Minggang East railway station
The Minggang East railway station is a railway station of Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong High-Speed Railway located in Minggang, People's Republic of China. Minggang railway station
Flow measurement is the quantification of bulk fluid movement. Flow can be measured in a variety of ways; the common types of flowmeters that find industrial application can be listed as below: a) Obstruction type b) Inferential c) Electromagnetic d) Positive-displacement flow meters, which accumulate a fixed volume of fluid and count the number of times the volume is filled to measure flow. E) Fluid dynamic f) Anemometer g) Ultrasonic h) Mass flowmeter. Flow measurement methods other than positive-displacement flowmeters rely on forces produced by the flowing stream as it overcomes a known constriction, to indirectly calculate flow. Flow may be measured by measuring the velocity of fluid over a known area. For large flows, tracer methods may be used to deduce the flow rate from the change in concentration of a dye or radioisotope. Both gas and liquid flow can be measured in volumetric or mass flow rates, such as liters per second or kilograms per second, respectively; these measurements are related by the material's density.
The density of a liquid is independent of conditions. This is not the case for gases, the densities of which depend upon pressure, temperature and to a lesser extent, composition; when gases or liquids are transferred for their energy content, as in the sale of natural gas, the flow rate may be expressed in terms of energy flow, such as gigajoule per hour or BTU per day. The energy flow rate is the volumetric flow rate multiplied by the energy content per unit volume or mass flow rate multiplied by the energy content per unit mass. Energy flow rate is derived from mass or volumetric flow rate by the use of a flow computer. In engineering contexts, the volumetric flow rate is given the symbol Q, the mass flow rate, the symbol m ˙. For a fluid having density ρ, mass and volumetric flow rates may be related by m ˙ = ρ Q. Gases change volume when placed under pressure, are heated or are cooled. A volume of gas under one set of pressure and temperature conditions is not equivalent to the same gas under different conditions.
References will be made to "actual" flow rate through a meter and "standard" or "base" flow rate through a meter with units such as acm/h, sm3/sec, kscm/h, LFM, or MMSCFD. Gas mass flow rate can be directly measured, independent of pressure and temperature effects, with thermal mass flow meters, Coriolis mass flow meters, or mass flow controllers. For liquids, various units are used depending upon the application and industry, but might include gallons per minute, liters per second, bushels per minute or, when describing river flows, cumecs or acre-feet per day. In oceanography a common unit to measure volume transport is a sverdrup equivalent to 106 m3/s. A primary flow element is a device inserted into the flowing fluid that produces a physical property that can be related to flow. For example, an orifice plate produces a pressure drop, a function of the square of the volume rate of flow through the orifice. A vortex meter primary flow element produces a series of oscillations of pressure.
The physical property generated by the primary flow element is more convenient to measure than the flow itself. The properties of the primary flow element, the fidelity of the practical installation to the assumptions made in calibration, are critical factors in the accuracy of the flow measurement. A positive displacement meter may be compared to a stopwatch; the stopwatch is started when the flow starts, stopped when the bucket reaches its limit. The volume divided by the time gives the flow rate. For continuous measurements, we need a system of continually filling and emptying buckets to divide the flow without letting it out of the pipe; these continuously forming and collapsing volumetric displacements may take the form of pistons reciprocating in cylinders, gear teeth mating against the internal wall of a meter or through a progressive cavity created by rotating oval gears or a helical screw. Because they are used for domestic water measurement, piston meters known as rotary piston or semi-positive displacement meters, are the most common flow measurement devices in the UK and are used for all meter sizes up to and including 40 mm.
The piston meter operates on the principle of a piston rotating within a chamber of known volume. For each rotation, an amount of water passes through the piston chamber. Through a gear mechanism and, sometimes, a magnetic drive, a needle dial and odometer type display are advanced. An oval gear meter is a positive displacement meter that uses two or more oblong gears configured to rotate at right angles to one another, forming a T shape; such a meter has two sides, which can be called A and B. No fluid passes through the center of the meter. On one side of the meter, the teeth of the gears close off the fluid flow because the elongated gear on side A is protruding into the measurement chamber, while on the other side of the meter, a cavity holds a fixed volume of fluid in a measurement chamber; as the fluid pushes the gears, it rotates them, allowing the fluid in the measurement chamber on side B to be released into the outlet port. Meanwhile, fluid
Anheuser-Busch Companies, LLC is an American brewing company headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri. Since 2008, it has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Anheuser-Busch InBev which has its North American regional management headquarters in St. Louis; the original Anheuser-Busch InBev was formed through successive mergers of three international brewing groups: Interbrew from Belgium, AmBev from Brazil and Anheuser-Busch. Hence, since 2008, Anheuser-Busch has been a division of Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV, now the world's largest brewing company; the company employs over 30,000 people, operates 12 breweries in the United States, until December 2009, was one of the largest theme park operators in the United States, with ten theme parks through the company's family entertainment division, Busch Entertainment Corporation. Anheuser-Busch InBev is the largest beer producer in the world. In 1852, German American brewer and saloon operator George Schneider opened the Bavarian Brewery on Carondelet Avenue between Dorcas and Lynch streets in South St. Louis.
