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MATLAB

MATLAB is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks. MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, interfacing with programs written in other languages. Although MATLAB is intended for numerical computing, an optional toolbox uses the MuPAD symbolic engine allowing access to symbolic computing abilities. An additional package, adds graphical multi-domain simulation and model-based design for dynamic and embedded systems; as of 2018, MATLAB has more than 3 million users worldwide. MATLAB users come from various backgrounds of engineering and economics. Cleve Moler, the chairman of the computer science department at the University of New Mexico, started developing MATLAB in the late 1970s, he designed it to give his students access to LINPACK and EISPACK without them having to learn Fortran. It soon spread to other universities and found a strong audience within the applied mathematics community.

Jack Little, an engineer, was exposed to it during a visit Moler made to Stanford University in 1983. Recognizing its commercial potential, he joined with Steve Bangert, they founded MathWorks in 1984 to continue its development. These rewritten libraries were known as JACKPAC. In 2000, MATLAB was rewritten to use a newer set of libraries for matrix manipulation, LAPACK. MATLAB was first adopted by researchers and practitioners in control engineering, Little's specialty, but spread to many other domains, it is now used in education, in particular the teaching of linear algebra and numerical analysis, is popular amongst scientists involved in image processing. The MATLAB application is built around the MATLAB programming language. Common usage of the MATLAB application involves using the "Command Window" as an interactive mathematical shell or executing text files containing MATLAB code. Variables are defined using the assignment operator, =. MATLAB is a weakly typed programming language, it is an inferred typed language because variables can be assigned without declaring their type, except if they are to be treated as symbolic objects, that their type can change.

Values can come from constants, from computation involving values of other variables, or from the output of a function. For example: A simple array is defined using the colon syntax: initial:increment:terminator. For instance: defines a variable named array, an array consisting of the values 1, 3, 5, 7, 9; that is, the array starts at 1, increments with each step from the previous value by 2, stops once it reaches 9. The increment value can be left out of this syntax, to use a default value of 1. Assigns to the variable named ari an array with the values 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, since the default value of 1 is used as the increment. Indexing is one-based, the usual convention for matrices in mathematics, unlike zero-based indexing used in other programming languages such as C, C++, Java. Matrices can be defined by separating the elements of a row with blank space or comma and using a semicolon to terminate each row; the list of elements should be surrounded by square brackets. Parentheses are used to access subarrays.

Sets of indices can be specified by expressions such as 2:4. For example, a submatrix taken from rows 2 through 4 and columns 3 through 4 can be written as: A square identity matrix of size n can be generated using the function eye, matrices of any size with zeros or ones can be generated with the functions zeros and ones, respectively. Transposing a vector or a matrix is done either by the function transpose or by adding dot-prime after the matrix: Most functions accept arrays as input and operate element-wise on each element. For example, mod will multiply every element in J by 2, reduce each element modulo n. MATLAB does include standard for and while loops, using the vectorized notation is encouraged and is faster to execute; the following code, excerpted from the function magic.m, creates a magic square M for odd values of n. MATLAB supports structure data types. Since all variables in MATLAB are arrays, a more adequate name is "structure array", where each element of the array has the same field names.

In addition, MATLAB supports dynamic field names. When creating a MATLAB function, the name of the file should match the name of the first function in the file. Valid function names begin with an alphabetic character, can contain letters, numbers, or underscores. Variables and functions are case sensitive. MATLAB supports elements of lambda calculus by introducing function handles, or function references, which are implemented either in.m files or anonymous/nested functions. MATLAB supports object-oriented programming including classes, virtual dispatch, pass-by-value semantics, pass-by-reference semantics. However, the syntax and calling conventions are different from other languages. MATLAB has value classes and reference classes, depending on whether the class has handle as a super-class or not. Method call behavior is

Wahidi Haban

Wahidi Habban, or the Wahidi Sultanate of Habban in Hadhramaut, was one of several Wahidi states in the British Aden Protectorate. Its capital was Habban; the last sultan, Husayn ibn Abd Allah Al Wahidi, was deposed and the state was abolished in 1967 upon the founding of the People's Republic of South Yemen. The area is now part of the Republic of Yemen; the predecessor state, the Wahidi Sultanate, was established at an uncertain date. In 1830 the Wahidi Sultanate split into four states: Wahidi Sultanate of Ba´l Haf Wahidi Sultanate of `Azzan Wahidi Sultanate of Bi´r `Ali `Amaqin Wahidi Sultanate of Habban On 4 May 1881 Ba´l Haf and `Azzan joined. In 1888 the Wahidi Sultanate of Ba´l Haf and `Azzan became a British protectorate. In 1895 Bi´r `Ali `Amaqin came under British protection. On 23 Oct 1962 the joint sultanate was renamed Wahidi Sultanate, while Bi´r `Ali and Habban remained subordinate sultanates. On 29 Nov 1967 with the independence of the People's Republic of South Yemen all states were abolished.

