Fort Washington, Pennsylvania
Fort Washington is a census-designated place and suburb of Philadelphia in Montgomery County, United States. The population was 5,446 at the 2010 census. Prior to the Revolutionary War the Fort Washington area was settled by many German immigrants. One such person was Philip Engard who immigrated in 1728. Engard purchased 100 acres on what was to be named Fort Washington Avenue. By the mid-18th century the area came to be known as Engardtown, Fort Washington Avenue was called Engardtown Road; the house built by Philip Engard is listed as the "Engard Family Home - 1765" in the Upper Dublin Township Open Space & Environmental Resource Protection Plan - 2005, as part of the Upper Dublin Historical Properties #25. During the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War, George Washington and the Continental Army were encamped here after their October 4, 1777 defeat at the Battle of Germantown, prior to their march to Valley Forge. From December 5–8, 1777, the Battle of White Marsh was fought here between British and American forces.
Throughout the encampment, Washington was headquartered at the Emlen House, built by Quaker George Emlen in 1745. British commander General William Howe observed the American lines from the bell tower of St. Thomas' Episcopal Church, site of the British encampment on December 5. Today, Fort Washington State Park contains the area in which the primary American defenses were situated. On July 17, 1856, Fort Washington was the site of one of the worst train accidents in the United States when two North Pennsylvania Railroad trains collided with one another near the Sandy Run station; the exact number of deaths is uncertain, but 59 were killed and dozens more perished from their injuries. Many of the dead were children from St. Michael's Roman Catholic Church from the Kensington section of Philadelphia, who were traveling to Sheaff's Woods, a park in the Fort Washington area, for a Sunday school picnic. On January 1, 1946, the Township of Upper Dublin was created, in doing so, encompassed Fort Washington along with nine other communities.
Parts of Fort Washington were incorporated into Whitemarsh Township. The primary center of business and industry in Upper Dublin Township is the Fort Washington Office Park, which occupies 536 acres and contains 6,000,000 square feet of building space. There are more than 65 buildings of various sizes up to 658,535 square feet; the park contains the offices of over 100 different companies, including Honeywell, AccuWeather, Eastern National, Genworth Financial, a suburban campus of Temple University. The office park was home to the corporate headquarters of CDNow, the pioneering online music retailer, it is home to a branch of The Paul Green School of Rock Music. In recent years, the Fort Washington Office Park has experienced a vacancy rate higher than that of other commercial/industrial parks in the region, due in some part to problems with flooding; the Fort Washington Office Park was home to the Fort Washington Expo Center. Opened in 1993, the Expo Center hosted some of the region's biggest consumer and trade shows, at 290,000 square feet, was the largest such suburban venue in the northeastern United States.
The Expo Center closed in 2006 after the building was sold to Liberty Property Trust who renovated the center into Class A office space. The center, which can accommodate 2,800 employees, was leased to GMAC Mortgage who took over the space in 2007. GMAC Mortgage went out of business in 2013. On Camp Hill Road in Whitemarsh is the corporate headquarters of Johnson & Johnson division McNeil Consumer & Specialty Pharmaceuticals, marketers of over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals including Tylenol and Motrin IB products, their building has a workforce of 2,600 employees. Johnson and Johnson closed this plant in April 2010 after a series of manufacturing problems led to embarrassing product recalls for faulty manufacturing practices. SEPTA Regional Rail's Lansdale/Doylestown Line stops at the nearby Fort Washington station. OurBus provides intercity bus service from Fort Washington to Park Avenue in the Manhattan section in New York City as part of a route running from West Chester to New York City.
The bus stop in Fort Washington is located adjacent to the Fort Washington station. The route started on December 21, 2017. Residents living in the Upper Dublin portion of Fort Washington are served by the Upper Dublin School District, while those living in parts incorporated into Whitemarsh are served by Colonial School District. Fort Washington Elementary School Upper Dublin High School Upper Dublin High School is located on Loch Alsh Avenue. Germantown Academy New Horizons Montessori School Open Door Christian Academy The Paul Green School of Rock Music As of the 2010 census, the CDP was 86.2% White, 4.5% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 6.2% Asian, 0.5% were Some Other Race, 1.3% were two or more races. 1.8% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,680 people, 1,161 households, 1,013 families residing in the community; the population density was 1,349.9 people per square mile. There were 1,173 housing units at an average density of 430.3/sq mi.