Schneider's brewery expanded in 1856 to a new brewhouse near Crittenden streets. In 1860, the brewery was purchased on the brink of bankruptcy by William D'Oench, a local pharmacist, Eberhard Anheuser, a prosperous German-born soap manufacturer. D'Oench was the silent partner in the business until 1869, when he sold his half-interest in the company. From 1860 to 1875, the brewery was known as E. Anheuser & Co. and from 1875 to 1879 as the E. Anheuser Company's Brewing Association. Adolphus Busch, a wholesaler who had immigrated to St. Louis from Germany in 1857, married Eberhard Anheuser's daughter, Lilly, in 1861. Following his service in the American Civil War, Busch began working as a salesman for the Anheuser brewery. Busch purchased D'Oench's share of the company in 1869, he assumed the role of company secretary from that time until the death of his father-in-law. Adolphus Busch was the first American brewer to use pasteurization to keep beer fresh. By 1877, the company owned a fleet of 40 refrigerated railroad cars to transport beer.
Expanding the company's distribution range led to increased demand for Anheuser products, the company expanded its facilities in St. Louis during the 1870s; the expansions led production to increase from 31,500 barrels in 1875 to more than 200,000 in 1881. To streamline the company's refrigerator car operations and achieve vertical integration, Busch established the St. Louis Refrigerator Car Company in 1878, charged with building and leasing refrigerator cars. To serve these cars and switch them in and out of their St. Louis brewery, Anheuser-Busch founded the Manufacturers Railway Company in 1887; the shortline operated until 2011. During the 1870s, Adolphus Busch toured Europe and studied the changes in brewing methods which were taking place at the time the success of pilsner beer, which included a locally popular example brewed in Budweis. In 1876, Busch introduced Budweiser, with the ambition of transcending regional tastes, his company's ability to transport bottled beer made Budweiser the first national beer brand in the United States, it was marketed as a "premium" beer.
The company was renamed Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association in 1879. The Busch family controlled the company through the generations until Anheuser-Busch's sale to InBev in 2008. During the 1880s and 1890s, Busch introduced a series of advertisements and marketing giveaways for the company, including bottle openers, corkscrews, pocketknives and prints. Among the most well-known of these giveaways was Custer's Last Fight, a lithograph print of a painting by St. Louis artist Cassilly Adams; as a marketing tactic, Busch distributed thousands of copies of the print to bars in 1896, the same year Anheuser-Busch introduced its new "super-premium" brand, Michelob. More than one million copies of the print were produced, it became "one of the most popular pieces of artwork in American history."At the turn of the 20th century, Anheuser-Busch continued to expand its production facilities to keep up with demand. In 1905, the company built a new stockhouse in St. Louis, by 1907 it produced nearly 1.6 million barrels of beer.
As demands for the prohibition of alcohol in the United States grew, Anheuser-Busch began producing non-alcoholic and low-alcoholic beverages. After the death of Adolphus Busch in 1913, control of the company passed to his son, August Anheuser Busch, Sr. who continued to combat the rise of prohibitionists. As part of an effort to improve the respectability of drinking, August Busch built three upscale restaurants in St. Louis during the 1910s: the Stork Inn, the Gretchen Inn, the Bevo Mill; as with all breweries in the country, the Temperance movement and eventual Prohibition in the United States dealt a major blow to the company in the 1910s through the 1930s. Some of the products sold by Anheuser-Busch to survive during Prohibition included brewer's yeast, malt extract, ice cream, Bevo, a nonalcoholic malt beverage, or "near beer". In 1957, Anheuser-Busch became the largest brewer in the United States. In 1981, Anheuser-Busch International, Inc. was established as a subsidi
Beni, sometimes El Beni, is a northeastern department of Bolivia, in the lowlands region of the country. It is the second-largest department in the country, covering 213,564 square kilometers, it was created by supreme decree on November 18, 1842 during the administration of General José Ballivián, its capital is Trinidad. With a population of 420,000, Beni is the second least-populated of the nine departments of Bolivia, after Pando. Although Beni is rich in natural resources, the poverty level of its inhabitants is high as a result of centuries of exploitation of native populations by European-descended elites; the main economic activities are agriculture and cattle. In addition, an underground economy linked to illegal narcotics activities flourished in the area during the last decades of the 20th century, with many cocaine laboratories hidden behind the façade of remote cattle ranches; the Beni region is wide and flat, featuring many large mounds connected by straight earthen causeways, which are believed by researchers to have been built by ancient inhabitants.
