Highbury is a district in North London and part of the London Borough of Islington. The area now known as Islington was part of the larger manor of Tolentone, mentioned in the Domesday Book. Tolentone was owned by Ranulf brother of Ilger and included all the areas north and east of Canonbury and Holloway Roads; the manor house was situated by what is now the east side of Hornsey Road near the junction with Seven Sisters Road. After the manor decayed, a new manor house was built in 1271 to the south-east; the site for Highbury Manor was used by a Roman garrison as a summer camp. During the construction of a new Highbury House in 1781, tiles were found that could have been Roman or Norman. Ownership of Highbury passed to Alicia de Barrow, who in 1271 gave it to the Priory of St John of Jerusalem known as the Knights Hospitallers in England; the wealthy Lord Prior built Highbury manor as a substantial stone country lodging with a grange and barn. In 1381, during the Peasants' Revolt, Jack Straw led a mob of 20,000 rioters who "so offended by the wealth and haughtiness" of the Knights Hospitallers destroyed the manor house.
The Lord Prior at the time, Robert Hales, who had taken refuge in the Tower of London, was captured and beheaded on Tower Hill. Jack Straw and some of his followers used the site as a temporary headquarters; this should not be confused with the better known Jack Straw's Castle a pub and now residential flats at Whitestone Ponds, named after the semi-legendary leader of the revolt. The Manor of Highbury remained the possession of the Knights of St John until it was confiscated by Henry VIII in 1540; the land stayed as crown property until Parliament began selling it in the 17th century. John Dawes, a wealthy stockbroker, acquired the site of Jack Straw's Castle together with 247 acres of surrounding land. In 1781 he built Highbury House at a cost of £ 10,000 on the spot. Over the next 30 years the house was extended by new owners, firstly Alexander Aubert and John Bentley, to include a large observatory and lavish gardens; the grounds around Highbury House started to be sold off in 1794. By 1894 Highbury House and its remaining grounds became a school.
In 1938 Highbury House was demolished and is now the site of Eton House flats, built by the Old Etonian Housing Association in 1939. After the Manor house had been destroyed in 1381, the grange and barn remained on the east side of the track that ran south to Hopping Lane, now St Paul's Road on the line of Highbury Park / Highbury Grove. In 1740 a small ale and cake house was opened in the Highbury. In 1770 William Willoughby took over Highbury Barn and increased its popularity, he expanded its size and facilities, taking over land and buildings from the farm next door, reaching beyond what is now Kelvin Road and created a bowling green, trap-ball grounds and gardens. It could cater for company dinners of 2,000 people and dancing and became one of the most popular venues in London. In 1854 events at the annual balls in the grounds of the Barn included the aeronaut Charles Green's balloon ascent. By 1865 there was a huge dancing platform, a rebuilt theatre, high-wire acts, music hall and the original Siamese twins.
The Barn became the victim of its own success. After a riot led by students from Bart's Hospital in 1869, locals complained about the Barn's riotous and bawdy clientele; this led in 1871 authorities revoked the Barn's dancing licence. By 1794 Highbury consisted of Highbury House and Highbury Hill House, Highbury Barn and the gated terraces of Highbury Terrace and Highbury Place, built on land leased by John Dawes. Highbury may have stayed this way, as the plan was to create a 250 acres park – Albert Park – between St Paul's Road/Balls Pond Road and the Seven Sisters Road. Instead a 27.5 acre site, now Highbury Fields was saved in 1869 and the 115 acre Finsbury Park were created. The rest of the area was developed; the majority of the development of the area occurred in two phases. After this time, development went high-density with close packed terraced houses being built in the north of Highbury. Available land continued to be in-filled with more housing until 1918, but little else changed until after World War II.
