The OK-GLI known as Buran Analog BST-02, was a test vehicle in the Buran programme. It was constructed in 1984, was used for 25 test flights between 1985 and 1988 before being retired, it is now an exhibit at the Technik Museum Speyer in Germany. The development of the Buran began in the late 1970s as a response to the U. S. Space Shuttle program; the construction of the orbiters began in 1980, by 1984 the first full-scale Buran was rolled out. The first suborbital test flight of a scale-model took place as early as July 1983; as the project progressed, five additional scale-model flights were performed. The OK-GLI test vehicle was constructed in 1984, it was fitted with four AL-31 jet engines mounted at the rear. This Buran could take off under its own power for flight tests, in contrast to the American Enterprise test vehicle, unpowered and relied on an air launch; the jets were used to take off from a normal landing strip, once it reached a designated point, the engines were cut and the OK-GLI glided back to land.
This provided invaluable information about the handling characteristics of the Buran design, differed from the carrier plane/air drop method used by the US and the Enterprise test craft. Nine taxi tests and twenty-five test flights of the OK-GLI were performed, after which the vehicle was "worn out". All tests and flights were carried out at Baikonur. After the program was cancelled, the OK-GLI was stored at Gromov Flight Research Institute, near Moscow, where it was displayed during the annual MAKS air show. In 2000, the OK-GLI was sold to an Australian company called the Buran Space Corporation, owned by Australian astronaut Paul Scully-Power, it was disassembled and transported by ship to Sydney, via Gothenburg, Sweden. Upon reassembly, the OK-GLI was put on display in a temporary enclosure for the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. Visitors could walk around and inside the vehicle, plans were in place for a tour of various cities in Australia and Asia; the owners went into bankruptcy after the Olympics, the vehicle was moved into the open air and stored for a year, in a fenced-in parking lot and protected by nothing more than a large tarpaulin, where it suffered deterioration and repeated vandalism.
The OK-GLI was offered for sale, including by a radio auction on the American News 980 KFWB-AM with a starting price of US$6 million, however it did not receive any genuine bids. In September 2004 a team of German journalists found the OK-GLI in Bahrain, having been abandoned after it was on display as an attraction of the 2002 "Bahrain Summer" festival, it was bought by the Sinsheim Auto & Technik Museum, to be transported to Germany in 2005. Due to legal issues, it remained in Bahrain for several years, pending settlement of an international court case over fees. On 4 March 2008 the OK-GLI began its journey by sea to the Technik Museum Speyer where it was refurbished and serves as a walk-in exhibit; the journey got off to an inauspicious start when, during the transfer from the storage barge to the ship, there was a failure of the aft spreader and the tail of the vehicle dropped from just above deck height to the bottom of the hold. No one was hurt and both the ship and vehicle seemed to suffer only minor damage.
Space Shuttle program Space Shuttle Enterprise Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-105 — Soviet orbital spaceplane Elser, Heinz. History and Transportation of the Russian Space Shuttle OK-GLI to the Technik Museum Speyer. Technik Museum Speyer. ISBN 978-3-9809437-7-2. OK-GLI at Buran-Energia.com Buran Analogue entry at Encyclopedia Astronautica OK-GLI at K26.com OK-GLI at Technik Museum Speyer
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Zhukovsky International Airport
Zhukovsky International Airport known as Ramenskoye Airport or Zhukovsky Airfield is an international airport, located in Moscow Oblast, Russia 36 km southeast of central Moscow, in the town of Zhukovsky, a few kilometers southeast of the old Bykovo Airport. After its reconstruction in 2014–2016, Zhukovsky International Airport was opened on 30 May 2016; the declared capacity of the new airport was 4 million passengers per year. The Ramenskoye airfield is used for test flights experimental aviation and operated Gromov Flight Research Institute, EMERCOM aircraft are flying from the airfield, it was used as cargo international airport of civil aviation. Radio call sign "Proud"; the international air show. After the reconstruction of 2014–2016, the official opening of the Zhukovsky International Airport took place on 30 May 2016; the declared capacity of the first stage of the new air port is 4 million passengers annually. The airfield assigned to the newly established in 1941 Flight Research Institute has served as a major USSR aircraft testing establishment, with most of the major Russian OKBs having facilities there.
