Jamaican Americans are Americans who have full or partial Jamaican ancestry. The largest proportions of Jamaican Americans live in South Florida and New York City, both of which have been home to large Jamaican communities since the 1950s and 60s. There are communities of Jamaican Americans residing in Philadelphia, Tampa, Los Angeles, Baltimore, Washington, D. C. Atlanta, Western New York and New Jersey. After 1838, European colonies in the Caribbean with expanding sugar industries imported large numbers of immigrants to meet their acute labor shortage. Large numbers of Jamaicans were recruited to work in Costa Rica in the 1850s. After slavery was abolished in the United States in 1865, American planters imported temporary workers, called "swallow migrants", to harvest crops on an annual basis; these workers, many of them Jamaicans, returned to their countries after harvest. Between 1881 and the beginning of World War I, the United States recruited over 250,000 workers from the Caribbean, 90,000 of whom were Jamaicans, to work on the Panama Canal.
During both world wars, the United States again recruited Jamaican men for service on various American bases in the region. The vast majority of Jamaican Americans are of black Afro-Caribbean descent but there are some of Chinese Jamacian descent. Apart from Canada and England, the U. S. houses the majority of Jamaican émigrés worldwide. Jamaican immigration to the U. S. increased during the civil rights era of the 1960s. As with many other sources of Caribbean immigration, the geographical nearness of Jamaica to the U. S. increased the likelihood of migration. The economic attractiveness and general Jamaican perception of the U. S. as a land of opportunity explain continued migration flows despite economic downturn in America. Traditionally, America has experienced increased migration through means of family preference, in which U. S. citizens sponsor their immediate family. Through this category a substantial amount of Jamaican immigrants were able to enter urban cities within the U. S that provided blue-collar work opportunities.
Jamaican immigrants utilized employment opportunities despite the discriminatory policies that affected some Caribbean émigrés. At present, Jamaicans are the largest group of American immigrants from the English-speaking Caribbean. However, it is difficult to verify the exact number of Jamaican Americans in this country because most of them assimilate into the wider black community; the 1990 census placed the total number of documented Jamaican Americans at 435,025. According to the text of Immigrant America, there were 554,897 Jamaican-born people living in the U. S. in 2000. This represents 61% of the approximate 911,000 Americans of Jamaican ancestry. Many Jamaicans are second and descend from older generations, as there have been Jamaicans in the U. S. as early as the early twentieth Century. The regional composition is as follows: 59 percent live in the Northeast in the State of New York; the New York metropolitan area and South Florida have the largest number of Jamaican immigrants in the United States and are home to the highest number of illegal Jamaicans, whereas most Legal immigrants tend to reside in Brooklyn.
Jamaicans refer to Miami metropolitan area and Brooklyn colloquially as "Kingston 21" and "Little Jamaica" respectively. Jamaicans in the Miami metropolitan area live in Broward County and Jamaicans in New York City have formed communities in Brooklyn, The Bronx, Queens, with Central Brooklyn Canarsie, Crown Heights, East Flatbush, the Northeast Bronx Williamsbridge, Bronx neighborhoods holding the largest Jamaican populace. Large communities of Jamaican immigrants have formed in New York City and the New York Metro Area, which includes Long Island and much of New Jersey and Connecticut, along with Florida, which has the second largest Jamaican community in the U. S, Philadelphia. In recent years, many Jamaicans have left New York City for its suburbs, large Jamaican communities have formed in Atlanta, Chicago, Washington D. C. Boston, Buffalo, Los Angeles, Providence; the median age for Jamaican immigrants is 49 years old, higher than the general immigrant median age. And according to the MPI tabulation of data from the U.