The racial makeup of the community was 91.30% White, 3.04% African American, 0.08% Native American, 5.03% Asian (0.46% Asian Indian, 2.20% Chinese, 1.93% Korean, 0.16% Vietnamese, 0.27% Ot
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent; the mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is the case; the concentration of a solute in a solution is the mass of that solute expressed as a percentage of the mass of the whole solution. The term aqueous solution is. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances; the particles of solute in a solution cannot be seen by the naked eye. A solution does not allow beams of light to scatter. A solution is stable; the solute from a solution cannot be separated by filtration. It is composed of only one phase. Homogeneous means. Heterogeneous means; the properties of the mixture can be uniformly distributed through the volume but only in absence of diffusion phenomena or after their completion.
The substance present in the greatest amount is considered the solvent. Solvents can be liquids or solids. One or more components present in the solution other; the solution has the same physical state as the solvent. If the solvent is a gas, only gases are dissolved under a given set of conditions. An example of a gaseous solution is air. Since interactions between molecules play no role, dilute gases form rather trivial solutions. In part of the literature, they are not classified as solutions, but addressed as mixtures. If the solvent is a liquid almost all gases and solids can be dissolved. Here are some examples: Gas in liquid: Oxygen in water Carbon dioxide in water – a less simple example, because the solution is accompanied by a chemical reaction. Note that the visible bubbles in carbonated water are not the dissolved gas, but only an effervescence of carbon dioxide that has come out of solution. Liquid in liquid: The mixing of two or more substances of the same chemistry but different concentrations to form a constant.
Alcoholic beverages are solutions of ethanol in water. Solid in liquid: Sucrose in water Sodium chloride or any other salt in water, which forms an electrolyte: When dissolving, salt dissociates into ions. Solutions in water are common, are called aqueous solutions. Non-aqueous solutions are. Counter examples are provided by liquid mixtures that are not homogeneous: colloids, emulsions are not considered solutions. Body fluids are examples for complex liquid solutions. Many of these are electrolytes. Furthermore, they contain solute molecules like urea. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are essential components of blood chemistry, where significant changes in their concentrations may be a sign of severe illness or injury. If the solvent is a solid gases and solids can be dissolved. Gas in solids: Hydrogen dissolves rather well in metals in palladium. Liquid in solid: Mercury in gold, forming an amalgam Water in solid salt or sugar, forming moist solids Hexane in paraffin wax Solid in solid: Steel a solution of carbon atoms in a crystalline matrix of iron atoms Alloys like bronze and many others Polymers containing plasticizers The ability of one compound to dissolve in another compound is called solubility.
When a liquid can dissolve in another liquid the two liquids are miscible. Two substances that can never mix to form a solution are said to be immiscible. All solutions have a positive entropy of mixing; the interactions between different molecules or ions may be energetically favored or not. If interactions are unfavorable the free energy decreases with increasing solute concentration. At some point the energy loss outweighs the entropy gain, no more solute particles can be dissolved. However, the point at which a solution can become saturated can change with different environmental factors, such as temperature and contamination. For some solute-solvent combinations a supersaturated solution can be prepared by raising the solubility to dissolve more solute, lowering it; the greater the temperature of the solvent, the more of a given solid solute it can dissolve. However, most gases and some compounds exhibit solubilities that decrease with increased temperature; such behavior is a result of an exothermic enthalpy of solution.
Some surfactants exhibit this behaviour. The solubility of liquids in liquids is less temperature-sensitive than that of solids or gases; the physical properties of compounds such as melting point and boiling point change when other compounds are added. Together they are called colligative properties. There are several ways to quantify the amount of one compound dissolved in the other compounds collectively called concentration. Examples include molarity, volume fraction, mole fraction; the properties of ideal solutions can be calculated by the linear combination of the properties of
Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1948, it has been divided between two distinct sovereign states: South Korea. Korea consists of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, several minor islands near the peninsula. Korea is bordered by China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, neighbours Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan. During the first half of the 1st millennium, Korea was divided between the three competing states of Baekje and Silla, together known as the "Three Kingdoms of Korea". In the second half of the 1st millennium and Goguryeo were conquered by Silla, leading to the "Unified Silla" period. Meanwhile, Balhae formed in the north following the collapse of Goguryeo. Unified Silla collapsed into three separate states due to civil war, ushering in the Later Three Kingdoms. Toward the end of the 1st millennium Goryeo, a revival of Goguryeo, defeated the two other states and unified the Korean Peninsula as one single state. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo.
