The MD5 message-digest algorithm is a used hash function producing a 128-bit hash value. Although MD5 was designed to be used as a cryptographic hash function, it has been found to suffer from extensive vulnerabilities, it can still be used as a checksum to verify data integrity, but only against unintentional corruption. It remains suitable for other non-cryptographic purposes, for example for determining the partition for a particular key in a partitioned database. MD5 was designed by Ronald Rivest in 1991 to replace an earlier hash function MD4, was specified in 1992 as RFC 1321. One basic requirement of any cryptographic hash function is that it should be computationally infeasible to find two distinct messages that hash to the same value. MD5 fails this requirement catastrophically; the weaknesses of MD5 have been exploited in the field, most infamously by the Flame malware in 2012. The CMU Software Engineering Institute considers MD5 "cryptographically broken and unsuitable for further use".

As of 2019, MD5 continues to be used, in spite of its well-documented weaknesses and deprecation by security experts. MD5 is one in a series of message digest algorithms designed by Professor Ronald Rivest of MIT; when analytic work indicated that MD5's predecessor MD4 was to be insecure, Rivest designed MD5 in 1991 as a secure replacement. In 1993, Den Boer and Bosselaers gave an early, although limited, result of finding a "pseudo-collision" of the MD5 compression function. In 1996, Dobbertin announced a collision of the compression function of MD5. While this was not an attack on the full MD5 hash function, it was close enough for cryptographers to recommend switching to a replacement, such as SHA-1 or RIPEMD-160; the size of the hash value is small enough to contemplate a birthday attack. MD5CRK was a distributed project started in March 2004 with the aim of demonstrating that MD5 is insecure by finding a collision using a birthday attack. MD5CRK ended shortly after 17 August 2004, when collisions for the full MD5 were announced by Xiaoyun Wang, Dengguo Feng, Xuejia Lai, Hongbo Yu.

Their analytical attack was reported to take only one hour on an IBM p690 cluster. On 1 March 2005, Arjen Lenstra, Xiaoyun Wang, Benne de Weger demonstrated construction of two X.509 certificates with different public keys and the same MD5 hash value, a demonstrably practical collision. The construction included private keys for both public keys. A few days Vlastimil Klima described an improved algorithm, able to construct MD5 collisions in a few hours on a single notebook computer. On 18 March 2006, Klima published an algorithm that could find a collision within one minute on a single notebook computer, using a method he calls tunneling. Various MD5-related RFC errata have been published. In 2009, the United States Cyber Command used an MD5 hash value of their mission statement as a part of their official emblem. On 24 December 2010, Tao Xie and Dengguo Feng announced the first published single-block MD5 collision. For "security reasons", Xie and Feng did not disclose the new attack method, they issued a challenge to the cryptographic community, offering a US$10,000 reward to the first finder of a different 64-byte collision before 1 January 2013.

Marc Stevens responded to the challenge and published colliding single-block messages as well as the construction algorithm and sources. In 2011 an informational RFC 6151 was approved to update the security considerations in MD5 and HMAC-MD5; the security of the MD5 hash function is compromised. A collision attack exists that can find collisions within seconds on a computer with a 2.6 GHz Pentium 4 processor. Further, there is a chosen-prefix collision attack that can produce a collision for two inputs with specified prefixes within seconds, using off-the-shelf computing hardware; the ability to find collisions has been aided by the use of off-the-shelf GPUs. On an NVIDIA GeForce 8400GS graphics processor, 16–18 million hashes per second can be computed. An NVIDIA GeForce 8800 Ultra can calculate more than 200 million hashes per second; these hash and collision attacks have been demonstrated in the public in various situations, including colliding document files and digital certificates. As of 2015, MD5 was demonstrated to be still quite used, most notably by security research and antivirus companies.