The Sultans of the Wahidi Sultanate of Habban had the style of Sultan Habban al-Wahidi. 1830 - 1840 al-Husayn ibn Ahmad al-Wahidi 1850 - 1870 `Abd Allah ibn al-Husayn al-Wahidi 1870 - 1877 Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Wahidi 1877 - May 1881 Salih ibn Ahmad al-Wahidi May 1881 - Jan 1885 Interregnum Jan 1885 - 1919 Nasir ibn Salih al-Wahidi 1919 - 19.. Al-Husayn ibn `Ali al-Wahidi c.1962 - 23 Oct 1962 al-Husayn ibn `Abd Allah al-Wahidi Aden Protectorate Map of Arabia including the states of Aden Protectorate Historical Flags of Yemen

McCormick Theological Seminary

McCormick Theological Seminary is a school of theology of the Presbyterian Church located in Chicago, Illinois. It shares a campus with the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, bordering the campus of the University of Chicago. A seminary serving the Presbytery of Chicago and the Synod of Lincoln Trails, McCormick Theological Seminary educates members of other Christian denominations. Hanover Seminary was established in 1829 as a preparatory school in Hanover, Indiana for prospective ministers in the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. hoping to serve on the western frontier of the expanding United States. After about ten years, the seminary moved a short distance to New Albany, Indiana where it became the New Albany Theological Seminary; when the western frontier boundary moved, the school moved and opened in Chicago's present-day Lincoln Park neighborhood in 1859 where the school was first known as the Theological Seminary of the Northwest. In 1886, it was renamed in honor of American industrialist Cyrus McCormick, who had served as a member of the seminary's board of trustees.

In 1975, facing a dire financial situation and declining enrollment, McCormick sold the Lincoln Park campus to DePaul University and moved to the Hyde Park neighborhood in Chicago. This move divested the institution of infrastructure while reinforcing its commitment to urban ministry. Sharing facilities with the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, McCormick began to help foster important ecumenical cooperation between the Presbyterian and Lutheran churches. In 2003 McCormick reinforced and recommitted itself to its ecumenical partnership with LSTC by building a new building on the LSTC campus; the Lincoln Park campus, on Fullerton Avenue between Halsted and Racine Streets, is now part of the DePaul University campus. In 1969, the Young Lords and 350 local community residents led by their founder as a civil and human rights movement, Jose Cha Cha Jimenez, aided by seminary students, sat in at the seminary's administration building and held it for a week, demanding $650,000 to be invested in low income housing.

The seminary had a fence surrounding it and the community would have to walk several blocks around it to get to a shopping strip on Lincoln Ave. McCormick Theological Seminary was planning an expansion as well as several other institutions in Lincoln Park. A Lincoln Park Poor People's Coalition was meeting with them to get McCormick to invest in affordable housing; the seminary refused and talks broke down. The Young Lords were the center of the coalition and they chained the doors and took administration offices over and held them for a full week. During the take-over, the seminary students volunteered to be human shields to prevent the police from entering the building. By the next morning Latino community residents brought food and supplies and many of these families with their children joined the Young Lords inside. At one point President McKay of McCormick Theological Seminary threatened to bring in the police; the Young Lords responded by threatening to burn down the library. A negotiating committee which included attorneys from the newly formed People's Law Office met with President McKay and he agreed to all of the Young Lords' demands.

This included: $650,000 to be invested in low income housing. Joseph Haroutunian The Fifth Quarter Century at McCormick, 1929-1954. By Dr. Ovid R. Sellers. McCormick Theological Seminary, 1955. Official website

Ernst von Prittwitz und Gaffron

Ernst Karl Ferdinand von Prittwitz und Gaffron was a Royal Prussian Lieutenant General and Knight of Justice of the Order of Saint John. Von Prittwitz was born in Posen, Prussia, he originated from the old noble house of von Prittwitz and was the son of Prussian General of the Infantry and Director of Fortifications Moritz Karl Ernst von Prittwitz and of Domicilie von Colbe. On 26 November 1885 he married Franziska Freiin von Türckheim zu Altdorf, daughter of Grand Ducal Badenese Chamberlain and land owner Hans Freiherr von Türckheim zu Altdorf, Lord of Altdorf and Orschweier, of Fanny Freiin von Hardenberg. Von Prittwitz was a Knight of Justice in the Order of Saint John, he died in Karlsruhe. In 1851 von Prittwitz joined the Guard Artillery in Berlin, became Second Lieutenant in 1853 and First Lieutenant in 1861. In the Second Schleswig War against Denmark he was assigned to General Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, Chief of Staff of the Prussian Army. Here he participated in Wyk auf Föhr in the capture of Otto Christian Hammer and on 29 June 1864 took part in the crossing of the sound to the isle of Als.

