The UltraSPARC II, code-named "Blackbird", is a microprocessor implementation of the SPARC V9 instruction set architecture developed by Sun Microsystems. Marc Tremblay was the chief architect. Introduced in 1997, it was further development of the UltraSPARC operating at higher clock frequencies of 250 MHz reaching 650 MHz; the die contained 5.4 million transistors and had an area of 149 mm². It was fabricated by Texas Instruments in their 0.35 µm process, dissipated 25 W at 205 MHz, used a 2.5 V power supply. L2 cache capacity was 1 to 4 MB. In 1999, the UltraSPARC II was ported to a 0.25 µm process. This version was code-named "Sapphire-Black", it operated at 360 to 480 MHz, possessed a die area of 126 mm², dissipated 21 W at 400 MHz and the power supply voltage was reduced to 1.9 V. Supported L2 cache capacity was increased to 1 to 8 MB; the UltraSPARC II was the basis for four derivatives. The UltraSPARC IIe "Hummingbird" was an embedded version introduced in 2000 that operated at 400 to 500 MHz, fabricated in a 0.18 µm process with aluminium interconnects.
It dissipated a maximum of 13 W at 500 MHz, used a 1.5 to 1.7 V power supply and had a 256 KB L2 cache. The UltraSPARC IIi "Sabre" featuring on-chip PCI controller was a low-cost version introduced in 1997 that operated at 270 to 360 MHz, it was fabricated in a 0.35 µm process and possessed a die size of 156 mm². It dissipated 21 W and used a 1.9 V power supply. It had a 256 KB to 2 MB L2 cache. In 1998, a version code-named Sapphire-Red, was fabricated in a 0.25 µm process, enabling the microprocessor to operate at 333 to 480 MHz. It used a 1.9 V power supply. The UltraSPARC IIe+ or IIi was introduced in 2002. Code-named "Phantom", it operated at 550 to 650 MHz and was fabricated in a 0.18 µm process with copper interconnect. It used a 1.7 V power supply. It had a 512 KB L2 cache; the Gemini was the first attempt by Sun to produce a multithreaded microprocessor. It had taped out, but was cancelled before it was introduced after the announcement of UltraSPARC T1 Niagara microprocessor in early 2004.
It consisted of an on-die L2 cache on a single chip. The DAC 2004 abstracts described the dual-core UltraSPARC II processor in Session 40; the "Dual-Core UltraSPARC" was based upon the UltraSPARC II microarchitecture and featured: DDR-1 memory controller, JBUS interface, parity protected L1 cache, ECC protected dual 512KB on-chip Level 2 cache, 1.2 GHz clock frequency, 80 million transistors, 206mm^2 die size, dissipated 23 watts of power. Kapil, S. "A chip multithreaded processor for network-facing workloads". IEEE Micro. 24: 20–30. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.230.2072. Doi:10.1109/MM.2004.1289288
Sun Fire is a series of server computers introduced in 2001 by Sun Microsystems. The Sun Fire branding coincided with the introduction of the UltraSPARC III processor, superseding the UltraSPARC II-based Sun Enterprise series. In 2003, Sun broadened the Sun Fire brand, introducing Sun Fire servers using the Intel Xeon processor. In 2004, these early Intel Xeon models were superseded by models powered by AMD Opteron processors. In 2004, Sun introduced Sun Fire servers powered by the UltraSPARC IV dual-core processor. In 2007, Sun again introduced Intel Xeon Sun Fire servers, while continuing to offer the AMD Opteron versions as well. SPARC-based Sun Fire systems were produced until 2010, while x86-64 based machines were marketed until mid-2012. In mid-2012, Oracle Corporation ceased to use the Sun Fire brand for new server models. UltraSPARC-based Sun Fire models are licensed to run the Solaris operating system versions 8, 9, 10. Although not supported, some Linux versions are available from third parties, as well as OpenBSD and NetBSD.