This airfield was used as a test site for the Soviet Buran Spacecraft. It was used by the Ministry of Emergency Situations and cargo carriers; until June 2006, jet fighters flights for the public and international customers were available at the Gromov Flight Research Institute airfield. On March 29, 2011 Russian prime minister Vladimir Putin proposed moving all charter and low-cost flights to Ramenskoye Airport, to relieve to Moscow's Sheremetyevo and Vnukovo airports and reduce the cost of tickets. A new terminal was constructed and the airport scheduled to be opened on 16 March 2016, but was postponed to unspecified date due to lack of interest and airport certification issues; the airport was opened on 30 May 2016. The opening ceremony was attended by Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev; the Joint Venture "Ramport Aero" running the airport is formed by Lithuania's Avia Solutions Group and Russia state corporation Rostec, who aimed to expand the airport in three stages. While the opening of the new airport was delayed and aircraft limit to Ramenskoye is implemented, Air France-KLM noted it tends to use Ramenskoye as a diversion airport to Sheremetyevo in case of emergency.
The airport was named the same as the airfield after the nearby city of Ramenskoye. However, in 2016 it was re-named after the city of Zhukovsky, in which it is geographically situated; the opening ceremony of the airport was held on 30 May 2016 and the first commercial passenger flights were expected to begin on 20 June 2016. The airfield is publicly well-known as a place of the biennial MAKS Airshow); the airport uses the Gromov Flight Research Institute world's second longest public-use runway, at 5,402 m. There is a second and shorter runway on site - of 2950 m. According to the project of development of the international airport, in the period up to 2019, it is planned to build two passenger terminals, a hotel with 250 rooms, office buildings, open parking for 1,240 parking spaces and covered parking, with a capacity of up to 7,426 cars, as well as the station for aeroexpress; the first phase of the new airport in 2016 will have to serve 1.7 million people, by 2020 the project assumes an increase in passenger traffic to 10.8 million.
In 2015, the construction of the first passenger terminal with an area of 17.6 thousand square meters was carried out. And adaptation of the current infrastructure of the Ramenskoye airfield for civil aviation purposes; the annual capacity of the first terminal will reach two million passengers a year. Investments in the project to launch the first stage of the airport amount to more than 1.5 billion rubles. In total, over 13 years 13 billion rubles will be invested in the airport and over 240 thousand square meters of airport infrastructure will be built. At the second and third stages, it is planned to expand the first one and build the second passenger terminal of Zhukovsky airport. After completion of all stages of development, the total area of the terminals will be 60 thousand square meters. M. and their capacity will increase to 12 million passengers a year. However, there are other estimates: due to the fact that the airspace Zhukovsky airport intersects with the zone Domodedovo airport, passenger traffic will be 12 times more modest.
The development of the project includes a significant improvement in transport infrastructure in the area. However, residents of the city of Zhukovsky fear that the development of the airport will lead to a worsening of the transport situation due to an increase in automobile traffic within the city, as well as a decrease in the comfort of living of residents due to the noise of airplanes when the airport operates around the clock. In October 2018, Avia Solutions Group, sold its share of the airport management company to the management of Ramport Aero The following airlines operate regular and scheduled services to and from Zhukovsky: Media related to Zhukovsky International Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Airport parameters
Biggin Hill International Air Fair
The Biggin Hill International Air Show, or Biggin Hill Air Fair, was one of the largest civilian airshows in the world and the largest organised air show in Europe. It ran once a year near the end of June, at London Biggin Hill Airport, a former World War II RAF fighter station, from 1963 to 2010, it has been succeeded by a smaller-scale air show event titled The Festival of Flight, launched in June 2014. Squadron Leader Jock Maitland purchased a lease to run Biggin Hill Airport from Bromley Council in 1958, commenced the first show in 1963. Jock Maitland had flown Sabres in conflict in Korea before retiring from RAF service, he started a small charter company, Maitland Air Charter which operated pleasure flights from Ramsgate Airport during 1959 and 1960 using former RAF Percival Prentice aircraft refurbished and civilianised by Aviation Traders of Southend, a company started by Freddie Laker. Subsequently, Jock set up in business with a local builder to form Maitland Drewery Aviation and operated Vickers Viscount aircraft.
Drewery conceived the infamous steel Wendy House which once graced the Apron on Biggin Hill Airport. The council privatised the airport in 1988 and it was bought by Biggin Hill Airport Ltd in 1994, who agreed a 25-year contract for the air fair. In 2010 Biggin Hill Airport Ltd, the airfield leaseholders, cancelled the licence to run the air fair after 47 years, three years before it was due to end. On Saturday 14 June 2014, the air fair was revived with a new smaller-scale format entitled The Festival of Flight; the proposed annual one-day event was limited to 15,000 spectators and was meant to portray Biggin Hill as both a site of historical value and as a modern thriving business airport. The main attraction of the show was a display from the Red Arrows who were celebrating their 50th Display year - Biggin Hill was notable for being the site of the first public display for the aerobatic display team in the UK back in 1965. A second Festival of Flight took place in June 2015, with a third in June 2016.
