Minimum crossing altitude
In aviation, a minimum crossing altitude is the lowest altitude at which a navigational fix can be crossed when entering or continuing along an airway that will allow an aircraft to clear all obstacles while carrying out a normal climb to the required minimum en route IFR altitude of the airway in question beyond the fix. The definition given here concerns United States airspace. Airways are designed such that an aircraft moving from one segment with one MEA to another segment with a higher MEA can safely begin a normal climb to the higher MEA upon crossing the fix that divides the two segments and still remain well clear of obstacles; when obstacles along the airways are such that a normal beginning at the fix defining an airway segment is not adequate to provide proper obstacle clearance, a minimum crossing altitude is published for the fix indicating the minimum altitude at which the fix must be crossed when entering that specific airway segment in order to make it possible to safely climb to the MEA while remaining clear of obstacles.
You must be at or above the MCA by the time you reach the intersection so a climb should be established prior to reaching the intersection. The normal climb values used for determining MCAs in the United States are: 150 feet per nautical mile from mean sea level to 5000 feet MSL. For example, see the illustration above. In this case, a segment of an airway ending at fix ABC has a MEA of 5200 feet MSL, the minimum obstacle clearance altitude required to clear an obstacle six nautical miles from the fix within the next segment is 6620 feet MSL; the total increase in altitude from 5200 feet to 6620 feet over that distance is 1420 feet. At a normal rate of climb, the maximum altitude that can be gained over that distance is 720 feet, 700 feet below the required MOCA. Thus, a MCA for fix ABC of 5900 feet MSL will be published for fix ABC for traffic continuing into the airway segment concerned from that fix. FAA Instrument Procedures Handbook, FAA-H-8261-1 ASA Instrument Flying, ASA-PM-3A
National Christian Life College
The National Christian Life College the Maranatha Christian Academy, is a private, non-stock, non-sectarian Christian school, with its main campus in Marikina City, Philippines. It was established in February 1980 by Dr. Leticia S. Ferriol, the directress of the school, it is part of the Pentecostal Missionary Church of Christ headed by Arsenio Ferriol. Several branches had been established in the Philippines and abroad, with the biggest campus being in Malagasang, Cavite. Most of the NCLC campuses offers preparatory and secondary education. Here are some of the courses offered by the NCLC Marikina: Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education Bachelor of Science in Preschool Education Ladderized Computer Programming Call Center Course Metro Manila NCLC - Marikina City MCA - Alabang, Muntinlupa City MCA - Camarin, Caloocan City MCA - Makati MCA - Manila MCA - Novaliches, Quezon City MCA - Pasay MCA- Pasig Luzon Batangas MCA - Batangas City MCA - Tanauan City Benguet MCA - Baguio City Camarines Sur MCA - Naga City Cavite MCA - Imus, Cavite Ilocos Norte MCS - Batac City MCA - Laoag City Laguna MCA - Cabuyao City MCA - Calamba City MCA - Santa Rosa City MCA - Bay, Laguna MCA - Los Baños, Laguna MCA - Santa Cruz, Laguna MCA - Victoria, Laguna MCA - San Pedro City Nueva Ecija MCA - Cabanatuan City Occidental Mindoro MCA - San Jose, Occidental Mindoro Pampanga MCA - Dau, Mabalacat City Pangasinan MCA - Urdaneta City Quezon Province MCA - Lucena City MCA - Tiaong Rizal MCA - Montalban MCS - Antipolo City MCS - Greenbreeze, Montalban Visayas Negros Occidental MCA - Bacolod City Cebu MCA - Cebu City MCA - Talisay City MCS - Lapu-Lapu City Mindanao Davao del Sur MCA - Davao City South Cotabato MCA - General Santos City Ruru Madrid - current teen actor at GMA 7 National Christian Life College | Home
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci
Mitsubishi MCA stands for Mitsubishi Clean Air, a moniker used in Japan to identify vehicles built with emission control technology. The term was first introduced in Japan, with introductions internationally; the technology first appeared in January 1973 on the Mitsubishi 4G32A gasoline-powered inline four cylinder engine installed in all Mitsubishi vehicles using the 4G32 engine, the Saturn-6 6G34 six-cylinder gasoline-powered engine installed in the Mitsubishi Debonair. The technology was installed so that their vehicles would be in compliance with Japanese Government emission regulations passed in 1968. Emission reducing technology began with the installation of a positive crankcase ventilation valve, followed by the addition of a thermo reactor air pump and catalytic converter in addition to a exhaust gas recirculation valve and a solenoid controlled automatic choke installed on the carburetor; the MCA-Jet system has a small third valve exhaust valves. Separate passages in the intake manifold feed each MCA-Jet valve.