A need for a place for Catholic residents of Highbury to worship in the 1920s led to the commissioning of St Joan of Arc's church, thought to be the first dedicated to the saint canonised in 1920, on a site on Kelross Road where the church hall is now located. The church was soon expanded, but the influx of Catholic residents after the war led to a need for a new, larger church; the new church dedicated to St Joan of Arc, designed by Stanley Kerr Bate, opened on 23 September 1962 on Highbury Park. Highbury was again by V-1 flying bombs. On 27 June 1944, a V-1 destroyed Highbury Corner, killing 26 people and injuring 150. Highbury Corner had an impressive station and hotel which were damaged in this attack but its main building remained in use until demolished in the 1960s during the building of the Victoria Line; the original westbound platform buildings remain on the opposite side of Holloway Road, as does a small part of the original entrance to the left of the present station entrance. A red plaque, mount
MG F / MG TF
For the MG TF Midget of 1953 to 1955, see MG T-type. The MG F and MG TF are mid-engined, rear wheel drive roadster cars that were sold under the MG marque by three manufacturers between 1995 and 2011; the MG F was the first new model designed as an MG since the MGB, produced from 1962 to 1980, the marque spent the 1980s being used to denote performance models from parent Austin Rover Group, was seen on the MG RV8, a limited edition re-launch of the MG MGB, sold between 1993 and 1995. The MG F was designed by Rover Group during the period it was owned by British Aerospace and was brought to market after the business had been sold to the German car manufacturer BMW; the BMW owned Rover Group manufactured the model from 1995 to 2000. BMW broke up Rover Group in 2000, divesting the Rover and MG passenger car businesses to a management buy-out who formed the independent MG Rover business. MG Rover manufactured the MG F from 2000 onwards updating it to become the MG TF in 2002. MG Rover entered administration in 2005.
The remains of the MG Rover business were sold to Nanjing Automobile and the MG TF resumed production under the Nanjing owned MG Motor in 2007. The model, by heavily outdated, was not a sales success and production ceased for a second and final time in 2011. MG had stopped producing sports cars in 1980 when British Leyland closed their Abingdon, Oxfordshire plant, although the badge of MG was used on badge-engineered hatchbacks and saloons between 1982 and 1991. In 1992, the company restarted production of the classic MGB as the limited edition RV8, positive reaction led the company to develop the MG F. During the 1980s, a number of new MG sports cars had been hinted at with the appearance of concept cars at motor shows, but none of these cars went into production. By 1991, Rover was working of a new mid-engined sports car similar in size to the launched Mazda MX5 and Lotus Elan; the final product, the MG F, was unveiled on 8 March 1995,and went on sale in September that year with a 1.8 litre 120bhp engine, was joined several months by a 145bhp VVC version.
It received plaudits for its excellent ride and handling. The MG F received a mild facelift in August 1999, by which time a high performance Supersport version was in the pipeline, but this version was never launched, it was revised and renamed using the historic TF name in January 2002, but production was halted, following the collapse of the MG Rover Group in April 2005. However, after Nanjing Automobile Group acquired the rights to the MG TF, the completion of the new factory for MG in Nanjing saw production being restarted in March 2007 before being stopped in 2011 without an immediate successor; the MG F was launched in the Northern Hemisphere autumn of 1995 by the Rover Group, making it the third car to be launched since the takeover by BMW. It was powered by a 1.8 L K-Series 16-valve engine, the basic having 118 hp while the more powerful VVC had 143 hp. Although popular across Rover's model range, when fitted to the MGF the K-series engine was plagued by head gasket failure attributed to the more complex nature of cooling a mid-engine car.
Rover did little to address this, with owners having to meet the cost of expensive repairs themselves early in the life of their vehicles. Rover Special Projects oversaw the development of the F's design and before finalising the styling bought-in outside contractors to determine the most appropriate mechanical configuration for the new car. Steve Harper of MGA Developments produced the initial design concept in January 1991, before Rover's in house design team refined the concept under the leadership of Gerry McGovern. An interesting feature of the F was its Hydragas suspension, a system employing interconnected fluid and gas displacers which provided a compliant ride but which could be tuned to provide excellent handling characteristics; the MG F shot to the top of the affordable sports car charts in Britain, remained there until the introduction of the MG TF in 2002. The MG F underwent a facelift in autumn of 1999, gave the car a revised interior as well as styling tweaks and fresh alloy wheels designs.
There was the introduction of a base 1.6 version and a more powerful 160 hp variant called the Trophy 160, which had a 0-60 mph time of 6.9 seconds. The Trophy was only produced for a limited time. An automatic version with a CVT called the Steptronic was introduced in 2001; the MG F continued to sell well in spite of the sale of the Rover Group, announced in March 2000. Land Rover was sold to Ford, while the MG and Rover marques were sold to the Phoenix consortium for £10. In spite of competition from the likes of Mazda MX-5, BMW Z3 and Audi TT, the MG F still proved popular. A total of 77,269 MG, and 799 Limited versions Project EXF represents a limited production of five single-seat MG F sports cars that allude to historic land-speed records set by MG between 1930 and 1959. Known as the F, the MG car features standard MG F components, a turbocharged 1.4L Rover K-Series engine, a drag coefficient of less than 0.25. On 20 August 1997, the F achieved a top speed of 217 mph at the SpeedWeek festivities in Bonneville, United States.