S. Census Bureau 2014 ACS – 6% of Caribbean immigrants are under the age of 18, 75% are between the ages of 18 – 64, 19% are 65 and older. 24% of Jamaican immigrants have a bachelor’s degree. 76% of Jamaican immigrants are working age. According to the MPI tabulation of data from the U. S. Census Bureau 2014 ACS – 30% of Caribbean immigrants are in the service occupations, 21% are in sales and office positions, 25% are in management, business and arts occupations and only 9% of Jamaican immigrants are in construction, maintenance jobs. Jamaicans 32-37% seek management, business and arts positions; the median Jamaican immigrant yearly income is $51,000 with a 13% poverty rate. The median Jamaican immigrant income is higher than the average Caribbean immigrant income, about $41,000 with a 20% poverty rate. According to World Bank data, in 2014, the Caribbean as a whole was sent $9.7 billion, 8% of the US GDP as remittances, not including Cuba, estimated to send $1.8 billion. According to the 2010 U.
S. Census, there were 965,355 Jamaican Ameri
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres south of Cuba, 191 kilometres west of Hispaniola. Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers; the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy dependent on African slaves; the British emancipated all slaves in 1838, many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations.
The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. With 2.9 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans have African ancestry, with significant European, Indian and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. Jamaica is an upper-middle income country with an average of 4.3 million tourists a year. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Elizabeth II as its queen, her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as Prime Minister of Jamaica since March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.
The indigenous people, the Taíno, called the island Xaymaca in Arawakan, meaning the "Land of Wood and Water" or the "Land of Springs". Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock." Slang names such as "Jamrock", "Jamdown", or "Ja", have derived from this. The Arawak and Taíno indigenous people, originating in South America, first settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC; when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques. The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated around the area now known as Old Harbour; the Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655. The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/yamaye. Today, few Jamaican natives remain. Most notably among some Maroon communities as well as within some communities in Cornwall County, Jamaica Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494, his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay, St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land.
One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, established in 1509 and abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy; the capital was moved to Spanish Town called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534. Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean; the Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In the 1655 Invasion of Jamaica, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort on the island; the name of Montego Bay, the capital of the parish of St. James, was derived from the Spanish name manteca bahía, alluding to the lard-making industry based on processing the numerous boars in the area. In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 1,500 black. By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations and "imported" more slaves, black people formed a majority of the population; the colony was shaken and destroyed by the 1692 Jamaica earthquake.
The Irish in Jamaica formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwell's forces in 1655; the majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms at the time. Migration of large numbers of Irish to the island continued into the 18th century. Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and forcibly converted to Christianity in Portugal, during a period of persecution by the Inquisition; some Spanish and Portuguese Jewish refugees went to the Netherlands and England, from there to Jamaica. Others were part of the Iberian colonisation of the New World, after overtly converting to Catholicism, as only Catholics were allowed in the Spanish colonies. By 1660, Jamaica had become a refuge for Jews in the New World attracting those, expelled from Spain and Portugal.
An early group of Jews arrived in 1510, soon after the son of Christopher Columbus settled on the island. Working as merchants and traders, the
Turntablism is the art of manipulating sounds and creating new music, sound effects and other creative sounds and beats by using two or more turntables and a cross fader-equipped DJ mixer. The mixer is plugged into a PA system for live events and/or broadcasting equipment so that a wider audience can hear the turntablist's music. Turntablists manipulate records on a turntable by moving the record with their hand to cue the stylus to exact points on a record, by touching or moving the platter or record to stop, slow down, speed up or, spin the record backwards, or moving the turntable platter back and forth, all while using a DJ mixer's crossfader control and the mixer's gain and equalization controls to adjust the sound and level of each turntable. Turntablists use two or more turntables and headphones to cue up desired start points on different records. Turntablists, who are called DJs prefer direct-drive turntables over belt-driven or other types, because the belt can be stretched or damaged by "scratching" and other turntable manipulation such as slowing down a record, whereas a direct drive turntable can be stopped, slowed down, or spun backwards without damaging the electric motor.
The word turntablist was originated by Luis "DJ Disk" Quintanilla. After a phone conversation with Disk, it was popularised in 1995 by DJ Babu to describe the difference between a DJ who plays and mixes records and one who performs by physically manipulating the records, turntables, turntable speed controls and mixer to produce new sounds; the new term coincided with the resurgence of hip-hop DJing in the 1990s. John Oswald described the art: "A phonograph in the hands of a'hiphop/scratch' artist who plays a record like an electronic washboard with a phonographic needle as a plectrum, produces sounds which are unique and not reproduced—the record player becomes a musical instrument." Some turntablists use turntable techniques like beat mixing/matching and beat juggling. Some turntablists seek to have themselves recognized as traditional musicians capable of interacting and improvising with other performers. Depending on the records and tracks selected by the DJ and his/her turntablist style, a turntablist can create rhythmic accompaniment, percussion breaks, basslines or beat loops, atmospheric "pads", "stabs" of sudden chords or interwoven melodic lines.