Airfair Radio was a Restricted Service Broadcaster radio station which covered the Air Fair from 1989 until 2006. It broadcast locally for between three and seven days each year on the FM band and worldwide via the internet. Airfair Radio broadcast live from the airfield 24 hours of the day, with programmes of commentary, interviews, phone-in competitions, local current affairs and dedications; some of the calls received were relayed over the airwaves via phone–in equipment. Calls to the studio numbered in excess of 200 a day. Running a radio station from the middle of an airfield posed some unusual challenges. Electrical power came from a generator, accommodation was expensive and costs were high for a temporary telephone line; the station was paid for by spot sponsorship. Airfair Radio first began broadcasting in 1989 on FM. For many years it broadcast on AM; the broadcasts were simulcast over the internet, allowing programmes to be heard worldwide. The station was operated by volunteers, many of whom worked in the broadcasting and communications industries.
Its commentators were pilots, with many years of experience under their belts. Many of its presenters and producers have gone on to develop successful broadcasting careers. Among them: Sam Matterface, who worked at the south-coast radio station 107.4 The Quay, where he presented the breakfast show and a variety of sports related programmes from 2001–2007 moving on to presenting on Sky Sports News in July 2007, before leaving in late 2010. He is now the chief commentator for TalkSport, commentates for ITV Sport, she is a voice actress for TV and radio commercials and works internationally as a narrator for corporate films and documentaries. Other members of the team have pursued careers as producers for both BBC and Independent Radio stations. Although AirFair Radio first started broadcasting in 1989, its volunteer team had been involved in local broadcasting for many years previously. Under the banner of SouthEast Radio, the group organised local RSL stations for a number of organisations, including: RoundTable Radio for Farnborough Round Table and Petts Wood Round Table, Bromley Carnival Radio for The Bromley Carnival Association.
Their first venture into local broadcasting was for coverage of the Orpington Town Carnival in 1984. The establishment of the Special Events Group was born of a need to raise money in support of Orpington Hospital Radio Service, providing programmes for Orpington Hospital since 1980, also for Farnborough hospital, it provided opportunities for many keen volunteers to acquire skills useful for pursuing careers as producers, voice-over artists and engineers which, as mentioned above, served many of them well in helping them establish careers in broadcasting. Biggin Hill Air Fair 2010 in pictures
Arctic Thunder Air Show
The Arctic Thunder Air Show is an air show and open house event held biennial at Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson, Alaska since 1990. It is a free event open to one of the largest public events in Alaska; the 2010 show was marred by a tragedy due to a C-17 transport plane crash just a few days before the event, but it still managed to draw a crowd estimated at least 100,000. In addition to performances by military teams such as the Thunderbirds and the Blue Angels, the show features appearances by civilian aerial performers. Official website
Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute
The Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute was founded in Moscow by Russian aviation pioneer Nikolai Yegorovich Zhukovsky on December 1, 1918. Since 1925 and into the 1930s, TsAGI developed and hosted Tupolev's AGOS, the first aircraft design bureau in Soviet Union, at the time the main one. In 1930, two other major aircraft design bureaus in the country were the Ilyushin's TsKB and an independent, short-lived Kalinin's team in Kharkiv. In 1935 TsAGI was relocated to the former dacha settlement Otdykh converted to the new urban-type settlement Stakhanovo, it was named after a famous Soviet miner. On April 23, 1947, the settlement was renamed to Zhukovsky; the Moscow branch of the institute is known Moscow complex of TsAGI. In 1965 in Zhukovsky a Department of Aeromechanics and Flight Engineering of MIPT was established with support of TsAGI's research and knowledge base to educate young specialists for aerospace industry. Among TsAGI's developments are the rocket Energia and the Space Shuttle Buran.
In 2013 TsAGI developed a testbench for high-speed compound helicopters with propellers. 1918–1921: N. Y. Zhukovsky 1921–1931: S. A. Chaplygin 1932–1937: N. M. Kharlamov 1938–1939: M. N. Shulzhenko 1940–1941: I. F. Petrov 1941–1950: S. N. Shishkin 1950–1960: A. I. Makarevsky 1960–1967: V. M. Myasishchev 1967–1989: G. P. Swischjov 1989–1995: G I. Zagaynov 1995–1998: V. Ja. Neuland 1998–2006: V. G. Dmitriyev 2006–2007: V. A. Kargopoltsev 2007–2009: S. L. Chernyshev 2009–2015: B. S. Aljoshin 2015–2018: S. L. Chernyshev August 2018–present: K. I. Sypalo Historical video to celebrate first 100 years of TsAGI TsAGI in the Buran programme TsAGI on Google Maps
Canadian International Air Show
The Canadian International Air Show is an annual air show in Toronto, Canada. The show is an aeronautical display of military and civilian aircraft from Canada and the United States; the show takes place along Toronto's waterfront for three days during the Canadian Labour Day weekend. The show began in 1946 and has been held at Exhibition Place since 1949. Toronto was the site of numerous air shows as the city developed into a centre of air transportation and aircraft manufacturing in the early twentieth century; the Canadian International Air Show began in 1946 when the National Aeronautical Association of Canada attracted overflow crowds to a show at de Havilland Canada manufacturing plant at Downsview Airport. The show became an annual event; the air show moved to Exhibition Place in 1949. In 1956, the air show became affiliated with the annual Canadian National Exhibition; the official CIAS takes place over the Canadian Labour Day Weekend, which coincides with the closing weekend of the CNE.