In 2002, the MG TF was named after the MG TF Midget of the 1950s. Based upon the MG F platform, but redesig
President (corporate title)
The President is a leader of an organization, community, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between the president and the Chief Executive Officer varies, depending on the structure of the specific organization. In a similar vein to the Chief Operating Officer, the title of corporate President as a separate position is loosely defined; the powers of the president vary across organizations and such powers come from specific authorization in the bylaws like Robert's Rules of Order. The term "president" was used to designate someone who presided over a meeting, was used in the same way that "foreman" or "overseer" is used now, it has now come to mean "chief officer" in terms of administrative or executive duties. In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the president has the duties of presiding over meetings; such duties at meetings include: calling the meeting to order determining if a quorum is present announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up recognition of members to have the floor enforcing the rules of the group putting all questions to a vote adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the president should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group.
In committees or small boards, the president votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the president should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the president only has one vote; the powers of the president vary across organizations. In some organizations the president has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the president only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the president has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the president depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself. If the president exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform the duties, the president may face disciplinary procedures; such procedures may include suspension, or removal from office. The rules of the particular organization would provide details on who can perform these disciplinary procedures and the extent that they can be done.
Whoever appointed or elected the president has the power to discipline this officer. Some organizations may have a position of President-Elect in addition to the position of President; the membership of the organization elects a President-Elect and when the term of the President-Elect is complete, that person automatically becomes President. Some organizations may have a position of Immediate Past President in addition to the position of President. In those organizations, when the term of the President is complete, that person automatically fills the position of Immediate Past President; the organization can have such a position. The duties of such a position would have to be provided in the bylaws. Bennett, Nathan. Riding Shotgun: The Role of the COO. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-5166-8. National Association of Parliamentarians®, Education Committee. Spotlight on You the President. Independence, MO: National Association of Parliamentarians®. ISBN 1-884048-15-3
Abingdon-on-Thames AB-ing-dən-, known just as Abingdon between 1974 and 2012, is an historic market town and civil parish in the ceremonial county of Oxfordshire, England. The county town of Berkshire, since 1974 Abingdon has been administered by the Vale of White Horse district within Oxfordshire; the area was occupied from the early to middle Iron Age and the remains of a late Iron Age and Roman defensive enclosure lies below the town centre. Abingdon Abbey was founded around AD 676. In the 13th and 14th centuries, Abingdon was an agricultural centre with an extensive trade in wool, alongside weaving and the manufacture of clothing. Charters for the holding of markets and fairs were granted by various monarchs, from Edward I to George II; the town survived the dissolution of the abbey in 1538, by the 18th and 19th centuries, with the building of Abingdon Lock in 1790, Wilts & Berks Canal in 1810, was a key link between major industrial centres such as Bristol, London and the Black Country.
In 1856 the Abingdon Railway opened. The Wilts & Berks Canal was abandoned in 1906 but a voluntary trust is now working to restore and re-open it. Abingdon railway station was closed to passengers in September 1963; the line remained open for goods until 1984, including serving the MG car factory, which operated from 1929 to October 1980. Abingdon's brewery, whose most famous ale, Old Speckled Hen, was named after an early MG car, was taken over and closed down by Greene King Brewery in 1999, with production moving to Bury St Edmunds in Suffolk; the site of the brewery has been redeveloped into housing. The rock band Radiohead formed in 1985; the 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 33,130. This is 2,504 more than in the 2001 Census total of 30,626, represents just over 8% growth in the population. Abingdon is 6 miles south of Oxford, 15 miles south-east of Witney and 19 miles north of Newbury in the flat valley of the Thames on its west bank, where the small river Ock flows in from the Vale of White Horse.