Since these passages are smaller than the main intake manifold passages, the air/fuel mixture must move faster. When the faster moving air/fuel mixture from the MCA-Jet valve hits the slower moving air/fuel mixture from the intake valve, a strong air swirling effect occurs that promotes more complete combustion. With MCA-Jet it was found that stable combustion could be obtained with large amounts of exhaust gas recirculation, NOx could be reduced, combustion improved. Honda's CVCC Stratified charge engine approach used a small third valve, but sent a richer air/fuel mixture to a small pre-combustion chamber near the spark plug, to help ignite a leaner air/fuel mixture in the main combustion chamber. MCA-Jet was a simpler system that sent the same air/fuel mixture to MCA-Jet valves; each MCA-Jet valve is quite small and may be prone to carbon build-up, causing the MCA-Jet valve to stick open. If a Mitsubishi-designed engine has low compression, the MCA-Jet valve could be the cause; each MCA-Jet valve and valve seat are a self-contained cylinder-shaped unit that screws into the cylinder head for easy replacement.
Aftermarket MCA-Jet valves are available. With the advent of 4-valve-per-cylinder engines, manufacturers design the camshaft to open one intake valve before the other to create a swirling effect; this has made the MCA-Jet system obsolete. The MCA-Jet system was used in certain Mitsubishi-designed engines installed in both Mitsubishi-branded and Chrysler/Dodge/Plymouth-branded vehicles during the late 1970s to late 1980's
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States; the province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, Northwest Territories to the northwest, the U. S. states of North Minnesota to the south. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg.
The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance; the resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province. Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Thompson; the name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba, it may be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie". The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies.
Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel chose the name, it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south; the province meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline; the Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land, it was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.
The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world; some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay; this basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Nelson, Hayes and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz; this region the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile. Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres above sea level, the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level.
Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, the Canadian Shield are upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region; the most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating large bodies of water; because of the flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.
Temperatures exceed 30 °C numerous times each summer, the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex in Canada in 2007, with
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Movable cellular automaton
The Movable cellular automaton method is a method in computational solid mechanics based on the discrete concept. It provides advantages both of discrete element methods. Important advantage of the МСА method is a possibility of direct simulation of materials fracture including damage generation, crack propagation and mass mixing, it is difficult to simulate these processes by means of continuum mechanics methods, so some new concepts like peridynamics are required. Discrete element method is effective to simulate granular materials, but mutual forces among movable cellular automata provides simulating solids behavior. If size of automaton will be close to zero MCA behavior becomes like classical continuum mechanics methods. In framework of the MCA approach an object under modeling is considered as a set of interacting elements/automata; the dynamics of the set of automata are defined by their mutual forces and rules for their relationships. This system operates in time and space, its evolution in time and space is governed by the equations of motion.
The mutual forces and rules for inter-elements relationships are defined by the function of the automaton response. This function has to be specified for each automaton. Due to mobility of automata the following new parameters of cellular automata have to be included into consideration: Ri – radius-vector of automaton; the new concept of the MCA method is based on the introducing of the state of the pair of automata in addition to the conventional one – the state of a separate automaton. Note that the introduction of this definition allows to go from the static net concept to the concept of neighbours; as a result of this, the automata have the ability to change their neighbors by switching the states of the pairs. The introducing of new type of states leads to new parameter to use it as criteria for switching relationships, it is defined as an automaton overlapping parameters hij. So the relationship of the cellular automata is characterised by the value of their overlapping; the initial structure is formed by setting up certain relationships among each pair of neighboring elements.
In contrast to the classical cellular automaton method in the MCA method not only a single automaton but a relationship of pair of automata can be switched. According with the bistable automata concept there are two types of the pair states: So the changing of the state of pair relationships is controlled by relative movements of the automata and the media formed by such pairs can be considered as bistable media; the evolution of MCA media is described by the following equations of motion for translation: d 2 h i j d t 2 = p i j + ∑ k ≠ j C ψ 1 m i p i k + ∑ l ≠ i C ψ 1 m j p j l Here mi is the mass of automaton i, pij is central force acting between automata i and j, C is certain coefficient associated with transferring the h parameter from pair ij to pair ik, ψ is angle between directions ij and ik. Due to finite size of movable automata the rotation effects have to be taken into account; the equations of motion for rotation can be written as follows: d 2 θ i j d t 2 = τ i j + ∑ k ≠ j S q i k J i τ i k + ∑ l ≠ j S q j l J j τ j l Here Θij is the angle of relative rotatio