The start time for the show is scheduled for 12:00 pm with the show ending at 3:00 pm each afternoon. The CIAS practice session is held on the day before the official CIAS, taking place between 10:00 am and 2:00 pmThe show is performed over Lake Ontario directly south of Exhibition Place, it can be best viewed from Exhibition Place or Ontario Place, although the show is visible from any other lakefront site Marilyn Bell Park or Coronation Park. Performers fly in from Pearson, as well as the island airport on nearby Toronto Islands. Admission to the air show is free. There is no static display of aircraft. A photo tour at Pearson had been introduced in 1993 and a full static display in 1996. Although a success, the display was cancelled by the time of the 1998 air show; the airshow is unpopular with many nearby residents who object to the noise created by the jet fighters participating in the show and others who object to the military participation. It has been noted that the noise of the jet fighter demonstrations is similar to that experienced by persons in active war zones.
In 2016, a Toronto Star columnist noted, "that in a city with a large population of refugee newcomers and people who have experienced the trauma of war it is insulting and violent". Since 2012, during the airshow weekend, the Wikipedia article about the show has been vandalized as a form of protest against the airshow, a phenomenon noted by the local Toronto media. According to the City of Toronto, the air show "complies with all regulations, including those published by Transport Canada relating to noise." The air show is a mix of Canadian and United States military aircraft, private aerobatic performers and civilian aircraft flypasts. The air show is used by the Government of Canada to display new aircraft in the use of the government, such as search and rescue aircraft. On occasion, the air show has displayed unique civilian aircraft, such as the Concorde, military aircraft of other nations. Flypasts have included heritage military aircraft; the air show has included demonstrations of parachuting, aerial fire fighting and search and rescue missions.
Regular performers include the Snowbirds, other Canadian Armed Forces aircraft, the United States Air Force, the United States Navy. Past performers have included the Royal Canadian Air Cadets, the Canadian Harvard Aircraft Association, Vintage Wings of Canada, as well as private aerobatics teams, commercial airlines. Notable appearances include. Aircraft was returned to Dayton on flatbed truck. September 20, 1952: Royal Canadian Air Force Avro Canada CF-100 Mk.3T piloted by S/L R. D. Schultz made; the aircraft recovered to North Bay successfully. September 19, 1953: Royal Canadian Air Force Canadair Sabre 4, piloted by S/L W. R. Greene crashed into Lake Ontario; the accident aircraft hit Lake Ontario. A T-33 formation team performing in the show shortened their performance due to low cloud and rain, had entered clouds during looping maneuvers. September 2, 1966: United States Navy Blue Angels pilot Lt. Cmdr. Dick Oliver was killed when he crashed his F-11 Tiger into a breakwater at the Toronto Island Airport.
The airplane was travelling west-to-east across the exhibition waterfront, lost altitude and crashed. Debris injured two bystanders at the Island airport. September 5, 1976: A De Havilland DH-83C Fox Moth spun into Lake Ontario; the aircraft came to rest 50 – 75 feet from spectators on the shoreline in 15 feet of water. The pilot, Garth Martin, directed rescuers to a passenger, George Benedik, submerged in the wreck. Toronto Harbour Police Leading Hand Richard Riekstins dove into the water three times before extracting Benedik from the wreck. Benedik was unconscious and without a pulse. Rescuers revived Benedik with external heart massage and mouth to nose artificial resuscitation. L/H Riekstins was presented the Toronto Harbour Police Commissioners' Award of Merit medal for "heroism and dedication to duty". September 2, 1977: A Fairey Firefly crashed after attempting to pull up after a manoeuvre; the pilot, Allen Ness, a founding member of the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, stalled the aircraft and was killed.
September 3, 1989: Canadian Forces Snowbird pilot Captain Shane Antaya died when, after a midair collis