Intel Xeon and AMD Opteron based Sun Fire servers support Solaris 9 and 10, OpenBSD, Red Hat Enterprise Linux versions 3 - 6, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 and 11, Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003, 2008, 2008 R2. Sun Fire model numbers have prefixes indicating the type of system, thus: V: entry level and mid-range rackmount and cabinet servers E: high-end enterprise class cabinet servers with high-availability features B: blade servers X: rackmount x86-64 based servers T: entry level and mid-range rackmount servers based on UltraSPARC T-series CoolThreads processorsWhen Sun offered Intel Xeon and AMD Opteron Sun Fire servers under the V-Series sub brand, Sun used an x suffix to denote Intel Xeon processor based systems and a z suffix for AMD Opteron processor based systems, but this convention was dropped; the z suffix was used to differentiate the V880z Visualization Server variant of the V880 server. Sun's first-generation blade server platform, the Sun Fire B1600 chassis and associated blade servers, was branded under the Sun Fire server brand.
Sun blade systems were sold under the Sun Blade brand. In 2007, Sun and Fujitsu Siemens introduced the common SPARC Enterprise brand for server products; the first SPARC Enterprise models were the Fujitsu-developed successors to the midrange and high-end Sun Fire E-series. In addition, the Sun Fire T1000 and T2000 servers were rebranded as the SPARC Enterprise T1000 and T2000 and sold under the Fujitsu brands, although Sun continued to offer these with their original names. T-series servers have been badged SPARC Enterprise rather than Sun Fire. Since late 2010, Oracle Corporation no longer uses Sun Fire brand for their current T series SPARC servers, since mid-2012 for new X series x86-64 machines based on Intel Xeon CPUs. x86-64 server models, developed by Sun Microsystems before its acquisition, were still in production, have all been rebranded as Sun Server X-series. Some servers were produced in two versions, the original version and a RoHS version. Since a general maintenance and upgrade guideline is that RoHS components and spares may be installed into the original non-RoHS versions of that server, the end-of-life date of a server is deemed the EOL date of the RoHS version of that server in this listing.
As of 2012, the x86 server range continued under "Oracle Server" names. Fireplane Sun System Handbook, Version 2.1.8, April 2005 Sun Servers, Sun Microsystems OpenBSD's Sunfire support Oracle - Entry-Level Servers - Legacy Product Documentation Oracle - Midrange Servers - Legacy Product Documentation Oracle - x86 Servers - Legacy Product Documentation Oracle - High-End Servers - Legacy Product Documentation
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System, SPARC. Sun contributed to the evolution of several key computing technologies, among them Unix, RISC processors, thin client computing, virtualized computing. Sun was founded on February 24, 1982. At its height, the Sun headquarters were in Santa Clara, California, on the former west campus of the Agnews Developmental Center. On April 20, 2009, it was announced; the deal was completed on January 27, 2010. Sun products included computer servers and workstations built on its own RISC-based SPARC processor architecture, as well as on x86-based AMD Opteron and Intel Xeon processors. Sun developed its own storage systems and a suite of software products, including the Solaris operating system, developer tools, Web infrastructure software, identity management applications. Other technologies included the Java platform and NFS.
In general, Sun was a proponent of open systems Unix. It was a major contributor to open-source software, as evidenced by its $1 billion purchase, in 2008, of MySQL, an open-source relational database management system. At various times, Sun had manufacturing facilities in several locations worldwide, including Newark, California. However, by the time the company was acquired by Oracle, it had outsourced most manufacturing responsibilities; the initial design for what became Sun's first Unix workstation, the Sun-1, was conceived by Andy Bechtolsheim when he was a graduate student at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. Bechtolsheim designed the SUN workstation for the Stanford University Network communications project as a personal CAD workstation, it was designed around the Motorola 68000 processor with an advanced memory management unit to support the Unix operating system with virtual memory support. He built the first ones from spare parts obtained from Stanford's Department of Computer Science and Silicon Valley supply houses.