The use of the turntable as a musical instrument has its roots dating back to the 1930s, 1940s, 1950s when musique concrète composers did experiments with audio equipment. Experimental composers used them to sample and create music, produced by the turntable. Cage's Imaginary Landscape No. 1 is composed for two variable speed turntables, frequency recordings, muted piano and cymbal. Edgard Varèse experimented with turntables earlier in 1930, though he never formally produced any works using them. Though this school of thought and practice is not directly linked to the 1970s-2010 definition of turntablism within hip hop and DJ culture, it has had an influence on modern experimental sonic/artists such as Christian Marclay, Janek Schaefer, Otomo Yoshihide, Philip Jeck. However, turntablism as it is known today did not surface until the development of hip hop in the 1970s. Examples of turntable effects can be found on popular records produced in the 1960s and 1970s; this was most prominent in Jamaican dub music of the 1960s, among deejays in the Jamaican sound system culture.
Dub music introduced the techniques of mixing and scratching vinyl, which Jamaican immigrants introduced to American hip hop culture in the early 1970s. Beyond dub music, Creedence Clearwater Revival's 1968 self-titled debut album features a backspin effect in the song "Walk on the Water." Turntablism has origins in the invention of direct-drive turntables. Early belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for turntablism, since they had a slow start-up time, they were prone to wear-and-tear and breakage, as the belt would break from backspinning or scratching; the first direct-drive turntable was invented by Shuichi Obata, an engineer at Matsushita, based in Osaka, Japan. It eliminated belts, instead employed a motor to directly drive a platter on which a vinyl record rests. In 1969, Matsushita released it as the SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable on the market, the first in their influential Technics series of turntables. In 1971, Matsushuta released the Technics SL-1100. Due to its strong motor and fidelity, it was adopted by early hip hop artists.
A forefather of turntablism was an immigrant from Jamaica to New York City. He introduced turntable techniques from Jamaican dub music, while developing new techniques made possible by the direct-drive turntable technology of the Technics SL-1100, which he used for the first sound system he set up after emigrating to New York; the signature technique he developed was playing two copies of the same record on two turntables in alternation to extend the b-dancers' favorite section, switching back and forth between the two to loop the breaks to a rhythmic beat. The most influential turntable was the Technics SL-1200, developed in 1971 by a team led by Shuichi Obata at Matsushita, which released it onto the market in 1972, it was adopted by New York City hip hop DJs such as Grand Wizard Theodore and Afrika Bambaataa in the 1970s. As they experimented with the SL-1200 decks, they developed scratching techniques when they found that the motor would continue to spin at the correct R
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, one of the seven American uniformed services. Formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U. S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, it is the youngest branch of the U. S. Armed Forces, the fourth in order of precedence; the USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control; the U. S. Air Force is a military service branch organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the Air Force, through the Department of the Air Force, is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation.
The highest-ranking military officer in the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who exercises supervision over Air Force units and serves as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Air Force components are assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, neither the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Chief of Staff of the Air Force have operational command authority over them. Along with conducting independent air and space operations, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for land and naval forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field; as of 2017, the service operates more than 5,369 military aircraft, 406 ICBMs and 170 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget and is the second largest service branch, with 318,415 active duty airmen, 140,169 civilian personnel, 69,200 reserve airmen, 105,700 Air National Guard airmen. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF: In general, the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned.
It shall be organized and equipped for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The Air Force shall be responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. §8062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the USAF as: to preserve the peace and security, provide for the defense, of the United States, the Territories and possessions, any areas occupied by the United States. The stated mission of the USAF today is to "fly and win...in air and cyberspace". "The United States Air Force will be a trusted and reliable joint partner with our sister services known for integrity in all of our activities, including supporting the joint mission first and foremost. We will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance and Power for the nation".