It is on the A415 between Witney and Dorchester, adjacent to the A34 trunk road, linking it with the M4 and M40 motorways. The B4017 and A4183 link the town, both being part of the old A34 and heavily congested. Local bus services to Oxford and the surrounding areas are run by Stagecoach Oxfordshire, Thames Travel, the Oxford Bus Company and smaller independent companies. Abingdon has no rail service. However, in recent years, urban expansion has brought Radley railway station close to town's northeastern limits; the small stopping-service, railway stations at Culham and Radley are both just over two miles from the town centre. Abingdon's eastern ring-road and newest suburbs are connected by footpath and cycleway from Radley railway station; the Radley to Abingdon railway station branch line closed to passengers in 1963. The nearest major stations with taxi ranks are Didcot Parkway. All are managed by Great Western Railway. Frequent express buses operate between the local railway stations and Abingdon, run by Oxford Bus Company and its sister company Thames Travel.
A Neolithic stone hand axe was found at Abingdon. Petrological analysis in 1940 identified the stone as epidotised tuff from Stake Pass in the Lake District, 250 miles to the north. Stone axes from the same source have been found at Sutton Courtenay, Alvescot and Minster Lovell. Abingdon has been occupied from the early to middle Iron Age and the remains of a late Iron Age defensive enclosure lies below the town centre; the oppidum was in use throughout the Roman occupation. Abingdon Abbey was founded in Saxon times around AD 676, but its early history is confused by numerous legends, invented to raise its status and explain the place name; the name seems to mean'Hill of a man named Æbba, or a woman named Æbbe' the saint to whom St Ebbe's Church in Oxford was dedicated. However, Abingdon stands in a valley and not on a hill, it is thought that the name was first given to a place on Boars Hill above Chilswell, the name was transferred to its present site when the Abbey was moved. In 1084, William the Conqueror celebrated Easter at the Abbey and left his son, the future Henry I, to be educated there.
In the 13th and 14th centuries, Abingdon was a flourishing agricultural centre with an extensive trade in wool and a famous weaving and clothing manufacturing industry. The abbot seems to have held a market from early times and charters for the holding of markets and fairs were granted by various sovereigns, from Edward I to George II. In 1337 there was a famous riot in protest at the Abbot's control of this market in which several of the monks were killed. After the abbey's dissolution in 1538, the town sank into decay and, in 1556, upon receiving a representation of its pitiable condition, Mary I granted a charter establishing a mayor, two bailiffs, twelve chief burgesses and sixteen secondary burgesses, the mayor to be clerk of the market, coroner and a JP; the present Christ's Hospital belonged to the Guild of the Holy Cross, on the dissolution of which Edward VI founded the almshouses instead, under its present name. The council was empowered to elect one burgess to parliament and this right continued until the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885.
A town clerk and other officers were appointed and the town boundaries described in great detail. Charters, from Elizabeth I, James I, James II, George II and George III, made no considerable change. James II changed the style of the corporation to that of a mayor, twelve
Francis Curzon, 5th Earl Howe
Francis Richard Henry Penn Curzon, 5th Earl Howe, styled as Viscount Curzon from 1900 to 1929, was a British naval officer, Member of Parliament, motor racing driver and promoter. In the 1918 UK General Election he won the Battersea South seat as the candidate of the Conservative Party, which he held until 1929. While in Parliament he took up motor racing, won the 1931 24 Hours of Le Mans race, he ascended to the Peerage in 1929. Earl Howe co-founded the British Racing Drivers' Club with Dudley Benjafield in 1928, served as its President until his death in 1964. Francis, Viscount Curzon, joined the Royal Naval Reserve after leaving school, following in a long family tradition. 28 October 1907, Lieutenant Viscount Curzon, RNVR of the London Division, was appointed Commanding Officer of the Sussex Division of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve in Hove, with the rank of Commander RNVR. When World War I started the RNVR was formed into the Royal Naval Division and they were to fight on land like infantrymen not sailors.
Commander the Rt. Hon. Viscount Curzon served as Battalion Commander, Howe Battalion of the 2nd Brigade RND. Howe Battalion saw action at Gallipoli, April 1915 – January 1916. During part of this period Curzon served as aide-de-camp to George V. Following the armistice Viscount Curzon moved into politics. In the 1918 General Election he won the Battersea South seat; when the RNVR was reconstituted in 1921 Viscount Curzon resumed his position as the commanding officer of the Sussex division with the rank of Captain. Following his father's death in 1929 Francis Curzon ascended to the title Earl Howe, making him ineligible for Parliamentary re-election, he was appointed a Privy Counsellor in the 1929 Dissolution Honours. However, during his years as an MP Curzon had begun to become involved in motor racing. An associate of the infamous Bentley Boys, he was instrumental in forming the ideas which led Dudley Benjafield to set up the British Racing Drivers' Club in 1928; the newly ennobled Earl Howe was elected its President at the BRDC's first Annual General Meeting in 1929.