On February 24, 1982, Vinod Khosla, Andy Bechtolsheim, Scott McNealy, all Stanford graduate students, founded Sun Microsystems. Bill Joy of Berkeley, a primary developer of the Berkeley Software Distribution, joined soon after and is counted as one of the original founders; the Sun name is derived from the initials of the Stanford University Network. Sun was profitable from its first quarter in July 1982. By 1983 Sun was known for producing 68k-based systems with high-quality graphics that were the only computers other than DEC's VAX to run 4.2BSD. It licensed the computer design to other manufacturers, which used it to build Multibus-based systems running Unix from UniSoft. Sun's initial public offering was in 1986 for Sun Workstations; the symbol was changed in 2007 to JAVA. Sun's logo, which features four interleaved copies of the word sun in the form of a rotationally symmetric ambigram, was designed by professor Vaughan Pratt of Stanford; the initial version of the logo was orange and had the sides oriented horizontally and vertically, but it was subsequently rotated to stand on one corner and re-colored purple, blue.
In the dot-com bubble, Sun began making much more money, its shares rose dramatically. It began spending much more, hiring workers and building itself out; some of this was because of genuine demand, but much was from web start-up companies anticipating business that would never happen. In 2000, the bubble burst. Sales in Sun's important hardware division went into free-fall as customers closed shop and auctioned high-end servers. Several quarters of steep losses led to executive departures, rounds of layoffs, other cost cutting. In December 2001, the stock fell to the 1998, pre-bubble level of about $100, but it kept falling, faster than many other tech companies. A year it had dipped below $10 but bounced back to $20. In mid-2004, Sun closed their Newark, California and consolidated all manufacturing to Hillsboro, Oregon. In 2006, the rest of the Newark campus was put on the market. In 2004, Sun canceled two major processor projects which emphasized high instruction-level parallelism and operating frequency.
Instead, the company chose to concentrate on processors optimized for multi-threading and multiprocessing, such as the UltraSPARC T1 processor. The company announced a collaboration with Fujitsu to use the Japanese company's processor chips in mid-range and high-end Sun servers; these servers were announced on April 17, 2007, as the M-Series, part of the SPARC Enterprise series. In February 2005, Sun announced the Sun Grid, a grid computing deployment on which it offered utility computing services priced at US$1 per CPU/hour for processing and per GB/month for storage; this offering built upon an existing 3,000-CPU server farm used for internal R&D for over 10 years, which Sun marketed as being able to achieve 97% utilization. In August 2005, the first commercial use of this grid was announced for financial risk simulations, launched as its first software as a service product. In January 2005, Sun reported a net profit of $19 million for fiscal 2005 second quarter, for the first time in three years.
This was followed by net loss of $9 million on GAAP basis for the third quarter 2005, as reported on April 14, 2005. In January 2007, Sun reported a net GAAP profit of $126
Sun Microsystems' UltraSPARC T1 microprocessor, known until its 14 November 2005 announcement by its development codename "Niagara", is a multithreading, multicore CPU. Designed to lower the energy consumption of server computers, the CPU uses 72 W of power at 1.4 GHz. Afara Websystems pioneered a radical thread-heavy SPARC design; the company was purchased by Sun, the intellectual property became the foundation of the CoolThreads line of processors, starting with the T1. The T1 is a new-from-the-ground-up SPARC microprocessor implementation that conforms to the UltraSPARC Architecture 2005 specification and executes the full SPARC V9 instruction set. Sun has produced two previous multicore processors, but UltraSPARC T1 is its first microprocessor, both multicore and multithreaded. Security was built-in from the first release on silicon, with hardware cryptographic units in the T1, unlike contemporary general purpose processor from competing vendors; the processor is available with four, six or eight CPU cores, each core able to handle four threads concurrently.
Thus the processor is capable of processing up to 32 threads concurrently. UltraSPARC T1 can be partitioned in a similar way to high-end Sun SMP systems. Thus, several cores can be partitioned for running a single or group of processes and/or threads, while the other cores deal with the rest of the processes on the system; the UltraSPARC T1 was designed from scratch as a multi-threaded, special-purpose processor, thus introduces a whole new architecture for obtaining high performance. Rather than try to make each core as intelligent and optimized as they can, Sun's goal was to run as many concurrent threads as possible, maximize utilization of each core's pipeline; the T1's cores are less complex than those of current high end processors in order to allow 8 cores to fit on the same die. The cores do not feature a sizable amount of cache. Single-thread processors depend on large caches for their performance because cache misses result in a wait while the data is fetched from main memory. By making the cache larger the probability of a cache miss is reduced, but the impact of a miss is still the same.
