The DIN sync standard called Sync24, defines an interface for electronic music instruments. It was introduced in the early 1980s by Roland Corporation for the synchronization of music sequencers, drum machines and similar devices, it has since been superseded in the mid to late 1980s. The DIN sync standard consists of two signals and run/stop. Both signals are TTL compatible, meaning the low state is 0 V and the high state is about +5 V; the clock signal is a low frequency pulse wave suggesting the tempo. Instead of measuring the waveform's frequency, the machine receiving the signal has to count the number of pulses to work out when to increment its position in the music. Roland equipment uses 24 pulses per quarter note, known as Sync24. Therefore, a Roland compatible device playing sixteenth notes would have to advance to the next note every time it receives 6 pulses. Korg equipment uses 48 pulses per quarter note; the run/stop signal shows. The DIN sync standard is so named because it uses 5 pin DIN connectors, the same as used for MIDI.
DIN sync. Note that despite using the same connectors as MIDI, it uses different pins on these connectors, so a cable made for MIDI will not have the pins required for DIN sync physically connected via wires. In some applications the remaining pins are used as "tap", "fill in" or "reset and start", but this differs from one device to another. If a device is a DIN sync sender, the positive slope of start/stop must reset the clock signal, the clock signal must start with a delay of 9 ms. A detailed description on how to implement a DIN sync sender with Play, Pause and Stop functionality was published by E-RM Erfindungsbuero; the MIDI interface is electrically not compatible with DIN sync. The MIDI protocol contains MIDI clock. MIDI clock works with 24 "ticks" per quarter note. "Analog clock" signals are equivalent to the clock signal at pin 3 of DIN sync interface. The clock rate is higher than the DIN sync's rate. Typical values are 96 or 192 pulses per quarter note. "Analog trigger" signals transfer a pulse per musical event.
For instance a trigger corresponds to a step of an analog sequencer or an arpeggiator, a step in a rhythm pattern. Typical analog triggers run at four pulses per quarter note; the combination of DIN sync with a different clock system can be achieved either by converting the format and / or the clock rate or by using a central unit, which provides multiple clock formats. The approach with a masterclock is chosen if a synchronization with absolute time is required, such as synchronisation with a tape recorder or with video footage. Typical devices which can act as a master clock and provide DIN sync include the Roland SBX-80, Roland SBX-10, Friendchip SRC, E-RM midiclock⁺ and Yamaha MSS1. Many drum machines which have DIN sync and MIDI clock outputs can act as master clock for those two formats. Though DIN sync and MIDI clock have the same clock rate, they require a conversion of the format within a microprocessor or similar; the conversion from MIDI clock to DIN sync is available in many industrial devices.
For the conversion from DIN sync to MIDI clock there is at the moment only the device'Sync-Split2' of the company Innerclock Systems. Two no longer produced devices do this type of conversion: Roland SBX10, Korg KMS30. On September 1st 2014, Roland introduced the SBX-1 which provides MIDI to sync24 or sync48 conversion. To get an analog trigger or clock from the DIN syncs clock signal one has to use digital frequency division or frequency multiplication. There are no dedicated industrial devices; the Roland SBX10 can convert into a 48, 96, 120 PPQN clock. Some devices have a DIN sync input as well as DIN sync output, other device have only a single DIN socket which sometimes can be switched between input and output. Note that sync48 devices can be combined with sync24 devices, if 32nd notes are programmed instead of 16th notes. MIDI beat clock MIDI timecode Doepfer general FAQ: Sync specification E-RM Erfindungsbuero DIN Sync implementation report Philip Rees MDS Sync Unit DC - freeware DIN Sync generator ByteNoise: DIN sync
Burnt-in timecode is a human-readable on-screen version of the timecode information for a piece of material superimposed on a video image. BITC is sometimes used in conjunction with "real" machine-readable timecode, but more used in copies of original material on to a non-broadcast format such as VHS, so that the VHS copies can be traced back to their master tape and the original time codes located. Many professional VTRs can "burn" the tape timecode onto one of their outputs; this output monitor out. The character switch or menu item turns this behaviour off; the character function is used to display the timecode on the preview monitors in linear editing suites. Videotapes that are recorded with timecode numbers overlaid on the video are referred to as window dubs, named after the "window" that displays the burnt-in timecode on-screen; when editing was done using magnetic tapes that were subject to damage from excessive wear, it was common to use a window dub as a working copy for the majority of the editing process.
