Manufacturing is the production of products for use or sale using labour and machines, tools and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most applied to industrial design, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale; such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances, sports equipment or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who sell them to end users and consumers. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product; the manufacturing process begins with the product design, materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. The manufacturing sector is connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing and Precision Castparts. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Siemens, FCA and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Panasonic, LG, Samsung and Tata Motors. In its earliest form, manufacturing was carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the pre-industrial world, the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture. Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system.
Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm. Manufacturing Engineering Agile manufacturing American system of manufacturing British factory system of manufacturing Craft or guild system Fabrication Flexible manufacturing Just-in-time manufacturing Lean manufacturing Mass customization – 3D printing, design-your-own web sites for sneakers, fast fashion Mass production Ownership Packaging and labeling Prefabrication Putting-out system Rapid manufacturing Reconfigurable manufacturing system Soviet collectivism in manufacturing History of numerical control Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant environmental costs; the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it.
Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, eliminating harmful chemicals; the negative costs of manufacturing can be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing; these are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are lower than in "developed-world" economies.
Manufacturing has unique health and safety challenges and has been recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues. Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as: The nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth. In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development, they have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors. On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.
S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand. Further, while U. S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U. S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries. A total of 3.2 million – one in six U. S. manuf
Neoman Bus GmbH known as Neoman Bus Group, was a bus and coach manufacturer in Germany, created when MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG acquired Neoplan Bus GmbH in 2001. While the parent company makes trucks and other vehicles, Neoman was focused on bus and coach production. Electric trolleybuses built by Neoman, at its Pilsting factory, were sold under the Neoplan brand name. Parent company MAN Nutzfahrzeuge referred to Neoman as its Bus Division. On 1 February 2008, the Neoman name ceased to exist, its operations being taken over by the parent company, with operations continuing under the Neoplan and MAN brands; the former Neoplan factory in Pilsting was taken over by Viseon Bus GmbH in April 2009. MANAŞ Ankara, Turkey Büssing Internet archive of Neoman website
Rheinmetall MAN Military Vehicles
Rheinmetall MAN Military Vehicles GmbH, or RMMV, is a joint venture company between German companies MAN Truck & Bus AG and Rheinmetall AG. RMMV is part of Rheinmetall's Vehicle Systems Division. Rheinmetall AG holds a 51 % stake in RMMV, with the remaining 49 % held by MAN Bus. RMMV is a provider to security and armed forces of a wide range of armoured and unarmoured transport and role-specific wheeled vehicles. In 2009 the MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG and Rheinmetall AG announced their respective intentions to form a joint wheeled military vehicles company; the alliance became a legal reality in May 2010. RMMV is the merger of Rheinmetall's wheeled military vehicle activities with those of the military truck activities of MAN; the aim of this merger was to combine the complementary technological core competencies of MAN's automotive expertise in commercial-vehicle manufacture with Rheinmetall's technological know-how in the military land sector/systems field. The result of this merger was the creation of a single-source provider for a wide range of armoured and unarmoured transport and role-specific wheeled vehicles.
As a first step, the development and sales activities of both companies was transferred to RMMV effective 1 May 2010. The first public appearance of the RMMV was at IDEB 2010 in Bratislava. In October 2010, Rheinmetall MAN Military Vehicles agreed to cooperate with driveline specialist Timoney Technology; the first example of this partnership is the Wisent. In a second contractually agreed step, by the end of 2011 the relevant production facilities of the partner companies were to be integrated into the joint venture structure, though they were remain at their present locations in Kassel and Vienna, Austria. During the first phase, RMMV had 370 employees. Following completion of the second phase, the company’s staff increased to its current level of around 1,800. RMMV's headquarters is in Munich. Current subsidiary companies are Rheinmetall MAN Military Vehicles Österreich GesmbH, Rheinmetall MAN Military Vehicles Australia and Rheinmetall MAN Military Vehicles Nederland. From January 2016 RMMV has operated as part of the wider Rheinmetall Vehicle Systems.