The T1 cores side-step the issue of cache misses by multithreading. Each core is a barrel processor; when a long-latency event occurs, such as cache miss, the thread is taken out of rotation while the data is fetched into cache in the background. Once the long-latency event completes, the thread is made available for execution again. Sharing of the pipeline by multiple threads may make each thread slower, but the overall throughput of each core is much higher, it means that the impact of cache misses is reduced, the T1 can maintain high throughput with a smaller amount of cache. The cache no longer needs to be large enough to hold all or most of the "working set", just the recent cache misses of each thread. Benchmarks demonstrate this approach has worked well on commercial, multithreaded workloads such as Java application servers, Enterprise Resource Planning application servers, email servers, web servers; these benchmarks suggest each core in the UltraSPARC T1 is more powerful than the circa 2001, single-core, single-threaded UltraSPARC III, at a chip to chip comparison outperforms other processors on multithreaded integer workloads.
The UltraSPARC T1 contained 279 million transistors and had an area of 378 mm2. It was fabricated by Texas Instruments in their 90 nm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor process with nine levels of copper interconnect; each core has L1 16kB instruction cache and 8KB data cache. L2 cache is 3MB and there is no L3 cache; the T1 processor can be found in the following products from Sun and Fujitsu Computer Systems: Sun/Fujitsu/Fujitsu Siemens SPARC Enterprise T1000 and T2000 servers Sun Fire T1000 and T2000 servers Sun Netra T2000 Server Sun Netra CP3060 Blade Sun Blade T6300 Server Module The UltraSPARC T1 microprocessor is unique in its strength and weaknesses, as such is targeted at specific markets. Rather than being used for high-end number-crunching and ultra-high performance applications, the chip is targeted at network-facing high-demand servers, such as high-traffic web servers, mid-tier Java, ERP, CRM application servers, which utilize a large number of separate threads. One of the limitations of the T1 design is that a single floating point unit is shared between all 8 cores, making the T1 unsuitable for applications performing a lot of floating point mathematics.
However, since the processor's intended markets do not make much use of floating-point operations, Sun does not expect this to be a problem. Sun provides a tool for analysing an application's level of parallelism and use of floating point instructions to determine if it is suitable for use on a T1 or T2 platform. In addition to web and application tier processing, the UltraSPARC T1 may be well suited for smaller database applications which have a large user count. One customer has published results showing that a MySQL application running on an UltraSPARC T1 server ran 13.5 times faster than on an AMD Opteron server. T1 is the first SPARC processor; the SPARC Hypervisor runs in this mode, it can partition a T1 system into 32 Logical Domains, each of which can run an operating system instance. Solaris, NetBSD and OpenBSD are supported. Traditionally, commercial software suites such as Oracle Database charge their customers based on the number of processors the software runs on. In early 2006, Oracle changed the licensing model by introducing the processor fact
The SPARC T3 microprocessor is a multithreading, multi-core CPU produced by Oracle Corporation. Launched on 20 September 2010, it is a member of the SPARC family, the successor to the UltraSPARC T2. Overall single socket and multi-socket throughput increased with the T3 processor in systems, providing superior throughput with half the CPU socket requirements to its predecessor; the throughput increased in single a socket T3-1 platform in comparison to its predecessor T2+ processor in a dual-socket T5240 platform. Under simulated web serving workloads, dual-socket based SPARC T3 systems benchmarked better performance than quad-socket UltraSPARC T2+ systems. Online IT publication The Register incorrectly reported in June 2008 that the microprocessor would have 16 cores, each with 16 threads. In September 2009 they published a roadmap. During the Hot Chips 21 conference Sun revealed the chip has a total of 128 threads. According to the ISSCC 2010 presentation: "A 16-core SPARC SoC processor enables up to 512 threads in a 4-way glueless system to maximize throughput.