As of 2019, one quarter of used content management systems were reported to still use MD5 for password hashing. In 1996, a flaw was found in the design of MD5. While it was not deemed a fatal weakness at the time, cryptographers began recommending the use of other algorithms, such as SHA-1, which has since been found to be vulnerable as well. In 2004 it was shown; as such, MD5 is not suitable for applications like SSL certificates or digital signatures that rely on this property for digital security. In 2004 more serious flaws were discovered in MD5, making further use of the algorithm for security purposes questionable. Further advances were made in breaking MD5 in 2005, 2006, 2007. In December 2008, a group of researchers used this technique to fake SSL certificate validity; as of 2010, the CMU Software Engineering Institute considers MD5 "cryptographically broken and unsuitable for further use", most U. S. government applications now require the SHA-

Mono (software)

Mono is a free and open-source project to create an Ecma standard-compliant. NET Framework-compatible software framework, including a C# compiler and a Common Language Runtime. By Ximian, it was acquired by Novell, is now being led by Xamarin, a subsidiary of Microsoft and the. NET Foundation; the stated purpose of Mono is not only to be able to run Microsoft. NET applications cross-platform, but to bring better development tools to Linux developers. Mono can be run on many software systems including Android, most Linux distributions, BSD, macOS, Windows and some game consoles such as PlayStation 3, Xbox 360; the Mono project has been controversial within the open-source community, as it implements portions of. NET Framework that may be covered by Microsoft patents. Although standardized portions of. NET Framework are covered under Microsoft Open Specification Promise—a covenant stating that Microsoft will not assert its patents against implementations of its specifications under certain conditions—other portions are not, which led to concerns that the Mono project could become the target of patent infringement lawsuits.

Following Microsoft's open-sourcing of several core. NET technologies since 2014 and its acquisition of Xamarin in the beginning of 2016, an updated patent promise has been issued for the Mono project; the logo of Mono is a stylized monkey's mono being Spanish for monkey. When Microsoft first announced their. NET Framework in June 2000 it was described as "a new platform based on Internet standards", in December of that year the underlying Common Language Infrastructure was published as an open standard, "ECMA-335", opening up the potential for independent implementations. Miguel de Icaza of Ximian believed that. NET had the potential to increase programmer productivity and began investigating whether a Linux version was feasible. Recognizing that their small team could not expect to build and support a full product, they launched the Mono open-source project, on July 19, 2001 at the O'Reilly conference. After three years' development, Mono 1.0 was released on June 30, 2004. Mono evolved from its initial focus of a developer platform for Linux desktop applications to supporting a wide range of architectures and operating systems - including embedded systems.

Novell acquired Ximian in 2003. After Novell was acquired by Attachmate in April 2011, Attachmate announced hundreds of layoffs for the Novell workforce, putting in question the future of Mono. On May 16, Miguel de Icaza announced in his blog that Mono would continue to be supported by Xamarin, a company he founded after being laid off from Novell; the original Mono team had moved to the new company. Xamarin had planned to rewrite the proprietary. NET stacks for iOS and Android from scratch, because Novell still owned MonoTouch and Mono for Android at the time. After this announcement, the future of the project was questioned, MonoTouch and Mono for Android being in direct competition with the existing commercial offerings now owned by Attachmate, considering that the Xamarin team would have difficulties proving that they did not use technologies they developed when they were employed by Novell for the same work. However, in July 2011, now a subsidiary of Attachmate, Xamarin, announced that it granted a perpetual license to Xamarin for Mono, MonoTouch and Mono for Android, which took stewardship of the project.

Mono's current version is 6.0.0. This version provides the core API of the. NET support for Visual Basic. NET and C# 7.0. LINQ to Objects, XML, SQL are part of the distribution. Windows Forms 2.0 is supported, but not developed, as such its support on Mono is incomplete. Version 4.0 was the first version that incorporates Microsoft original source code, released by Microsoft as part of the. NET Core project. Mono's aim is to achieve full support for the features in. NET 4.5 except Windows Presentation Foundation, Windows Workflow Foundation, limited Windows Communication Foundation. Some missing parts of the. NET Framework are under development in an experimental Mono subproject called Olive; the Mono project has created a Visual Basic. NET compiler and a runtime designed for running VB. NET applications, it is being developed by Rolf Bjarne Kvinge. An open-source implementation of Microsoft Silverlight, called Moonlight, has been included since Mono 1.9. Moonlight 1.0, which supports the Silverlight 1.0 APIs, was released January 20, 2009.