The earthwork mounds provide raised living areas and enable the growth of trees that could not survive otherwise in the flooded lowland area. In the 21st century and anthropologists such as Americans Clark Erickson and William Balée believe these earthwork structures are evidence of a large and sophisticated indigenous civilization that flourished for thousands of years before European colonization; the first European settlers in this area were Spanish Jesuit missionaries during the 18th century, sent to convert the native inhabitants, chiefly in the southern half of the department. The religious origins of many of the Beni's towns can be attested to by the centrality of the local church in most of the communities, in the names of the towns: Trinidad, Santa Ana, San Borja, etc. Today, the Beni region is the seat of the Roman Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of El Beni; the importance of cattle ranching is prominent in the regional culture. Cowboys, or "vaqueros", still play an important role in Beni society, comprising a large portion of the working class.
Other industries significant to the region include logging, small-scale fishing and hunting, in recent years, eco-tourism. Though the Beni lies in the southern reaches of the Amazon Basin, an area renowned for tropical disease, the population has fewer health problems than in the Andes Region those related to malnutrition; the inhabitants are descendants of Cruceños who streamed north following the course of navigable rivers, native peoples. The Beniano diet consists of rice, bananas and fish; some popular dishes include Majao and others, many featuring cured/salted meats. The white/mestizo Benianos have traditionally been mistrustful, somewhat contemptuous, of Andean culture, they identify as being lighter skinned and of more Spanish ancestry than the Quechua and Aymara-speaking populations of the highlands. Considerable resentment existed against the central government, which did little to build roads or integrate the Beni into the economy and political life of Bolivia; these attitudes persisted although Beni residents benefited by the Agrarian Reform instituted following the 1952 Revolution, with many citizens gaining ownership of significant tracts of land.
Most of these turned to cattle ranching. The absence of a reliable road linking the department to the main centers of power in the country continued to contribute to the Benianos' perception of isolation, as did a downturn in the cattle industry; as a result, both the white/mestizo population and departmental authorities supported the Santa Cruz-led effort to federalize the country and devolve powers to the departments at the expense of the central government. Considerable social unrest took place in 2007 and 2008, leading some to consider separatism as plausible. Beni was a important center of a pre-Columbian civilization known as the hydraulic culture of Las Lomas, a culture that constructed over 20,000 man-made artificial hills, all interconnected by thousands of square kilometers of aqueducts, embankments, artificial lakes and lagoons, as well as terraces. Between about 4000 BC and the 13th Century AD this region was settled by sophisticated and organized groups of human societies, their civil structures were based, both environmentally and economically, on the use of specific environmental characteristics.
Miles of these channels and man-made earthworks are visible from the air. When the Spanish arrived, the region had been in decline for about three hundred years. However, this is where many products that are now used worldwide originated in native cultivation: among them tobacco, cotton, cassava and sweet potatoes; the Spanish were intensely interested in this area. During the first century of colonization, they believed the mythical city of El Dorado could be found in this region. However, they never found this legendary city of gold and they soon lost interest in the area, which would remain marginalized for several centuries after. Between the 19th and 20th centuries northern Beni became Bolivia's rubber capital; the abundance of rubber trees attracted many people to the region, many of them adventurers and workers to work in the huge rubber plantations that arose. The worl
Guildford railway station, Perth
Guildford Railway Station is a Transperth station 12.5 km from Perth railway station, in Western Australia, on the Midland Line. The station opened in 1881 as the terminus of the original Eastern Railway from Fremantle. In the mid-1880s a second station was built, a third in 1898. In 1960 the main station was demolished for a carpark, but the 1898 shelter and platform still remain
Miller Brewing Company
The Miller Brewing Company is an American beer brewing company headquartered in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The company has brewing facilities in Georgia. On July 1, 2008, SABMiller formed MillerCoors, a joint venture with rival Molson Coors to consolidate the production and distribution of its products in the United States, with each parent company's corporate operations and international operations to remain separate and independent of the joint venture; the joint venture ended after the SABMiller operation was acquired by Anheuser-Busch InBev on October 10, 2016. The new company is called Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV. On October 11, 2016, the company sold the Miller brand portfolio outside the US and Puerto Rico to Molson Coors, which retained "the rights to all of the brands in the MillerCoors portfolio for the U. S. and Puerto Rico". Molson Coors is the sole owner of Miller Brewing Company and plans to keep the MillerCoors name and the Chicago headquarters and to operate the company in much the same manner as before October 11, 2016.