From 2016 Rheinmetall Defence has operated as three divisions. Boxer multirole wheeled armoured vehicle TPz Fuchs armoured personnel carrier Survivor R medium weight multirole wheeled vehicle. Armoured Multi-Purpose Vehicle, a light multirole armoured vehicle YAK multirole wheeled armoured vehicle HX range of tactical trucks SX range of tactical trucks TG MIL range of militarized commercial trucksArmoured tracked vehicles such as the Lynx infantry fighting vehicle and Leopard main battle tank are products of Rheinmetall's Vehicle Systems Division portfolio, but as tracked platforms are not part of the RMMV joint venture. LX and FX ranges of tactical trucks KAT 1 range of tactical trucks MAN/Steyr/OAF brand militarised L2000, M2000, TGL, TGM, TGA commercial trucks LIV Serval light vehicle Condor a light armoured vehicle TM-170 a light armoured vehicle Wisent multirole wheeled armoured truck Gavial light protected vehicle Gefas Protected Vehicle System Prototype only Boxer CRV Land 400 product portfolio - official Overview of HX range by Shaun Connors talking to RMMV's Dr Florian Riesch HX 10x10 & 8x8 - official Official website of the MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG Military Division Official website of the Rheinmetall AG Corporate Sector Defence Jean Pierre Kraemer talks Survivor R JPK Survivor R 2
ERF (truck manufacturer)
ERF was a British truck manufacturer. It was established in 1933 by Edwin Richard Foden from whoms initials the company was named, its factory in Middlewich closed in March 2002, it was discontinued as a marque by owner MAN in July 2007. In 1881, the first Foden traction engine was built in Sandbach. In 1898, Edwin Richard Foden influenced future truck design by designing the first steam wagon running on steel tyre wheels, successful until 1913 when vulcanised solid rubber tyre development had advanced to the stage of allowing their fitment on heavy vehicles. Edwin introduced the first pneumatic tyred Foden steam wagon, but as steam transport appeared to be going out of favour, Edwin turned his attention to the development of a 6 to 8 ton chassis fitted with new Gardner LW high speed oil engine. At the beginning of the 1930s, Britain's industry was struggling to survive the worst recession in living memory and unemployment exceeded two million. At this time insurers were becoming reluctant to underwrite steam boilers.
As a result, Edwin believed. The Foden boardroom did not agree, he resigned along with his son Dennis. With the help of his son Dennis and two former colleagues, including Ernest Sherratt who became Chief Engineer, Edwin worked to build the first ERF diesel lorry in 1933, gave the first chassis the number 63, Edwin's age. From the beginning, the company only bought components from other suppliers rather than manufacture itself, including engines from Gardner, gearboxes from David Brown and axles from Kirkstall Forge Engineering; this concept would serve ERF well throughout its existence. A new and striking cab was styled by Sandbach coachbuilder John Henry Jennings, who provided initial factory space to assemble the new lorry. Based in Sandbach, the company made its own chassis and cabs with engines from Gardner, but also Cummins, Rolls Royce, Detroit Diesel and Caterpillar. ERFs used to be marketed under the Western Star badge in some countries such as Australia, it built a specialist fire engine chassis, with a body built on by in-house company JH Jennings Cheshire Fire Engineering.
However, when recession came in the beginning of the 1980s, production fell from a total output of 4,000 chassis per annum, CFE was sold to management to become Saxon Sanbec. ERF was never a major manufacturer; the company was bought by Canadian truck maker Western Star in 1996. However, after Paccar's purchase of Foden, DAF Trucks and Leyland Trucks competitive pressure increased, after Western Star was approached by Freightliner Trucks, the decision was made to sell ERF. In March 2000, ERF became part of MAN with production moving to a new factory in Middlewich, it was discovered that fraud had occurred at ERF and its financial position had been incorrectly stated with MAN winning a legal case against Freightliner. Freightliner in turn tried to sue Western Star and ERF's former auditors Ernst & Young, but failed on the grounds of corporate negligence. ERF's final model range consisted of the ECT, ECM and ECL built on MAN's production line in Munich, a plant in Middlewich for light trucks, positioned to win a contract from the Ministry of Defence for 8,000 new British Armed Forces trucks.
All the ERF trucks were based on MAN's existing products, the only difference being that the ERF model came with the option of specifying use of Cummins ISMe power plant as an alternate to MAN's own D20 common rail power plant. The Middlewich factory closed in March 2002, with production of the ECT moved to Munich, Germany, ECM and ECL units moved to Steyr, where they are built on the same facilities as their identical MAN counterparts. In the light of Cummins' intransigence on upgrading the ISMe engine to comply with the Euro4 emission regulations, MAN decided to replace it with the new series of MAN D20 engines. With ERF badging only used for the British market, MAN decided to cease supplying ERF badged trucks onwards from July 2007. On the BBC motoring programme Top Gear, the presenters are challenged to buy lorries and presenter Richard Hammond buys an ERF from Walker Movements Limited in Leicester, he pronounces the name phonetically. In response to a quip about its diminutive size, Hammond responds by calling it'the Caterham of lorries' as it has an engine that could match Jeremy Clarkson's 12 litres Renault Magnum, but as light and as small as James May's Scania P94D.