Goryeo, whose name developed into the modern exonym "Korea", was a cultured state that created the world's first metal movable type in 1234. However, multiple invasions by the Mongol Empire during the 13th century weakened the nation, which agreed to become a vassal state after decades of fighting. Following military resistance under King Gongmin which ended Mongol political influence in Goryeo, severe political strife followed, Goryeo fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 1392; the first 200 years of Joseon were marked by relative peace. During this period, the Korean alphabet was created by Sejong the Great in the 15th century and there was increasing influence of Confucianism. During the part of the dynasty, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the "Hermit Kingdom". By the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. After the First Sino-Japanese War, despite the Korean Empire's effort to modernize, it was annexed by Japan in 1910 and ruled by Imperial Japan until the end of World War II in August 1945.
In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea in the aftermath of World War II, leaving Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel. The North was under Soviet occupation and the South under U. S. occupation. These circumstances soon became the basis for the division of Korea by the two superpowers, exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence; the Communist-inspired government in the North received backing from the Soviet Union in opposition to the pro-Western government in the South, leading to Korea's division into two political entities: North Korea, South Korea. Tensions between the two resulted in the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. With involvement by foreign troops, the war ended in a stalemate in 1953, but without a formalized peace treaty; this status contributes to the high tensions. Both governments of the two Koreas claim to be the sole legitimate government of the region. "Korea" is the modern spelling of "Corea", a name attested in English as early as 1614.
Korea was transliterated as Cauli in The Travels of Marco Polo, of the Chinese 高麗. This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo, which ruled most of the Korean peninsula during Marco Polo's time. Korea's introduction to the West resulted from trade and contact with merchants from Arabic lands, with some records dating back as far as the 9th century. Goryeo's name was a continuation of Goguryeo the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, known as Goryeo beginning in the 5th century; the original name was a combination of the adjective go with the name of a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either *Guru or *Gauri. With expanding British and American trade following the opening of Korea in the late 19th century, the spelling "Korea" appeared and grew in popularity; the name Korea is now used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk; the name references Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula.
Although written in Hanja as 韓, 幹, or 刊, this Han has no relation to the Chinese place names or peoples who used those characters but was a phonetic transcription of a native Korean word that seems to have had the meaning "big" or "great" in reference to leaders. It has been tentatively linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Central Asia. In North Korea, China and Japan, Korea as a whole is referred to as. "Great Joseon" was the name of the kingdom ruled by the Joseon dynasty from 1393 until their declaration of the short-lived Great Korean Empire in 1897. King Taejo had named them for the earlier Kojoseon, who ruled northern Korea from its legendary prehistory until their conquest in 108 BC by China's Han Empire; this go is the Hanja 古 and
Mehmet Cengiz Öz, known professionally as Dr. Oz, is a Turkish American television personality, cardiothoracic surgeon, Columbia University professor, pseudoscience promoter, author. Oprah Winfrey was the first guest on the Discovery Channel series, Second Opinion with Dr. Oz in 2003. Oz became a regular guest on The Oprah Winfrey Show beginning in 2004, made more than sixty appearances. In 2009, The Dr. Oz Show, a daily television program focusing on medical issues and personal health, was launched by Winfrey's Harpo Productions and Sony Pictures Television, he is a proponent of alternative medicine, has been criticized by physicians, government officials, publications, including Popular Science and The New Yorker, for giving non-scientific advice and promoting pseudoscience. In 2014 the British Medical Journal examined over 400 medical or health recommendations from 40 episodes of his program and found that only 46% of his claims were supported by reputable research, while 15% of his claims contradicted medical research and the remainder of Oz's advice were either vague banalities or unsupported by research.
Oz was born in 1960 in Cleveland, Ohio, to Suna and Mustafa Öz, who had emigrated from Konya Province, Turkey. Mustafa, born in Bozkır, a small town in southern Turkey, earned scholarships that allowed him to emigrate to the United States as a medical resident in 1955. Suna, who comes from a wealthy Istanbul family, is the daughter of a pharmacist with Circassian descent on her mother's side. Oz has Seval Öz and Nazlim Öz. Oz was educated at Tower Hill School in Delaware. In 1982, he received his undergraduate degree in biology at Harvard University, he played safety on Harvard's football team and won an intramural college championship playing water polo. In 1986, he obtained MD and MBA degrees at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Penn's Wharton School, he was awarded the Captain's Athletic Award for leadership in college and was class president and student body president during medical school. In 1996, Ottavio Alfieri proposed to Oz that the mitral valve only needed one suture to close a leak.