The 6MB L2 cache of 461GB/s and the 308-pin SerDes I/O of 2.4Tb/s support the required bandwidth. Six clock and four voltage domains, as well as power management and circuit techniques, optimize performance, power and yield trade-offs across the 377mm2 die." Support for the UltraSPARC T3 was confirmed on July 16, 2010 when the ARCBot under Twitter noted unpublished PSARC/2010/274 which revealed a new "-xtarget value for UltraSPARC T3" being included in OpenSolaris. During Oracle OpenWorld in San Francisco on September 20, 2010, the processor was launched as the "SPARC T3", accompanied by new systems and new reported benchmarks claiming world-record performance. Varied real-world application benchmarks were released with full system disclosures. Internationally recognized SPEC benchmarks were released with full system disclosures. Oracle disclosed. SPARC T3 features include: 8 or 16 CPU cores 8 hardware threads per core 6 MB Level 2 cache 2 embedded coherency controllers 6 coherence links 14 unidirectional lanes per coherence link SMP to 4 sockets without glue circuitry 4 DDR3 SDRAM memory channels Embedded PCI Express I/O interfaces Security co-processor on each core.
Supports DES, 3DES, AES, RC4, SHA-1, SHA-256/384/512, Galois Field, MD5, RSA with up to 2048 key, ECC, CRC. Hardware random number generator 2 embedded 1GigE/10GigE interfaces 2.4 Tbit/s aggregate throughput per socket With the release of the SPARC T3 chip, the new brand of Oracle SPARC T-series servers was introduced to the market replacing CMT machines from the previous SPARC Enterprise product line. Fewer physical products from the former server line were refreshed with the T3 chip, reducing the total number of servers to four: One Socket SPARC T3-1 2U Rack Server One Socket SPARC T3-1B Blade Server Two Socket SPARC T3-2 Server Four Socket SPARC T3-4 Server Like the prior T1, T2, T2+ processors, the T3 supports Hyper-Privileged execution mode; the T3 supports up to 128 Oracle VM Server for SPARC domains. The SPARC T3 processor is two T2+ processors on a single die; the T3 has: Double the cores of a T2 or T2+ Double the 10Gig Ethernet ports over a T2+ Double the crypto accelerator cores over a T2 or T2+ Crypto engines support more algorithms than the T2 or T2+ including: DES, Triple DES, AES, RC4, SHA-1, SHA256/384/512, Galois Field, MD5, RSA to 2048 key, ECC, CRC32 Over 1.9x Cryptography Performance Throughput Increase Faster DDR3 RAM interface over the T2 or T2+ DDR2 interface Double the throughput Double the memory capacity Quadruple the I/O throughput Two PCIe 2.0 eight lane interfaces vs one PCIe former generation eight lane interface UltraSPARC T1 – The predecessor to T2 Sun's first chip-multithreaded CPU SPARC T4
Sun Enterprise is a range of UNIX server computers produced by Sun Microsystems from 1996 to 2001. The line was launched as the Sun Ultra Enterprise series; these systems are based on the 64-bit UltraSPARC microprocessor architecture and related to the contemporary Ultra series of computer workstations. Like the Ultra series, they run Solaris. Various models, from single-processor entry-level servers to large high-end multiprocessor servers were produced; the Enterprise brand was phased out in favor of the Sun Fire model line from 2001 onwards. The first UltraSPARC-I-based servers produced by Sun, launched in 1995, are the UltraServer 1 and UltraServer 2; these are server configurations of the Ultra 1 and Ultra 2 workstations respectively. These were renamed Ultra Enterprise 1 and Ultra Enterprise 2 for consistency with other server models; these were joined by the Ultra Enterprise 150, which comprises an Ultra 1 motherboard in a tower-style enclosure with 12 internal disk bays. In 1998, Sun launched server configurations of the UltraSPARC-IIi-based Ultra 5 and Ultra 10 workstations, called the Enterprise Ultra 5S and Enterprise Ultra 10S respectively.