Editing decisions would be made using a window dub, no specialized equipment was needed to write down an edit decision list which would be replicated from the high-quality masters. Timecode can be superimposed on video using a dedicated overlay device called a "window dub inserter"; this inputs a video signal and its separate timecode audio signal, reads the timecode, superimposes the timecode display over the video, outputs the combined display, all in real time. Stand-alone timecode generator / readers have the window dub function built-in; some consumer cameras, in particular DV cameras, can "burn" the tape timecode onto the composite output. This output is semi-transparent and may include other tape information, it is activated by turning on the'display' info in one of the camera's sub-menus. While not as'professional' as an overlay as created by a professional VCRs, it is a cheap alternative, just as accurate. Timecode is stored in the metadata areas of captured DV AVI files, some software is able to "burn" this into the video frames.
For example, DVMP Pro is able to "burn" other items of DV metadata into DV AVI files. OCR techniques can be used to read BITC in situations where other forms of timecode are not available. Linear timecode Vertical interval timecode SMPTE time code MIDI timecode CTL timecode AES-EBU embedded timecode Rewritable consumer timecode
A music sequencer is a device or application software that can record, edit, or play back music, by handling note and performance information in several forms CV/Gate, MIDI, or Open Sound Control, audio and automation data for DAWs and plug-ins. The advent of Musical Instrument Digital Interface and the Atari ST home computer in the 1980s gave programmers the opportunity to design software that could more record and play back sequences of notes played or programmed by a musician; this software improved on the quality of the earlier sequencers which tended to be mechanical sounding and were only able to play back notes of equal duration. Software-based sequencers allowed musicians to program performances that were more expressive and more human; these new sequencers could be used to control external synthesizers rackmounted sound modules, it was no longer necessary for each synthesizer to have its own devoted keyboard. As the technology matured, sequencers gained more features, such as the ability to record multitrack audio.
Sequencers used for audio recording are called digital audio workstations. Many modern sequencers can be used to control virtual instruments implemented as software plug-ins; this allows musicians to replace expensive and cumbersome standalone synthesizers with their software equivalents. Today the term "sequencer" is used to describe software. However, hardware sequencers still exist. Workstation keyboards have their own proprietary built-in MIDI sequencers. Drum machines and some older synthesizers have their own step sequencer built in. There are still standalone hardware MIDI sequencers, although the market demand for those has diminished due to the greater feature set of their software counterparts. Music sequencers can be categorized by handling data types, such as: MIDI data on the MIDI sequencers CV/Gate data on the analog sequencers and others Automation data for mixing-automation on the DAWs, the software effect / instrument plug-ins on the DAWs with sequencing features Audio data on the audio sequencers including DAW, loop-based music software, etc..
Alternative subsets of audio sequencers include: Also, music sequencer can be categorized by its construction and supporting modes. Realtime sequencers record the musical notes in real-time as on audio recorders, play back musical notes with designated tempo and pitch. For editing "punch in/punch out" features originated in the tape recording are provided, although it requires sufficient skills to obtain the desired result. For detailed editing another visual editing mode under graphical user interface may be more suitable. Anyway, this mode provides usability similar to audio recorders familiar to musicians, it is supported on software sequencers, DAWs, built-in hardware sequencers. Analog sequencers are implemented with analog electronics, play the musical notes designated by a series of knobs or sliders corresponding to each musical note, it is designed for live performance. And possibly, the time-interval between each musical note can be independently adjustable. Analog sequencers are used to generate the repeated minimalistic phrases which may be reminiscent of Tangerine Dream, Giorgio Moroder or trance music.
On step sequencers, musical notes are rounded into steps of equal time-intervals, users can enter each musical note without exact timing. On the bass machines: select a step note from a chromatic keypads select a step duration from a group of length-buttons, sequentially. On the several home keyboards: in addition to the realtime sequencer, a pair of step trigger button is provided. In general, step mode, along with quantized semi-realtime mode, is supported on the drum machines, bass machines and several groove machines. Software sequencer is a class of application software providing a functionality of music sequencer, provided as one feature of the DAW or the integrated music authoring environments; the features provided as sequencers vary depending on the software. The user may control the software sequencer either by using the graphical user interfaces or a specialized input devices, such as a MIDI controller; the early music sequencers were sound producing devices such as automatic musical instruments, music boxes, mechanical organs, player pianos, Orchestrions.