The five core missions of the Air Force have not changed since the Air Force became independent in 1947, but they have evolved, are now articulated as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control. The purpose of all of these core missions is to provide, what the Air Force states as, global vigilance, global reach, global power. Air superiority is "that degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force". Offensive Counterair is defined as "offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, launch platforms, their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, but as close to their source as possible". OCA is the preferred method of countering air and missile threats since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source and enjoys the initiative.
OCA comprises attack operations, sweep and suppression/destruction of enemy air defense. Defensive Counter air is defined as "all the defensive measures designed to detect, identify and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace". A major goal of DCA operations, in concert with OCA operations, is to provide an area from which forces can operate, secure from air and missile threats; the DCA mission comprises both passive defense measures. Active defense is "the employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy", it includes both ballistic missile defense and air-breathing threat defense, encompasses point defense, area defense, high-value airborne asset defense. Passive defense is "measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative", it includes warning.
Stone Mountain, Georgia
Stone Mountain is a city in DeKalb County, United States. The population was 6,368 according to the 2017 US Census estimate. Stone Mountain is located in the eastern part of DeKalb County and is a suburb of Atlanta that encompasses nearly 1.7 square miles. It lies touches the western base of the geological formation Stone Mountain. Locals refer to the city as Stone Mountain Village to distinguish it from the larger unincorporated area traditionally considered Stone Mountain and Stone Mountain Park; the history of Stone Mountain began long before white European settlers and the Creek Indians before them. Evidence of numerous earlier Native American tribes, including mound builders, have been found in the area of the mountain; the Treaty of Indian Springs in 1821 opened a large swath of Georgia for settlement by European Americans on former Creek Indian land, including present-day Stone Mountain Village. In 1822, the area that now makes up the city was made a part of the newly formed DeKalb County.
By the 1820s, Rock Mountain, as it was called, was "a major travel center", with an inn for travelers. A stagecoach line linking the village with Georgia's capital, began in 1825. Another stage line ran to Winder and Athens.... In 1828 another stage line began trips to Dahlonega, a fourth connected the community with Macon. "Hundreds of people visited Rock Mountain in the summer and...a house of entertainment was nearby." Rail service did not reach the town, by New Gibraltar, until 1845. A post office was created in 1834 on the old Augusta Road, Andrew Johnson, called the founder of New Gibraltar and first mayor, around whose house the city limits were drawn, built a hotel along the road in 1836. About 1839 Aaron Cloud, who had a hotel, built a wooden observation tower, octagonal like a lighthouse and 150 feet high, along with a restaurant and club, at the summit of the mountain; this tower was destroyed in 1849 by a storm. Visitors to the mountain would travel to the area by rail and road, hike up the 1.3-mile mountaintop trail to the top.
By 1850, Stone Mountain had become a popular destination of Atlanta urbanites who would endure the 4-hour round trip via rail just to experience its natural beauty, fine lodging, attractions. Quarrying of granite at the mountain was the lifeblood of the area for decades, employing many thousands over those years; the excellent grade of building stone from the mountain was used in many notable structures, including the locks of the Panama Canal, the roof of the bullion depository at Fort Knox, the Liberty National Building in Philadelphia, the steps in the east wing of the US Capitol in Washington, DC. In August 1846, New Gibraltar hosted Georgia's first state fair known as the Agriculture Fair and Internal Improvement Jubilee; the fair had just one exhibit—three horses and two cows, both belonging to the event's organizer, John Graves. The following year, the village again hosted the event, which featured caskets, embroidery, bedspreads, blooded stock, farm tools, a magnetic telegraph. Stone Mountain hosted the event until 1850.