Promoted to Captain with 32 years of age in 1865, he commanded a battery of Guard Artillery at Berlin since 1867. At the onset of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 he was commander of a mounted Guard battery and as such participated in the campaign in Bohemia; this battery was assigned to the newly formed Hanoverian Field Artillery Regiment No. 10. Prittwitz was thus deployed to Hanover in autumn 1866 but only after three quarters of a year he returned to Berlin. After the war Prittwitz undertook a number of journeys abroad, including England, France and Italy, in 1869 he went to Romania as counselor of Prince Frederick III of Hohenzollern with whom he travelled a part of the Orient. In the Franco-Prussian War Prittwitz took part in the battles of Gravelotte, Sedan - here he was wounded by a grenade - and in the conquest of Montmédy, his battery was the first to reach the hill of St. Privat near Gravelotte and fiercely fought the French, which not only caused designated emperor Wilhem I, but Napoleon III to congratulate.

He was promoted to Major in 1872, became Colonel in 1883 and was made commanding officer of the 7th field artillery brigade in 1886. A Major General since 1888, Prittwitz retired in 1890. Prittwitz was made an honorary citizen of Wyk auf Föhr. Order of the Red Eagle 4th class with swords Order of the Crown 4th class with swords several non-Prussian orders of chivalry Almanach de Gotha, Adelige Häuser A Band. VI, p 334, vol. 29 in total, C. A. Starke Verlag, Limburg 1962, ISSN 0435-2408. Von Prittwitz, Robert: "Das v. Prittwitz'sche Adels-Geschlecht", p. 145f. Verlag Wilh. Gottl. Korn, Breslau 1870

New Kadampa Tradition

The New Kadampa Tradition – International Kadampa Buddhist Union is a global Buddhist new religious movement founded by Kelsang Gyatso in England in 1991. In 2003 the words "International Kadampa Buddhist Union" were added to the original name "New Kadampa Tradition"; the NKT-IKBU is an international organisation registered in England as a charitable, or non-profit, company. It lists more than 200 centres and around 900 branch classes/study groups in forty countries; the NKT-IKBU describes itself as "an independent Buddhist tradition" inspired and guided by "the ancient Kadampa Buddhist Masters and their teachings, as presented by Kelsang Gyatso". Its founder, Kelsang Gyatso, has sought to make Buddhist meditation and teaching more accessible to twenty-first century living, he wanted to ensure that people did not study Tibetan Buddhism from an academic point of view, but learned how to extend this knowledge through meditation and practical Buddhist experience. The NKT-IKBU is described as being "very successful at disseminating its teachings" and Geshe Kelsang's books have been called "very popular".

The NKT-IKBU has expanded more than any other Buddhist tradition in Britain. It has been described as a "controversial organization" and a "controversial" new religious movement, a cult, or a breakaway Buddhist sect. In 1976 the students of Thubten Yeshe founded the Manjushri Institute with Lama Yeshe as the Spiritual Director and purchased the assets of Conishead Priory, a neglected Victorian mansion in Ulverston, England for £70,000; the same year Thubten Yeshe and Thubten Zopa Rinpoche visited Kelsang Gyatso in India and invited him over to teach at the Manjushri Institute, a part of their FPMT network. According to David N. Kay, Kelsang Gyatso was invited in 1976 by Thubten Yeshe and Thubten Zopa, who sought the advice of the 14th Dalai Lama when choosing Kelsang Gyatso. Whereas according to a NKT brochure, "Lama Yeshe requested Trijang Rinpoche to ask Kelsang Gyatso to become Resident Teacher of Manjushri Institute. Kelsang Gyatso recounted that Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche asked him to go to England, teach Shantideva's Guide to the Bodhisattva's Way of Life, Chandrakirti's Guide to the Middle Way and Lamrim, check whether there was any meaning in his continuing to stay."Kelsang Gyatso was requested by Lama Yeshe to lead the "General Program" of Buddhist study.