It was the fastest among the three. Dai Davies, ERF: The Inside Story, 2009, 160p. 300 col. & b/w ill. H/b. Peter Foden, 60 Years On: The Story of ERF, A British Commercial Vehicle Manufacturer, 1995, ISBN 0952213605, ISBN 978-0952213604, 96 pages Company website History in Fleet Data website
Sinotruk (Hong Kong)
Sinotruk Limited is a holding company incorporated in Hong Kong in 2004. Its parent company, China National Heavy Duty Truck Group, is the third largest heavy truck manufacturer in Mainland China, located in Jinan, Shandong Province; the subsidiary of Sinotruk manufactured truck in the mainland China. It was listed in the Hong Kong Stock Exchange on 28 November 2007. At the first trading day, its share price was closed at HK$10.86, much lower than its IPO price, HK$12.88, due to poor investment atmosphere in the sliding stock market at that time. Since 10 March 2008, Sinotruk joined Hang Seng China-Affiliated Corporations Index Constitute Stock. In 2009, the German truck maker MAN bought a 25% + 1 share stake in Sinotruk. Sinotruk manufactures cargo trucks and semi-tractor trucks that are used in a range of industries including construction, container transportation and steel production; the company and its state-owned parent sold around 125.000 heavy duty trucks in 2009 and accounted for about 20.1 per cent of China's heavy duty truck market.
Sinotruk's overseas sales to developing markets such as countries of the former Soviet Union and Middle East states, accounted for about 19 per cent both in terms of units sold and revenue. Fuel-efficient trucks account for about 80 per cent of the company's production
Büssing AG was a German bus and truck manufacturer, established in 1903 by Heinrich Büssing in Braunschweig. It evolved to one of the largest European producers, whose utility vehicles with the Brunswick Lion emblem were distributed from the 1930s onwards; the company was taken over by MAN AG in 1971. At the age of 60, the inventor and businessman Heinrich Büssing together with his two sons founded the Heinrich-Büssing-Spezialfabrik für Motorwagen und Motoromnibusse. Büssing, the son of a blacksmith dynasty at Nordsteimke, had studied engineering at the Collegium Carolinum in Braunschweig and had founded several bicycle and railway signal works with varying degrees of success, his first truck was a 2-ton payload machine powered by a 2-cylinder gasoline engine and featuring worm drive. That successful design was built under license by other companies in Germany, Hungary and by Straker-Squire in England. One year he debuted a first 20 HP omnibus model carrying up to twelve passengers on the route from Braunschweig to Wendeburg, operated by his own Automobil-Omnibus-Betriebs-Gesellschaft.
Büssing busses soon served public transport in European cities like Berlin and Prague, or London. Before World War I Büssing started to build heavy-duty trucks for the time; these trucks featured 4- and 6-cylinder engines. In 1914 the Büssing A5P armored car was developed at the behest of the German Oberste Heeresleitung. After the war, Heinrich Büssing had to enter a Kommanditgesellschaft limited partnership, converted into the Büssing AG joint-stock company in 1922. In 1923, Büssing introduced the first rigid three-axle chassis, used in upcoming models and allowed Büssing to lead the market share in Germany in commercial vehicles. Büssing NAG used inmates of several Nazi concentration camps in Braunschweig from 1944 to March 1945 for slave labor; these camps were subcamps to the Neuengamme concentration camp. After World War II civilian production resumed with 5-tonne and 7-tonne trucks. In 1950, the company name became Büssing Nutzkraftwagen GmbH and production was concentrated on underfloor-engined trucks which were to become the firm's speciality.
Most tractor units and all normal-control trucks had vertical engines, but in the mid 1960s there was a version of their Commodore maximum-weight tractor unit, the 16-210, which had a horizontal diesel mounted under the cab ahead of the front axle, the gearbox being mounted halfway along the truck's chassis. In 1969, Büssing started strong ties with MAN AG. MAN was a customer to some Büssing's innovative trucks and parts while they were promoting their own line-up. In 1971, an MAN takeover of Büssing was announced. MAN started to use the lion logo on its newly named "MAN-Büssing" trucks. Büssing's unique underfloor-engined truck range continued in production under the MAN AG through to the late 1980s. First acquisition for Büssing was Mannesmann-Mulag Motoren und Lastwagen AG of Aachen. Elbing plant of Automobil Fabrik Kornnick AG. In 1934, Neue Automobil Gesellschaft. After the takeover Büssing used the brand Büssing-NAG until 1950. Büssing took over the Borgward plant at Osterholz-Scharmbeck in 1962.
