MENA known as MENAP, is an English-language acronym referring to the Middle East, North Africa and Pakistan, which corresponds to the Greater Middle East. Another name for the region is WANA. MENA covers an extensive region stretching from the Maghreb in the west to Pakistan in the east; the MENA acronym is used in academia, military planning, disaster relief, media planning as a broadcast region, business writing. VoMENA is a weekly program originating at Pacifica Radio station KPFA-FM in Berkeley, California which deals with the history, politics and social issues of countries in the MENA region. MENA has no standardized definition. List of countries and territories most constitute MENA. Additional countries and territories that are sometimes counted as part of MENA: *Non-sovereign territories; the MENA region has vast reserves of petroleum and natural gas that make it a vital source of global economic stability. According to the Oil and Gas Journal, the MENA region has 60% of the world's oil reserves and 45% of the world's natural gas reserves.
As of 2011, 8 of the 15 OPEC nations are within the MENA region. According to Pew Research Center, 40% of the adult population in MENA has completed less than a year of primary school; the fraction is higher for women. Islam is by far the dominant religion in nearly all of the MENA territories; the Middle East-North Africa region comprises 20 countries and territories with an estimated Muslim population of 315 million or about 23% of the world's Muslim population. The term "MENA" is defined in part in relation to majority Muslim countries that based on the countries located in the region, although several nations in the region are not majority Muslim-dominated. Due to rich resources oil and gas, combined with its location between three continents, the MENA region has been in conflict since the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Conflict in the region had come to its highest peak so far in the 21st century, with incidents such as the U. S. intervention of Iraq in 2003 and subsequent Iraq War and the rise of ISIS.
Due to the geographic ambiguity and Eurocentric nature of the term "Middle East", some people prefer use other terms like WANA or the less common NAWA. MENA region remains the most common term and is used by most organizations and political entities flexibly, including those in the region itself. MENAPFrom April 2013, the International Monetary Fund started using a new analytical region called MENAP, which adds Afghanistan and Pakistan to MENA countries. Now MENAP is a prominent economic grouping in IMF reports. MENATThe term MENAT has been used to include Turkey in the list of MENA countries. Near East Sahel Europe, the Middle East and Africa Gulf Cooperation Council Middle East economic integration List of country groupings
Darfur is Dying is a flash-based browser game about the crisis in Darfur, western Sudan. The game won the Darfur Digital Activist Contest sponsored by mtvU. Released in April 2006, more than 800,000 people had played by September that year, it is classified as a serious game a newsgame. The game's design was led by Susana Ruiz as a part of TAKE ACTION games. A graduate student at the Interactive Media Program at the School of Cinematic Arts at the University of Southern California, she was inspired to make a game after her nephew told her about a class lesson on the Holocaust that did not mention any modern genocides, she proposed a game about the post-Rwandan genocide gacaca trials, for which she was criticized by colleagues who felt that a game was an inappropriate form to approach a serious topic. She was attending the Games for Change conference in New York City in October 2005, at which mtvU announced that they, in partnership with the Reebok Human Rights Foundation and the non-profit International Crisis Group, were launching the Darfur Digital Activist Contest for a game that would be an advocacy tool about the situation in the Darfur conflict.
Given that mtvU was offering funding and other resources, Ruiz decided to change her original idea. Ruiz spent two months creating a game design document and prototype; the team spent much of the design phase talking to humanitarian aid workers with experience in Darfur and brainstorming how to make a game, both interesting to play and was an advocacy tool. Ruiz has stated that the game design was influenced by that of Food Force, a 2005 game published by the United Nations World Food Programme; the Ruiz team's beta version was put up for review by the public, along with the other finalists, was chosen as the winner. The team received funding to complete the game; the web and application development firm interFUEL was brought in to complete the game design and programming. The game was released at a Save Darfur Coalition rally on 30 March 2006 and the first official player was American speed skater Joey Cheek; the game begins with the player choosing a member of a Darfuri family, displaced by the conflict.
The first of the two modes of the game begins with the player controlling the family member, in follow mode, from the camp to a well and back, while dodging patrols of the janjaweed militia. If captured, the player is informed what has happened to their selected character and asked to select another member of the family and try again. If the water is carried back to the camp, the game switches into its second mode - a top down management view of the camp, where the character must use the water for crops and to build huts; when the water runs out the player must return to the water fetching level to progress. The goal is to keep the camp running for seven days. While most media coverage of the game has concentrated on its advocacy aspect rather than its gameplay, one review has commented that it is unclear in the management mode how to go about growing food and other tasks; the game has been reported by mainstream media sources such as The Washington Post, Time Magazine, BBC News and National Public Radio.
In an early September 2006 interview, Ruiz stated that it is difficult to determine success for a game with a social goal, but stated that more than 800,000 people had played 1.7 million times since its release, of which tens of thousands had forwarded on the game to friends or sent a letter to an elected representative. As of April 2007, the game has been played more than 2.4 million times by over 1.2 million people worldwide. Critics have noted that despite the number of players, the actual crisis was unaffected, the sole outcome of the game was to give publicity to the game's creators; the game has been the focus of debate on its impact. Academics interviewed by the BBC on the game varied between those stating that anything that may spark debate on Darfur and issues surrounding it is a clear gain for the advocates, to those who thought that the game oversimplified a complex situation and thus failed to address the actual issues of the conflict; the game was criticized for the sponsorship of mtvU, raising the possibility that the game might seem like a marketing tool for the corporation.
Darfur is Dying official site Jose Antonio Vargas, "In'Darfur Is Dying,' The Game That's Anything But", Washington Post, 1 May 2006 Michele Norris, "Online Game Peers into Life in Darfur Refugee Camp", National Public Radio, 5 May 2006 Speech by Susana Ruiz in Washington DC, 3 min streaming video hosted by Google Video, 24 May 2006 Speech by Susana Ruiz in Washington DC. Jack Fairweather, "'Ethical' computer games take on shoot-'em-up classics", The Daily Telegraph, 29 June 2006
A carriage bolt, coach bolt or round head square neck bolt is a form of bolt used to fasten metal to wood. It is distinguished from other bolts by its shallow mushroom head and that the shank cross-section of the bolt is circular for most of its length, as usual, but the portion beneath the head is formed into a square section; this makes the bolt self-locking. This allows the fastener to be installed with only a single tool, a spanner or wrench, working from one side; the head of a carriage bolt is a shallow dome. The squared section is of the same size as the diameter of the bolt shank, with a plain unthreaded shank. Carriage bolts were developed for use through iron strengthening plates on either side of a wooden beam, the squared section fitting into a square hole in the ironwork, it is commonplace though to use them to bare timber, the squared section giving enough grip to prevent rotation. Carriage bolts are extensively used for security fixings, such as locks and hinges, where the bolt must only be removable from one side.
The smooth domed head and square nut below prevent the carriage bolt from being unlocked from the insecure side. Related to carriage bolts are timber bolts, meant for use with large wood planks and structures, they have a domed head, proportionally wider than that of a carriage bolt, instead of a square section of shank under the head, they have four sharp-cornered fillets that grip the edge of the hole in the wood to prevent rotation. They are known as mushroom head bolts or dome head bolts, they are used to fasten wood to wood, instead of metal to wood. Plough bolts are a flush-fitting carriage bolt, they were first developed to hold replaceable ploughshares onto the mouldboard of iron ploughs. The share is the most wearing part of the plough and would be replaced several times over the life of the plough; such bolts continue to be used to hold shovels onto cultivators. Coach screw or lag bolt, a square- or hex-headed screw with a tapered woodscrew thread