Player pianos, for example, had much in common with contemporary sequencers. Composers or arrangers transmitted music to piano rolls which were subsequently edited by technicians who prepared the rolls for mass duplication. Consumers were able to purchase these rolls and play them back on their own player pianos; the origin of automatic musical instruments seems remarkably old. As early as the 9th century, Persian inventors Banū Mūsā brothers invented a hydropowered organ using exchangeable cylinders with pins, an automatic flute playing machine using steam power, as described in their Book of Ingenious Devices. In the 1
MIDI is a technical standard that describes a communications protocol, digital interface, electrical connectors that connect a wide variety of electronic musical instruments and related audio devices for playing and recording music. A single MIDI link through a MIDI cable can carry up to sixteen channels of information, each of which can be routed to a separate device or instrument; this could be sixteen different digital instruments, for example. MIDI carries event messages, data that specify the instructions for music, including a note's notation, velocity, panning to the right or left of stereo, clock signals; when a musician plays a MIDI instrument, all of the key presses, button presses, knob turns and slider changes are converted into MIDI data. One common MIDI application is to play a MIDI keyboard or other controller and use it to trigger a digital sound module to generate sounds, which the audience hears produced by a keyboard amplifier. MIDI data can be recorded to a sequencer to be edited or played back.
A file format that stores and exchanges the data is defined. Advantages of MIDI include small file size, ease of modification and manipulation and a wide choice of electronic instruments and synthesizer or digitally-sampled sounds. A MIDI recording of a performance on a keyboard could sound like a piano or other keyboard instrument. A MIDI recording is not an audio signal, as with a sound recording made with a microphone. Prior to the development of MIDI, electronic musical instruments from different manufacturers could not communicate with each other; this meant that a musician could not, for example, plug a Roland keyboard into a Yamaha synthesizer module. With MIDI, any MIDI-compatible keyboard can be connected to any other MIDI-compatible sequencer, sound module, drum machine, synthesizer, or computer if they are made by different manufacturers. MIDI technology was standardized in 1983 by a panel of music industry representatives, is maintained by the MIDI Manufacturers Association. All official MIDI standards are jointly developed and published by the MMA in Los Angeles, the MIDI Committee of the Association of Musical Electronics Industry in Tokyo.
In 2016, the MMA established the MIDI Association to support a global community of people who work, play, or create with MIDI. In the early 1980s, there was no standardized means of synchronizing electronic musical instruments manufactured by different companies. Manufacturers had their own proprietary standards to synchronize instruments, such as CV/gate and Digital Control Bus. Roland founder Ikutaro Kakehashi felt the lack of standardization was limiting the growth of the electronic music industry. In June 1981, he proposed developing a standard to Oberheim Electronics founder Tom Oberheim, who had developed his own proprietary interface, the Oberheim System. Kakehashi felt the system was too cumbersome, spoke to Sequential Circuits president Dave Smith about creating a simpler, cheaper alternative. While Smith discussed the concept with American companies, Kakehashi discussed it with Japanese companies Yamaha and Kawai. Representatives from all companies met to discuss the idea in October.
Using Roland's DCB as a basis and Sequential Circuits engineer Chet Wood devised a universal synthesizer interface to allow communication between equipment from different manufacturers. Smith proposed this standard at the Audio Engineering Society show in November 1981; the standard was discussed and modified by representatives of Roland, Korg and Sequential Circuits. Kakehashi favored the name Universal Musical Interface, pronounced you-me, but Smith felt this was "a little corny". However, he liked the use of "instrument" instead of "synthesizer", proposed the name Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Moog Music founder Robert Moog announced MIDI in the October 1982 issue of Keyboard. At the 1983 Winter NAMM Show, Smith demonstrated a MIDI connection between Prophet 600 and Roland JP-6 synthesizers; the MIDI specification was published in August 1983. The MIDI standard was unveiled by Kakehashi and Smith, who received Technical Grammy Awards in 2013 for their work; the first MIDI synthesizers were the Roland Jupiter-6 and the Prophet 600, both released in 1982.