For the consumer, for employees, the change to 100 percent ownership by Molson Coors will not be apparent in the U. S. according to Jon Stern, MillerCoors' director of media relations. "The good news is that none of this impacts Wisconsin. It'll be business as usual. Miller Lite, Coors Light, Miller High Life and Leinenkugel's – and frankly all the rest of our brands will continue to be brewed by us." Miller Brewing Company was founded in 1855 by Frederick Miller after his emigration from Hohenzollern, Germany in 1854 with a unique brewer's yeast. He purchased the small Plank Road Brewery in Milwaukee for $2300; the brewery's location in the Miller Valley in Milwaukee provided easy access to raw materials produced on nearby farms. In 1855, Miller changed its name to Inc.. The enterprise remained in the family until 1966. In 1966, the conglomerate W. R. Grace and Company bought Miller from Mrs. Lorraine John Mulberger and her family. In 1969, Philip Morris bought Miller from W. R. Grace for $130 million.
In 2002, South African Breweries bought Miller from Philip Morris for $3.6 billion worth of stock and $2 billion in debt to form SABMiller, with Philip Morris retaining a 36% ownership share and 24.99% voting rights. In 2006, Miller Brewing purchased Sparks and Steel Reserve brands from McKenzie River Corporation for $215 million cash. Miller had been producing both brands prior to this purchase. In 2007, SABMiller and Molson Coors combined their U. S. operations in a joint venture called MillerCoors. SABMiller owned 58% of the unit, which operated in the United States but not in Canada, where Molson Coors is strongest. Molson Coors owned the rest of the joint venture. In September 2015, Anheuser-Busch Inbev announced that it had reached a full agreement to acquire SABMiller for $107 Billion dollars, As part of the agreement with U. S. regulators for acquiring SABMiller, AB-Inbev agreed to sell its 58 percent interest in MillerCoors to Molson Coors for 12 billion dollars. The merger was completed on October 10, 2016.
In order to obtain approval for the merger from the U. S. Justice Department, SABMiller agreed to divest itself of the Miller brands in the US and Puerto Rico by selling its stake in MillerCoors to Molson Coors Brewing Company. On October 11, 2016, SABMiller in the U. S. sold its interests in MillerCoors to Molson Coors, its partner in the joint venture, for around US$12 billion. Molson Coors gained full ownership of the Miller brand portfolio outside the US and Puerto Rico, retained the rights to all of the brands that were in the MillerCoors portfolio for the U. S. and Puerto Rico. In Canada, Molson Coors regained the right to market Miller Genuine Draft and Miller Lite. However, in the U. S. the change in ownership of MillerCoors/Miller Brewing Company will not be apparent to consumers or to employees. Miller bought the rights to the Hamm's Brewery brands. Hamm's Beer: Winner of the 2007 Gold Medal for American-Style Lager and the 2010 Gold Medal for American-Style Specialty Lager or Cream Ale or Lager at the Great American Beer Festival Hamm's Golden Draft Hamm's Special Light This division is named for the 19th-century name for west State Street in Milwaukee, where the main Miller brewery has been located since its founding.