The Sun Enterprise 450 is a rack-mountable entry-level multiprocessor server launched in 1997, capable of up to four UltraSPARC II processors. The Sun Enterprise 250 is a two-processor version launched in 1998; these were joined by the Enterprise 220R and Enterprise 420R rack-mount servers in 1999. The 220R and 420R models are based on the motherboards of the Ultra 60 and Ultra 80 workstations; the 250 was replaced by the Sun Fire V250, the 450 by the Sun Fire V880. The 220R was superseded by the Sun Fire 280R and the 420R by the Sun Fire V480. In 1996, Sun replaced the SPARCserver 1000E and SPARCcenter 2000E models with the Ultra Enterprise 3000, 4000, 5000 and 6000 servers; these are multiprocessor servers based on a common hardware architecture incorporating the Gigaplane packet-switched processor/memory bus and UltraSPARC-I or II processors. High availability and fault-tolerance features are included in the X000 systems which are intended for mission-critical applications; the 3000 model is a deskside server configurable with up to six processors and 10 internal disks, while the 4000 is a rack-mount system with up to 14 processors.
The 5000 is a 4000 in a rack cabinet and the 6000 is a cabinet-housed data center server with up to 30 processors. In 1999, the Enterprise 3500, 4500, 5500 and 6500 models were announced; these are upgraded X000 systems, with a faster Gigaplane bus. The 3500 differs from the 3000 by having an additional Gigaplane slot resulting in an increased maximum of eight processors; the Enterprise X500 series were replaced by the Sun Fire 3800/4800/6800 line. The Enterprise 10000, E10k or Starfire is a high-end multiprocessor data center server capable of being configured with up to 64 UltraSPARC II processors; this was designed by Cray Research's Business Systems Division as a successor to the Cray Superserver 6400, itself related to Sun's earlier Sun-4d architecture servers. After Cray was acquired by Silicon Graphics in 1996, this division was sold on to Sun, who launched the Starfire as the Ultra Enterprise 10000 in 1997; the Starfire is based around the fault-tolerant Gigaplane-XB processor/memory interconnect.
Like the X000 and X500 series servers, the Starfire incorporates many high-availability features, including the ability to be partitioned into multiple "domains", each of which can be booted individually to run its own instance of Solaris. It is possible to remove resources from a running domain with short notice and reassign freed resources to other domains. Domain granularity is one CPU board. A single CPU board can carry up to 4 GB of RAM and 4 SBUS IO boards. A rare option is to replace 4 SBUS boards with dual PCI boards; the Starfire is the first server from any vendor to exceed 2000 on the TPC-D 300 GB benchmark. Starfire systems were used by a number of high-profile customers during the "dot-com" boom, notably eBay, sold for well over $1 million for a configured system; the Starfire contains one or two controller modules which are connected via Ethernet to an external computer, the System Service Processor. The controller modules interface with the system "centerplane" via JTAG and control the partitioning of available CPUs, memory and I/O devices into one or more domains, each of, in effect a distinct computer.
The system cannot be partitioned or booted without its original SSP which contains encrypted keys issued by the manufacturer. An E10K has been preserved at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View; the Starfire was superseded by the Sun Fire 12K/15K models. Oracle - Entry-Level Servers - Legacy Product Documentation Oracle - Midrange Servers - Legacy Product Documentation Sun Microsystems Sun System Handbook Sun Field Engineer Handbook, 20th edition Xerox PARC CSL-93-17 "Papers from the SunDragon Project"
The microSPARC is a microprocessor implementing the SPARC V8 instruction set architecture developed by Sun Microsystems. It was a low-end microprocessor embedded systems; the microprocessor was developed by Sun, but the floating-point unit was licensed from Meiko Scientific. It contained 800,000 transistors. There were two derivatives of the microSPARC: microSPARC-IIep; the microSPARC-IIep was a 100 MHz microSPARC-II with an integrated PCI controller for embedded systems. It was fabricated by LSI Logic for Sun; the microprocessor was used by Sun in their JavaStation Network Computer. Die photos Sun Microsystems, Inc.. "Highly Integrated SPARC Processor Implementation". Hot Chips presentation.'