Though DeKalb County voted against secession from the United States, it was not spared the devastation of the Civil War. Stone Mountain Village went physically unscathed until the Battle of Atlanta, when it was destroyed by men under the command of General James B. McPherson on July 19, 1864. Several antebellum homes were spared; the railroad depot had its roof burned, but the building stood, owing to its 2-foot thick granite walls. From the time of the Village’s initial destruction in July 1864 until the following November, Stone Mountain and the surrounding area were scavenged by Union forces, taking corn, cotton and other goods. On November 15, 1864, between 12,000 and 15,000 Union troops marched through Stone Mountain and further destroyed the rail lines; the rails were rendered useless by heating them over burning railroad ties twisting them around trees. The term Sherman’s neckties was coined for this form of destruction. After the Civil War ended, housing in the area was rebuilt as Stone Mountain granite was again in demand for construction across the nation.
A significant portion of the quarry's work force consisted of African Americans. However, they were excluded from areas where white families lived, so a shantytown, came into being at the southeast side of the village. In 1868, Bethsaida Baptist Church was organized by Reverend R. M. Burson to serve the Shermantown community. A church building was built under Reverend F. M. Simons at what is now 853 Fourth Street. Simons was among a delegation of southern African American pastors to meet with General Sherman in Washington, D. C. after the war to discuss the treatment of the freedmen. Bethsaida Baptist is still an active part of the Stone Mountain Village. By the twentieth century, much of Shermantown’s original structures had been replaced. Bethsaida’s original wooden structure was replaced with stone in 1920. Though Shermantown has integrated into the growing Stone Mountain Village, it retains its own distinct community. A darker chapter in the history of Stone Mountain opened in 1915 with the rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan as a radical terrorist group.
Members assembled at Stone Mountain with permission of the quarry owner Samuel Venable, an active member. The dark legacy, with annual cross-
Mantronix: The Album
The Album is the debut album by the group Mantronix. The NME placed the album at number 10 on its year-end list of best albums of 1986. "Bassline" – 5:26 "Needle to the Groove" – 3:41 "Mega-Mix" – 5:35 "Hardcore Hip-Hop" – 6:18 "Ladies" – 6:55 "Get Stupid "Fresh" Part I" – 3:52 "Fresh Is the Word" – 5:31 In February 2006, Virgin/EMI re-released the album in the UK with five bonus tracks and new cover art. "Ladies" "Bassline" "Hardcore Hip Hop" "Ladies" "Ladies" On February 12, 2008, Traffic Entertainment Group released a double-CD edition of the album, titled Mantronix, with an extra disc and new cover art. The extra tracks are as follows: Bassline Needle to the Groove Fresh is the Word Ladies Bassline Bassline Needle to the Groove Jamming on the Groove Needle to the Groove Ladies Ladies Get Stupid "Fresh" Part 1 Fresh is the Word Fresh is the Beat Fresh is the Word Billboard Music Charts - album Billboard - singles Mantronix: The Album at allmusic
Music Madness is the second album by old school hip hop and electro funk group Mantronix. Music Madness was the final Mantronix album released on the independent Sleeping Bag Records label; the hip hop album features club-oriented production by Kurtis Mantronik and MC Tee's b-boy-based rapping. In a contemporary review for The Village Voice, music critic Robert Christgau gave the album a "B–" and found Kurtis Mantronik's beats to be full of "groove and human touch", but facetiously pitied M. C. Tee for needing "boasting lessons." In a retrospective review, Allmusic's Alex Henderson gave it four-and-a-half out of five stars and viewed it as both Mantronix's second best album behind The Album and "proof of how fresh-sounding and creative Mantronix was in the beginning." "Who Is It?" – 6:05 "We Control the Dice" – 3:53 "Listen to the Bass of Get Stupid Fresh Part 2" – 4:22 "Ladies UK Remix" – 3:35 "Big Band B-Boy" – 4:40 "Music Madness" – 5:23 "Electronic Energy Of..." – 5:29 "Scream" – 5:23 "Mega Mix" – 4:00 In 1987, Sleeping Bag Records released the album on compact disc with the name Music Madness Plus, which included five bonus tracks from The Album.
"Bassline" – 5:23 "Needle to the Groove" – 3:40 "Hardcore Hip-Hop" – 6:20 "Get Stupid'Fresh' Pt. 1" – 3:53 "Fresh is the Word" – 5:28 Billboard Music Charts - album Billboard - singles Music Madness at Discogs