This plant used for building military 4-tonne 4x4. 1923: The Büssing III GL 6 is the world's first full-size bus 1930s: Büssing began building heavy duty trucks with diesel engines 1936: Büssing pioneered the horizontal "underfloor" diesel engines During World War II Büssing once again supplied military vehicles including 6x4 armoured cars and an 8x8 with all-wheel steering. Büssing manufactured trolleybuses between 1933 and 1966, producing 71 models. Most were for German cities, but production included three trolleybuses for Chernyakhovsk, Russia, in 1939. In Turkey, ESHOT converted 21 Büssing motorbuses into trolleybuses in 1962 and 1968. At least four Büssing trolleybuses have been preserved, including ones at the Frankfurt Transport Museum,DE at the Hannoversches Straßenbahn-Museum and at the Historama transport museum in Ferlach, Austria. Borgward Magirus MAN SE Henschel
Volkswagen AG, known internationally as the Volkswagen Group, is a German multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony and indirectly majority owned by the Austrian Porsche-Piëch family. It designs and distributes passenger and commercial vehicles, motorcycles and turbomachinery and offers related services including financing and fleet management. In 2016, it was the world's largest automaker by sales, overtaking Toyota and keeping this title in 2017 and 2018, selling 10.8 million vehicles. It has maintained the largest market share in Europe for over two decades, it ranked seventh in the 2018 Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies. Volkswagen Group sells passenger cars under the Audi, Bugatti, Porsche, SEAT, Škoda and the flagship Volkswagen marques, it is divided into two primary divisions, the Automotive Division and the Financial Services Division, as of 2008 had 342 subsidiary companies. Volkswagen has two major joint-ventures in China.
The company has operations in 150 countries and operates 100 production facilities across 27 countries. Volkswagen was founded in 1937; the company's production grew in the 1950s and 1960s, in 1965 it acquired Auto Union, which subsequently produced the first post-war Audi models. Volkswagen launched a new generation of front-wheel drive vehicles in the 1970s, including the Passat and Golf. Volkswagen acquired a controlling stake in SEAT in 1986, making it the first non-German marque of the company, acquired control of Škoda in 1994, of Bentley and Bugatti in 1998, Scania in 2008 and of Ducati, MAN and Porsche in 2012; the company's operations in China have grown in the past decade with the country becoming its largest market. In June 2018, Volkswagen Trucks and Buses which comprises the MAN, RIO truck brands are renamed to TRATON AG but the marques will not change, said by Andreas Renschler. Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft is a public company and has a primary listing on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, where it is a constituent of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, secondary listings on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange, SIX Swiss Exchange.
It has been traded in the United States via American depositary receipts since 1988 on the OTC Marketplace. Volkswagen delisted from the London Stock Exchange in 2013; the state of Lower Saxony holds 12.7 % of the company's shares. Volkswagen was founded on 28 May 1937 in Berlin as the Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen Volkswagens mbH by the National Socialist Deutsche Arbeitsfront; the purpose of the company was to manufacture the Volkswagen car referred to as the Porsche Type 60 the Volkswagen Type 1, called the Volkswagen Beetle. This vehicle was designed by Ferdinand Porsche's consulting firm, the company was backed by the support of Adolf Hitler. On 16 September 1938, Gezuvor was renamed Volkswagenwerk GmbH. Shortly after the factory near Fallersleben was completed, World War II started and the plant manufactured the military Kübelwagen and the related amphibious Schwimmwagen, both of which were derived from the Volkswagen. Only a small number of Type 60 Volkswagens were made during this time.
The Fallersleben plant manufactured the V-1 flying bomb, making the plant a major bombing target for the Allied forces. After the war in Europe, in June 1945, Major Ivan Hirst of the British Army Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers took control of the bomb-shattered factory, restarted production, pending the expected disposal of the plant as war reparations. However, no British car manufacturer was interested. To build the car commercially would be a uneconomic enterprise". In 1948, the Ford Motor Company of USA was offered Volkswagen, but Ernest Breech, a Ford executive vice president said he didn't think either the plant or the car was "worth a damn." Breech said that he would have considered merging Ford of Germany and Volkswagen, but after the war, ownership of the company was in such dispute that nobody could hope to be able to take it over. As part of the Industrial plans for Germany, large parts of German industry, including Volkswagen, were to be dismantled. Total German car production was set at a maximum of 10% of the 1936 car production numbers.
The company survived by producing cars for the British Army, in 1948 the British Government handed the company back over to the German state, it was managed by former Opel chief Heinrich Nordhoff. Production of the Type 60 Volkswagen started after the war due to the need to rebuild the plant and because of the lack of raw materials, but production grew in the 1950s and 1960s; the company began introducing new models based on the Type 1, all with the same basic air-cooled, rear-engine, rear-drive platform. These included the Volkswagen Type 2 in 1950, the Volkswagen Karmann Ghia in 1955, the Volkswagen Type 3 in 1961, the Volkswagen Type 4 in 1968, the Volkswagen Type 181 in 1969. In 1960, upon t