Francis Curzon made his race debut at the comparatively old age of 44, in the 1928 Irish TT with a Bugatti Type 43. After leaving the House of Commons he pursued his driving career with increasing vigour. During the 1930s he became a well known driver, competing in many national and international races, most notably the 24 Hours of Le Mans, he entered the endurance classic six times between 1935, only missing the 1933 event. For the first year he was entered as a part of the Bentley factory team, but latterly he entered his own cars. Driving his own Alfa Romeo 6C with co-driver Leslie Callingham he won the 2-litre class at the 1930 race, he upgraded to an Alfa Romeo 8C for the 1931 24 Hours of Le Mans, won the race outright driving in partnership with Henry Birkin. Away from La Sarthe, Earl Howe drove in a variety of automobiles. Indeed, in the mid-1930s he was credited by Time magazine as having "Europe's most elaborate" collection of racing cars. Although patriotic, he was forced to buy and run cars built outside the UK, as once Bentley had withdrawn from motor sport there were no realistically competitive British-built machines available.
He favored the Bugatti marque and campaigning several Bugattis. He won the Donington Park Trophy race in 1933, added to his victory haul with a win in the 1938 Grosvenor Grand Prix, at Cape Town in South Africa. In addition to these two victories he took podium finishes in eleven other major races between 1933 and 1939, became one of only two men to have competed in every running of the RAC Tourist Trophy at Ards, the other being E. R. Hall. In 1937, Howe was injured in an accident driving his pale blue and silver – Howe's personal racing colours – English Racing Automobiles R8B, while challenging the Thai Royal family competitor Prince Bira for the lead in the Campbell Trophy at the Brooklands circuit. Aside from assuming the Presidency of the BRDC, Earl Howe served as Vice-President of the FIA's Commission Sportive Internationale, the governing body of international motorsport at the time, he kept motorsport issues on the political landscape, with numerous speeches in the House of Lords. The start of the Second World War ended Earl Howe's front line driving career, he returned to the Navy.
At the end of the conflict he moved into race organising, although he continued to prepare and enter cars for other drivers, including Tazio Nuvolari. As President of the BRDC and Patron of the newly formed 500 Club, he was instrumental in the resumption of motor racing and applied political pressure to allow airfields to be used for motor sport, he was involved with organising the first British Grand Prix, at Silverstone in 1948, which gained full Formula One World Championship status at the Championship's inception in 1950. He instituted the annual BRDC International Trophy meeting at the same circuit. Under Earl Howe's 35-year stewardship, the BRDC went from private dining club to one of the most successful and high-profile motor sport associations in the world. Today the BRDC maintains a prestigious award in his memory: The Earl Howe Trophy, awarded annually "to the highest placed British Driver in the Indy 500 race or to the British driver who has established the most meritorious performance
Hausach is a town in the Ortenaukreis, in western Baden-Württemberg, first mentioned in 1259. The ruin of Husen Castle built around 1220 towering above the town is a landmark and part of Hausachs slogan "Stadt unter der Burg". Hausach is located in the Kinzig river valley 32 km east of the river Rhine between Offenburg and Wolfach; the river Kinzig starts in the Black Forest near Loßburg and meets the Rhine near Kehl just opposite of Strasbourg. The town council has 18 seats; the last election on May 25th 2014 gave the Freie Wähler as well as the CDU 6 of them. The SPD took 4 seats, the Grüne 2. Hausach's coat of arms displays the red framework of a gable roof on silver ground. Hausach is twinned with: Arbois, France Hausach's Official Website Tourist Office Kinzigtal
William Morris, 1st Viscount Nuffield
William Richard Morris, 1st Viscount Nuffield was an English motor manufacturer and philanthropist. He was the founder of Morris Motors Limited and is remembered as the founder of the Nuffield Foundation, the Nuffield Trust and Nuffield College, Oxford, he took his title from the village of Nuffield in Oxfordshire. Morris was born in 1877 at 47 Comer Gardens, a terraced house in the Comer Gardens area of Worcester, about 2 miles northwest of the centre of Worcester, England, he was his wife Emily Ann, daughter of Richard Pether. When he was three years old his family moved to Oxford. Upon leaving school at the age of 15 Morris was apprenticed to repairer. Nine months after his employer refused him a pay increase, aged 16 he set up a business repairing bicycles in a shed at the back of his parents' house; this business being a success he opened a shop at 48 High Street and began to assemble as well as repair bicycles, labelling his product with a gilt cycle wheel and The Morris. Morris raced his own machines competing as far away as south London.