He developed the idea to use a catheter to put one staple in and submitted the patent for MitraClip in 1997. Oz has been a professor at the Department of Surgery at Columbia University since 2001, he directs the Cardiovascular Institute and Complementary Medicine Program at New York-Presbyterian Hospital. His research interests include heart valve replacement surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, health care policy. In 2010, Oz joined Jeff Arnold as co-founder of Sharecare, Inc. providing an interactive question and answer platform for industry experts to answer health-related questions. Oz appeared as a health expert on The Oprah Winfrey Show for five seasons. In 2009, Winfrey offered to produce a syndicated series hosted by him through her company, Harpo Productions; the Dr. Oz Show debuted September 14, 2009, distributed by Sony Pictures Television. On the show, Oz addressed issues like Type 2 diabetes and promoted resveratrol supplements, which he stated were anti-aging, his Transplant! television series won both a Freddie and a Silver Telly award.
He served as medical director for Denzel Washington's John Q. In January 2011, Oz premiered as part of a weekly show on OWN called "Oprah's Allstars". In each episode, he, Suze Orman, Dr. Phil answer various questions about life and finance, he currently does a health segment on 1010 WINS titled "Your Daily Dose". On October 23, 2014, Surgeon Oz, showing Oz's career as a surgeon, debuted on OWN. Second Opinion with Dr Oz on Discovery during the 2003–04 season Life Line on Discovery Health Daily Rounds on Discovery Health The Truth About Food on Discovery Health Live Transplant on Discovery Health National Body Challenge on Discovery Health You: On a Diet on Discovery Health Ask Dr. Oz on The Oprah Winfrey Show AccentHealth on Turner Private Networks—a health-themed newsmagazine program designed for viewing in doctor's offices The Dr. Oz Show, Syndicated Your Life A to Z with Dr. Oz NY Med on ABC Dr. Ken on ABC Oz has co-authored six New York Times best sellers with Michael F. Roizen, he has a regular column in Esquire magazine and O, The Oprah Magazine and his article "Retool and Rebuild" was awarded the 2009 National Magazine Award for Personal Service.
Oz and the Hearst Corporation launched the bi-monthly magazine Dr. Oz THE GOOD LIFE on February 4, 2014. Healing from the Heart: A Leading Surgeon Combines Eastern and Western Traditions to Create the Medicine of the Future, by Mehmet Öz, Ron Arias, Dean Ornish, 1999, ISBN 0-452-27955-0. Complementary and Alternative Cardiovascular Medicine: Clinical Handbook, by Richard A. Stein, Mehmet, M. D. Oz, 2004, ISBN 1-58829-186-3. YOU: The Owner's Manual: An Insider's Guide to the Body that Will Make You Healthier and Younger, by Michael F. Roizen, Mehmet C. Oz, 2005, ISBN 0-06-076531-3. YOU: On a Diet: The Owner's Manual for Waist Management, by Michael F. Roizen, Mehmet C. Oz, 2006, ISBN 0-7432-9254-5. YOU: The Smart Patient: An Insider's Handbook for Getting the Best Treatment, by Michael F. Roizen, Mehmet C. Oz, 2006, ISBN 0-7432-9301-0. YOU: Staying Young: The Owner's Manual for Extending Your Warranty, by Michael F. Roizen, Mehmet C. Oz, 2007, ISBN 0-7432-9256-1. YOU: Being Beautiful: The Owner's Manual to Inner and Outer Beauty, by Michael F. Roizen, Mehmet C.
Oz, 2008, ISBN 1-4165-7234-1. YOU: Breathing Easy: Meditation and Breathing Techniques to Help You Relax and Revitalize, by Michael F. Roizen, Mehmet C. Oz, 2008. YOU: Having a Baby: The Owner's Manual from Conception to Delivery and More, by Michael F. Roizen, Mehmet C. Oz, 2009. Minimally Invasive Card
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word