In 1979 Lama Yeshe asked a Geshe at Manjushri Institute, Geshe Jampa Tekchok, to teach a parallel twelve-year Geshe Studies Programme and validated by the Dalai Lama and modelled on the program of studies for the traditional geshe degree. From 1982 to 1990 this program was led by Geshe Konchog Tsewang. According to a disciple of Lama Yeshe from this time, Lama Yeshe intended the institute "to become the central monastery of the FPMT... one of the early jewels of the FPMT crown" and "the pioneer among the western centres". In the late 1970s, Kelsang Gyatso, without consulting Thubten Yeshe, opened up a Buddhist Centre in York under his own spiritual direction. Kay sees this as the beginning of a conflict between Kelsang Gyatso. However, according to Kelsang Gyatso, "the opening of the Centre in York caused not one moment of confusion or disharmony". Kelsang Gyatso was asked to resign so that another Geshe, described by Kay as "more devoted to FPMT objectives", could take over as a resident teacher of Manjushri Institute.

Many students of Kelsang Gyatso petitioned him to stay and teach them, on this basis he decided to remain. In the following years prior 1990 Kelsang Gyatso established 15 centres under his own direction in Great Britain and Spain. Both Kay and Cozort describe the management committee of Manjushri Institute from 1981 onwards as made up principally of Kelsang Gyatso's closest students known as "the Priory group". According to Kay, "The Priory Group became dissatisfied with the FPMT's centralized organisation." Cozort states that different disagreements "led to a rift between Lama Yeshe and his students and Geshe Kelsang Gyatso and his, the Manjushri Board of directors severed the connection of the between institute and FPMT." According to Kay, Lama Yeshe tried at different times to reassert his authority over the Institute, but his attempts were unsuccessful. Kay goes on to describe an open conflict of authority which developed between the Priory Group and the FPMT administration in 1983. In February 1984 the conflict was mediated by the Office of the Dalai Lama in London.

Kay states that after the death of Thubten Yeshe in March 1984, the FPMT lost interest because they saw it as a fruitless case. Since that time, Kay states, the Manjushri Institute has developed under the guidance of Kelsang Gyatso without further reference to the FPMT, but remained part of the FPMT until late 1990. According to Kay, of the two Geshes at Manjushri Institute, it was Kelsang Gyatso who had always taken the greater interest in the running and direction of the Institute, most of the students there were closer to him; the courses offered by both Geshes complemented each other, but as Kay remarked, they "differed in one important respect: only Geshe Kelsang's General Programme included courses on Tantric Buddhism, attendance upon these required the reception of a Tantric empowerment." Further, Kay argues that "Lama Yeshe's and Geshe Kelsang's different ideological perspectives provided the conditions for the organisational dispute between the Institute and the FPMT to escalate. Kelsang Gyatso was predisposed to support his students in their struggle with the FPMT administration because the organisation was inspired by a vision that he did not agree with."Kay writes that, "the determination of Geshe Kelsang

Anand Vihar metro station

Anand Vihar is an interchange metro station located on the branch line of between the Blue Line and Pink Line of the Delhi Metro. The station is located in the Anand Vihar locality, a major connectivity hub of East Delhi and is connected to the Anand Vihar ISBT and Anand Vihar Railway Terminal. Under Phase III, Anand Vihar was become an interchange station with the Inner Ring Road line. From here, passengers can find easier connection to other lines as well as places such as Yamuna Vihar and Mukundpur which do not have metro access. List of available ATM at Anand Vihar metro station Punjab National Bank, HDFC Bank, SBI, Yes Bank The station is located close to Anand Vihar ISBT, providing a convenient transit to different regions. Buses to long distant cities are available from there. Delhi Transport Corporation bus routes number 33, 33C, 33LSTL, 73, 73LNKSTL, 85Ext, 88A, 143, 311A, 469, 534, 534A, 534C, 542, 543A, 543STL, 624A, 624ACL, 624BLnkSTL, 723, 740, 740A, 740B, 740EXT, 943, AC-534, AC-Anand Vihar ISBT Terminal - Gurugram Bus Stand, AC-GL-23, Anand Vihar ISBT Terminal - Gurugram Bus Stand, GL-22, GL-23, GL23, OMS, OMS AC, YMS serves the station from nearby Maharajpur Check Post bus stop.

Anand Vihar Terminal railway station of Indian Railways situated nearby. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd. Delhi Metro Annual Reports "Station Information". Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd.. Archived from the original on 19 June 2010. UrbanRail. Net – descriptions of all metro systems in the world, each with a schematic map showing all stations. Google. "Anand Vihar metro station". Google Maps. Google