Moonlight 2.0 supports Silverlight 2.0 and some features of Silverlight 3.0. A preview release of Moonlight 3.0 was announced in February 2010 and contains updates to Silverlight 3 support. The Moonlight project was abandoned on May 29, 2012. According to Miguel, two factors sealed the fate of the project: Microsoft added "artificial restrictions" that "made it useless for desktop programming", the technology had not gained enough traction on the Web. Mono consists of three groups of components: Core components Mono/Linux/GNOME development stack Microsoft compatibility stackThe core components include the C# compiler, the virtual machine for the Common Language Infrastructure and the core class libraries; these components are based on the Ecma-334 and Ecma-335 standards, allowing Mono to provide a standards compliant and open-source CLI virtual machine. Microsoft issued a statement; the Mono/Linux/GNOME development stack provide tools for application development while using the existing GNOME and free and open-source libraries.

These include: Gtk# for graphical u

Manggahan High School

Manggahan High School known as Rizal High School Annex-Manggahan and known as Manggahan National High School, is a public high school in Karangalan Village, Brgy. Manggahan, Pasig City; the site of Manggahan High School was once a private drug rehabilitation center called Anti-Narcotics Research and Reformation Network. It was reported that the center was operating illegally and the National Housing Authority owned the lot; because of these complaints, the operation of the center stopped and the NHA donated the lot to the city government of Pasig. The first building was constructed in 1998 under the administration of Mayor Vicente P. Eusebio and inaugurated on May 29, 1999 by Rev. Fr. Jorge Jesus Bellosillo of Immaculate Conception Quasi-Parish. Rizal High School Annex-Manggahan started to operate with Mrs. Nancy J. Tolentino as Head Teacher-in-charge. There were 430 first year and 210 second year, a total of 640 initial numbers of students who enrolled with 21 teachers. At the start of classes, the rooms were bare, no school decks, no blackboards.

Some students brought their own stool for them not to squat on the floor. The needs of teachers and students were printed on newspapers. Additional chairs and tables were received. Facilities and equipment were improved. Computers were forwarded through the initiative of Councilor Robert Eusebio; the office of the administrator was air-conditioned. The third year level was opened in S. Y. 2000-2001. By student population reached 1,033; as the student populace kept growing, there was a need for additional classrooms. In the year 2001, two new buildings, the SCE Building I and DPWH Building were constructed; this was the time. The first batch of graduates received their diplomas; the commencement exercises were held at Rizal High School main campus with the graduates of other annexes. The construction of SCE II was started; the second commencement exercise was held at the school ground. It was the first commencement exercises outside the main campus; that year marks the first valedictorian of the school. The school year 2003-2004 started with the inauguration of SCE II under the administration of Mayor Soledad EusebIo.

The enrollment forms 61 to 80 teachers. To cope up with the growing number of enrollees each year, DPWH Building was constructed into SCE III, a 6-storey building. Upon the recommendation of the Rizal High School principal, Josephine M. Cruz, compliance with DepEd Order No. 71, s. 2003, titled "Transfer of Delegated Authority from the Office of the Secretary to the Regional Offices Regarding Approval of the Establishment, Separation of Annexes, Integration and Renaming of Public Elementary and Secondary Schools", RHS Manggahan Annex was separated from its mother school, Rizal High School on July 30, 2004. The exemplary performance, meritorious services rendered and selfless devotion as Head Teacher-in-charge of RHSAM, Mrs. Nancy J. Tolentino, named as the principal of Manggahan High School; the first year of operation as MHS was initiated by renovation And construction of the additional rooms of fifth floor of VPE I building. The 437 graduates of Manggahan High School were led by Jessica V. Lacson.

BCE I, named after Hon. Mayor Bobby Eusebio, was inaugurated on June 16, 2014 with a program, where Incumbent Mayor Maribel Eusebio and Former Mayor Bobby Eusebio attended; the decade foundation week started on June 27, 2014 with a fun run called "Dekada Run Para sa Mataas na Paaralan ng Manggahan", where the students, alumni of MHS and former RHSAM, parents joined and proceeds will be for the improvement of the school. The "Mr. and Ms. MHS Competition 2014" and Flashback Fri-dance were a part of the decade foundation celebration; the main program of the decade foundation celebration and alumni homecoming were on August 1, 2014. Many booths were organized for students; the theme for decade foundation celebration is "MHS Moving Towards Perfect Ten". In November 2014, The CCTV cameras of the school were installed; the Official Facebook Page of Manggahan High School-Supreme Student Government for S. Y. 2015-2016 The Official Facebook Page of Manggahan High School-Supreme Student Government for S. Y.

2014-2015 The Official Website of Manggahan High School