atomizes the fuel through a small nozzle under high pressure, while a carburetor relies on suction created by intake air accelerated through a Venturi tube to draw the fuel into the airstream. The functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. All share the central task of supplying fuel to the combustion process, but it is a design decision how a particular system is optimized. There are several competing objectives such as: Power output Fuel efficiency Emissions performance Running on alternative fuels Reliability Driveability and smooth operation Initial cost Maintenance cost Diagnostic capability Range of environmental operation Engine tuningModern digital electronic fuel injection systems optimize these competing objectives more and than earlier fuel delivery systems.
Carburetors have the potential to atomize fuel better. Benefits of fuel injection include smoother and more consistent transient throttle response, such as during quick throttle transitions, easier cold starting, more accurate adjustment to account for extremes of ambient temperatures and changes in air pressure, more stable idling, decreased maintenance needs, better fuel efficiency. Fuel injection dispenses with the need for a separate mechanical choke, which on carburetor-equipped vehicles must be adjusted as the engine warms up to normal temperature. Furthermore, on spark ignition engines, fuel injection has the advantage of being able to facilitate stratified combustion which have not been possible with carburetors, it is only with the advent of multi-point fuel injection certain engine configurations such as inline five cylinder gasoline engines have become more feasible for mass production, as traditional carburetor arrangement with single or twin carburetors could not provide fuel distribution between cylinders, unless a more complicated individual carburetor per cylinder is used.
Fuel injection systems are able to operate regardless of orientation, whereas carburetors with floats are not able to operate upside down or in microgravity, such as encountered on airplanes. Fuel injection increases engine fuel efficiency. With the improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution of multi-point fuel injection, less fuel is needed for the same power output. Exhaust emissions are cleaner because the more precise and accurate fuel metering reduces the concentration of toxic combustion byproducts leaving the engine; the more consistent and predictable composition of the exhaust makes emissions control devices such as catalytic converters more effective and easier to design. Herbert Akroyd Stuart developed the first device with a design similar to modern fuel injection, using a'jerk pump' to meter out fuel oil at high pressure to an injector; this system was used on the hot-bulb engine and was adapted and improved by Bosch and Clessie Cummins for use on diesel engines. Fuel injection was in widespread commercial use in diesel engines by the mid-1920s.
An early use of indirect gasoline injection dates back to 1902, when French aviation engineer Leon Levavasseur installed it on his pioneering Antoinette 8V aircraft powerplant, the first V8 engine of any type produced in any quantity. Another early use of gasoline direct injection was on the Hesselman engine invented by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925. Hesselman engines use the ultra lean-burn principle, they are started on gasoline and switched to diesel or kerosene. Direct fuel injection was used in notable World War II aero-engines such as the Junkers Jumo 210, the Daimler-Benz DB 601, the BMW 801, the Shvetsov ASh-82FN. German direct injection petrol engines used injection systems developed by Bosch from their diesel injection systems. Versions of the Rolls-Royce Merlin and Wright R-3350 used single point fuel injection, at the time called "Pressure Carburettor". Due to the wartime relationship between Germany and Japan, Mitsubishi had two radial aircraft engines using fuel injection, the Mitsubishi Kinsei and the Mitsubishi Kasei.
Alfa Romeo tested one of the first electronic injection systems in Alfa Romeo 6C 2500 with "Ala spessa" body in 1940 Mille Miglia. The engine had six electrically operated injectors and were fed by a semi-high-pressure circulating fuel pump system. All diesel engines have fuel injected into the combustion chamber. See Diesel engine; the invention of mechanical injection for gasoline-fueled aviation engines was by the French inventor of the V8 engine configuration, Leon Levavasseur in 1902. Levavasseur designed the original Antoinette firm's series of V-form aircraft engines, starting with the Antoinette 8V to be used by the aircraft the Antoinette firm built that Levavasseur designed, flown from 1906 to the firm's demise in 1910, with t