1983 saw the release of the first MIDI drum machine, the Roland TR-909, the first MIDI sequencer, the Roland MSQ-700. The first computers to support MIDI were the NEC PC-88 and PC-98 in 1982, the MSX released in 1983. MIDI's appeal was limited to professional musicians and record producers who wanted to use electronic instruments in the production of popular music; the standard allowed different instruments to communicate with each other and with computers, this spurred a rapid expansion of the sales and production of electronic instruments and music software. This interoperability allowed one device to be controlled from another, which reduced the amount of hardware musicians needed. MIDI's introduction coincided with the dawn of the personal computer era and the introduction of samplers and digital synthesizers; the creative possibilities brought about by MIDI technology are credited for helping revive the music industry in the 1980s. MIDI introduced capabilities. MIDI sequencing makes it possible for
Digital audio workstation
A digital audio workstation is an electronic device or application software used for recording and producing audio files. DAWs come in a wide variety of configurations from a single software program on a laptop, to an integrated stand-alone unit, all the way to a complex configuration of numerous components controlled by a central computer. Regardless of configuration, modern DAWs have a central interface that allows the user to alter and mix multiple recordings and tracks into a final produced piece. DAWs are used for the production and recording of music, speech, television, podcasts, sound effects and nearly any other situation where complex recorded audio is needed. Early attempts at digital audio workstations in the 1970s and 1980s faced limitations such as the high price of storage, the vastly slower processing and disk speeds of the time. In 1978, Soundstream built what could be considered the first digital audio workstation using some of the most current computer hardware of the time.
The Digital Editing System, as Soundstream called it, consisted of a DEC PDP-11/60 minicomputer running a custom software package called DAP, a Braegen 14"-platter hard disk drive, a storage oscilloscope to display audio waveforms for editing, a video display terminal for controlling the system. Interface cards that plugged into the PDP-11's Unibus slots provided analog and digital audio input and output for interfacing to Soundstream's digital recorders and conventional analog tape recorders; the DAP software could perform edits to the audio recorded on the system's hard disks and provide effects such as crossfades. By the late 1980s, a number of consumer level computers such as the MSX, Apple Macintosh, Atari ST and Commodore Amiga began to have enough power to handle digital audio editing. Engineers used Macromedia's Soundedit, with Microdeal's Replay Professional and Digidesign's "Sound Tools" and "Sound Designer" to edit audio samples for sampling keyboards like the E-mu Emulator II and the Akai S900.
Soon, people began to use them for simple two-track audio CD mastering. In 1989, Sonic Solutions released the first professional disk-based nonlinear audio editing system; the Mac IIfx-based Sonic System, based on research done earlier at George Lucas’ Sprocket Systems, featured complete CD premastering, with integrated control of Sony’s industry standard U-matic tape-based digital audio editor. This combination of audio software and hardware was the earliest commercial example of what is now referred to as a Digital Audio Workstation or DAW. In 1994, a company in California named OSC produced a 4-track editing-recorder application called DECK that ran on Digidesign's hardware system, used in the production of The Residents' "Freakshow". Many major recording studios "went digital" after Digidesign introduced its Pro Tools software, modeled after the traditional method and signal flow in most analog recording devices. At this time, most DAWs were Apple Mac based. Around 1992, the first Windows based DAWs started to emerge from companies such as IQS Innovative Quality Software, Soundscape Digital Technology, SADiE, Echo Digital Audio, Spectral Synthesis.
All the systems at this point used dedicated hardware for their audio processing. In 1993, the German company Steinberg released Cubase Audio on Atari Falcon 030; this version brought DSP built-in effects with 8-track audio recording & playback using only native hardware. The first Windows based software-only product, introduced in 1993, was Samplitude. In 1996, Steinberg introduced Cubase VST, which could record and play back up to 32 tracks of digital audio on an Apple Macintosh without need of any external DSP hardware. Cubase not only modelled a tape-like interface for recording and editing, but modelled the entire mixing desk and effects rack common in analog studios; this revolutionised the DAW world, both in features and price tag, was imitated by most other contemporary DAW systems. An integrated DAW consists of a mixing console, control surface, audio converter, data storage in one device. Integrated DAWs were more popular before available personal computers became powerful enough to run DAW software.
As computer power and speed increased and price decreased, the popularity of costly integrated systems with console automation dropped. Systems such as the Orban Audicy became standard production equipment at radio and television stations. DAW can refer to the software itself, but traditionally, a computer-based DAW has four basic components: a computer, either a sound card or audio interface, digital audio editor software, at least one input device for adding or modifying data; this could be as simple as a mouse or as sophisticated as a piano-style MIDI controller keyboard or automated fader board for mixing track volumes. The computer acts as a host for the sound card/audio interface, while the software provides the interface and functionality for audio editing; the sound card/external audio interface converts analog audio signals into digital form, digital back to analog audio when playing it back. The software controls all related hardware components and provides a user interface to allow for recording and playback.
Computer-based DAWs have extensive recording and playback capabilities. For example, musically, t