He did not confine himself to one distance or time and at one point was champion of Oxford and Buckinghamshire for distances varying between one and fifty miles. He began to work with motorcycles in 1901, designing the Morris Motor Cycle, in 1902 acquired buildings in Longwall Street from which he repaired bicycles, operated a taxi service, sold and hired cars, he held the agency for Arrol-Johnston, Humber, Singer and Wolseley cars. In 1910 he built new premises in Longwall Street—described by a local newspaper as The Oxford Motor Palace—changed his business's name from The Oxford Garage to The Morris Garage and still had to take more premises in Queen Street; the Longwall Street site was redeveloped in 1980, retaining the original frontage, is now used as student accommodation by New College. In 1912 he designed a car, the "bullnose" Morris and using bought-in components began to build them at a disused military training college in Cowley, Oxford; the outbreak of World War I saw the nascent car factory given over to the production of munitions—including 50,000 minesinkers for the North Sea Minefield—but in 1919 car production revived rising from 400 cars in that year to 56,000 in 1925.
Morris pioneered the introduction to the United Kingdom of Henry Ford's techniques of mass production. During the period 1919–1925 he built or purchased factories at Abingdon and Swindon to add to those in Oxford. In February 1927, in competition against—amongst others—its creator, Herbert Austin, Morris paid £730,000 for the assets of the collapsed Wolseley Motors Limited which became his personal property. Wolseley were at this stage in advanced development of an overhead camshaft 8 hp car, which he launched as the first Morris Minor in 1928; the original MG Midget, launched in 1929, was based on the Minor. When major component suppliers had difficulties he purchased them on his own account, his American engines were now made under licence for him by Hotchkiss in Coventry. When in 1923 they were unwilling to expand production Morris bought their business and called it Morris Engines Limited, it would become Morris engines branch when he sold it to Morris Motors. Again when back-axle manufacturer E. G. Wrigley and Company ran into financial difficulties he bought and reconstituted it as Morris Commercial Cars Limited to manufacture an expanded truck and bus offering.
Following the same policy he bought the manufacturer of SU Carburettors in 1926. Impressed by American all-steel bodies he persuaded Edward G Budd of Budd Corporation to enter a joint venture with him called Pressed Steel Company which erected their large factory at Cowley opposite Morris's own and with a connecting bridge in 1926, but the two business tycoons had each met their match. In 1930 the High Court ended their disagreements by obliging Morris to surrender his and his colleagues' membership of the Pressed Steel board and all Morris holdings and Morris lost all the capital he had invested in the venture. Morris was "the most famous industrialist of his age". On New Year's day 1938 he was ennobled as Viscount Nuffield. In September 1938 he bought the bankrupt Riley and Autovia companies from the Riley family selling them to Morris Motors Limited, he had added another personal investment, Wolseley Motors Limited, to the portfolio of Morris Motors Limited in 1935. After he was ennobled as Baron Nuffield instead of the Morris Organization the whole gallery of all his personal enterprises were promoted as the Nuffield Organization.
There was no legal substance to either of these groupings. The Supermarine Spitfire was a technically advanced aircraft. Though ordered by the Air Ministry in March 1936 by early 1938 no single plane had been made. Lord Nuffield had offered his own expertise, that of his Morris Organization, to design and construct a vast new factory at Castle Bromwich, to his own ideas of industrial planning, claiming he would build four times as many planes there as any other factory in the country. Although the Treasury opposed the idea, having concerns about his control over the design of the project and its costs, the huge "Nuffield Project" was approved at a cost of £1.125 million by the Air Secretary and Morris, now Nuffield, placed in charge of it. Within a year, with the factory still not built, the costs had increased to £4.15 million due to constant changes in site layout and design. Nuffield had claimed he could produce 60 Spitfires a week but by May 1940, the height of the Battle of France, not one Spitfire had been built at Castle Bromwich.