Icehouse: Icehouse is an ice lager. At 5.5% alcohol by volume, it was the winner of the 2003 and 2007 Gold Medals for American-Style Specialty Lager at the Great American Beer Festival, won the American-style Ice Lager Gold Cup of the 1996 and 1998 World Beer Cup competitions. Icehouse EDGE: Icehouse EDGE is an ice lager/malt liquor and was introduced in June 2012. Red Dog: Although popular during the mid- to late-1990s, Red Dog faded into near obscurity near the start of the 21st century. However, since 2005 it has been returning to stores. Miller has been a large motorsport sponsor since the 1980s. In the CART World Series, the company has sponsored drivers such as Al Unser, Danny Sullivan, Roberto Guerrero, Bobby Rahal and Kenny Bräck, it sponsored the Miller 200 race at Mid-Ohio. In NASCAR Cup Series, Miller has sponsored Bobby Allison from 1983 to 1988, Dick Trickle in 1989, Rusty Wallace from 1990 to 2005, Kurt Busch from 2006 to 2010, Brad Keselowski since 2011. Allison won the 1983 NASCAR Winston Cup Series, Kes
The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor is a type of field-effect transistor, most fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon. It has an insulated gate; this ability to change conductivity with the amount of applied voltage can be used for amplifying or switching electronic signals. A metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor or MISFET is a term synonymous with MOSFET. Another synonym is IGFET for insulated-gate field-effect transistor; the basic principle of the field-effect transistor was first patented by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925. The main advantage of a MOSFET is that it requires no input current to control the load current, when compared with bipolar transistors. In an enhancement mode MOSFET, voltage applied to the gate terminal increases the conductivity of the device. In depletion mode transistors, voltage applied at the gate reduces the conductivity; the "metal" in the name MOSFET is sometimes a misnomer, because the gate material can be a layer of polysilicon.
"oxide" in the name can be a misnomer, as different dielectric materials are used with the aim of obtaining strong channels with smaller applied voltages. The MOSFET is by far the most common transistor in digital circuits, as billions may be included in a memory chip or microprocessor. Since MOSFETs can be made with either p-type or n-type semiconductors, complementary pairs of MOS transistors can be used to make switching circuits with low power consumption, in the form of CMOS logic; the basic principle of this kind of transistor was first patented by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925. In 1959, Dawon Kahng and Martin M. Atalla at Bell Labs invented the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor as an offshoot to the patented FET design. Operationally and structurally different from the bipolar junction transistor, the MOSFET was made by putting an insulating layer on the surface of the semiconductor and placing a metallic gate electrode on that, it used crystalline silicon for the semiconductor and a thermally oxidized layer of silicon dioxide for the insulator.
The silicon MOSFET did not generate localized electron traps at the interface between the silicon and its native oxide layer, thus was inherently free from the trapping and scattering of carriers that had impeded the performance of earlier field-effect transistors. The semiconductor of choice is silicon; some chip manufacturers, most notably IBM and Intel, have started using a chemical compound of silicon and germanium in MOSFET channels. Many semiconductors with better electrical properties than silicon, such as gallium arsenide, do not form good semiconductor-to-insulator interfaces, thus are not suitable for MOSFETs. Research continues on creating insulators with acceptable electrical characteristics on other semiconductor materials. To overcome the increase in power consumption due to gate current leakage, a high-κ dielectric is used instead of silicon dioxide for the gate insulator, while polysilicon is replaced by metal gates; the gate is separated from the channel by a thin insulating layer, traditionally of silicon dioxide and of silicon oxynitride.
Some companies have started to introduce a high-κ dielectric and metal gate combination in the 45 nanometer node. When a voltage is applied between the gate and body terminals, the electric field generated penetrates through the oxide and creates an inversion layer or channel at the semiconductor-insulator interface; the inversion layer provides a channel through which current can pass between source and drain terminals. Varying the voltage between the gate and body modulates the conductivity of this layer and thereby controls the current flow between drain and source; this is known as enhancement mode. The traditional metal-oxide-semiconductor structure is obtained by growing a layer of silicon dioxide on top of a silicon substrate and depositing a layer of metal or polycrystalline silicon; as the silicon dioxide is a dielectric material, its structure is equivalent to a planar capacitor, with one of the electrodes replaced by a semiconductor. When a voltage is applied across a MOS structure, it modifies the distribution of charges in the semiconductor.
If we consider a p-type semiconductor, a positive voltage, V GB, from gate to body creates a depletion layer by forcing the positively charged holes away from the gate-insulator/semiconductor interface, leaving exposed a carrier-free region of immobile, negatively charged acceptor ions. If V GB is high enough, a high concentration of negative charge carriers forms in an inversion layer located in a thin layer next to the interface between the semiconductor and the insulator. Conventionally, the gate voltage at which the volume density of electrons in the inversion layer is the same as the volume density of holes in the body is called the threshold voltage; when the voltage between transistor gate and source exceeds the threshold voltage, the difference is known as overdrive voltage. This structure with p-type body is the basis of the n-type MOSFET, which requires the addition of n-type source and drain regions; the MOS capacitor structure is the heart of the MOSFET. Let's consider a MOS capacitor.
If a positive voltage is applied at