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Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions is an Internet standard that extends the format of email messages to support text in character sets other than ASCII, as well as attachments of audio, video and application programs. Message bodies may consist of multiple parts, header information may be specified in non-ASCII character sets. Email messages with MIME formatting are transmitted with standard protocols, such as the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, the Post Office Protocol, the Internet Message Access Protocol; the MIME standard is specified in a series of requests for comments: RFC 2045, RFC 2046, RFC 2047, RFC 4288, RFC 4289 and RFC 2049. The integration with SMTP email is specified in RFC 1521 and RFC 1522. Although the MIME formalism was designed for SMTP, its content types are important in other communication protocols. In the HyperText Transfer Protocol for the World Wide Web, servers insert a MIME header field at the beginning of any Web transmission. Clients use the content type or media type header to select an appropriate viewer application for the type of data indicated.

Browsers contain GIF and JPEG image viewers. The presence of this header field indicates; the value is "1.0". The field appears as follows: MIME-Version: 1.0 According to MIME co-creator Nathaniel Borenstein, the version number was introduced to permit changes to the MIME protocol in subsequent versions. However, Borenstein admitted short-comings in the specification that hindered the implementation of this feature: "We did not adequately specify how to handle a future MIME version.... So if you write something that knows 1.0, what should you do if you encounter 2.0 or 1.1? I sort of thought it was obvious but it turned out everyone implemented that in different ways, and the result is that it would be just about impossible for the Internet to define a 2.0 or a 1.1." This header field indicates the media type of the message content, consisting of a type and subtype, for example Content-Type: text/plain Through the use of the multipart type, MIME allows mail messages to have parts arranged in a tree structure where the leaf nodes are any non-multipart content type and the non-leaf nodes are any of a variety of multipart types.

This mechanism supports: simple text messages using text/plain text plus attachments. A MIME message including an attached file indicates the file's original name with the "Content-disposition:" field, so that the type of file is indicated both by the MIME content-type and the filename extension reply with original attached alternative content, such as a message sent in both plain text and another format such as HTML image, audio and application many other message constructs The original MIME specifications only described the structure of mail messages, they did not address the issue of presentation styles. The content-disposition header field was added in RFC 2183 to specify the presentation style. A MIME part can have: an inline content-disposition, which means that it should be automatically displayed when the message is displayed, or an attachment content-disposition, in which case it is not displayed automatically and requires some form of action from the user to open it. In addition to the presentation style, content-disposition provides parameters for specifying the name of the file, the creation date and modification date, which can be used by the reader's mail user agent to store the attachment.

The following example is taken from RFC 2183, where the header field is defined: The filename may be encoded as defined in RFC 2231. As of 2010, a majority of mail user agents did not follow this prescription fully; the used Mozilla Thunderbird mail client ignores the content-disposition fields in the messages and uses independent algorithms for selecting the MIME parts to display automatically. Thunderbird prior to version 3 sends out newly composed messages with inline content-disposition for all MIME parts. Most users are unaware of. Many mail user agents send messages with the file name in the name parameter of the content-type header instead of the filename parameter of the content-disposition header field; this practice is discouraged, as the file name should be specified either with the parameter filename, or with both the parameters filename and name. In HTTP, the response header field Content-Disposition: attachment is used as a hint to the client to present the response body as a downloadable file.

When receiving such a response, a Web browser prompts the user to save its content as a file, instead of displaying it as a page in a browser window, with filename suggesting the default file name. In sure June 1992, MIME defined a set of methods for representing binary data in formats other than ASCII text format; the content-transfer-encoding: MIME header field has 2-sided significance: It indicates whether or not a binary-to-text encoding scheme has been used on top of the original encoding as specified within the Content-Type header:If such a binary-to-text encoding method has been used, it states which one. If not, it provides a descriptive label for the format of content, with respect to the presence of 8-bit or binary content; the RFC and the IANA's list of transfer encodings define the values shown below, which are not

Clan MacQuarrie

Clan MacQuarrie is an ancient Highland Scottish clan which owned the islands of Ulva and Gometra as well as large tracts of land on the Isle of Mull, which are all located in the Scottish Inner Hebrides. Clan MacQuarrie is one of the seven Siol Alpin clans descended from the Kings of the Picts and Dál Riata. Clan MacQuarrie is one of the four oldest Highland clans and can trace its ancestry to 9th century Kenneth MacAlpine, the first King of Scots. A 1450 manuscript describes the descent of Clan MacQuarrie from their namesake progenitor Guaire, brother of Fingon and Anrias, they were fierce fighters in the Wars of Scottish Independence and fought in support of King Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Clan MacQuarrie is first found in possession of the island of Ulva in the Scottish Inner Hebrides, followed the Lords of the Isles; the first record of Clan MacQuarrie is of the chief John Macquarrie of Ulva, who died in 1473. John's son, was the chief of the clan during the forfeiture of the Lord of the Isles, after which the MacQuarries gained independence as a small, respected clan surrounded by a powerful ally in Clan MacLean.

Following the fall of the Lordship of the Isles the clan followed Maclean of Dowart, with the Macleans, the MacQuarries supported Domhnall Dubh's quest for the Lordship of the Isles at the beginning of the 16th century. In 1504 MacGorry of Ullowaa, along with other chiefs, was summoned to answer for aiding in Domhnall Dubh's failed rebellion; the clan suffered grievously at the Battle of Inverkeithing on 20 July 1651, where they fought on the side of Charles II of England against an English Parliamentarian army led by John Lambert. During the battle many Scots deserted, the remaining Scots were decisively defeated by the well-disciplined New Model Army of the English. Amongst the slain were Allan Macquarrie of Ulva, chief of Clan MacQuarrie, most of his followers. Clan MacQuarrie does not have a chief; the last chief of Clan MacQuarrie was Lauchlan Macquarrie of Ulva. MacQuarrie was head of the clan when Samuel Johnson and James Boswell visited Ulva in 1773. Debts to creditors forced the last chief to sell off his lands.

The chief served in the American Revolutionary War, died at the age of 103 on 14 January 1818. The last chief and his wife Alice Maclean, daughter of Donald Maclean, 5th Laird of Torloisk, Isle of Mull, had eight children - four sons and four daughters. Three of his sons died without issue. In July 1761, Donald was commissioned as one of the junior Ensigns in the Fencible Men of Argyllshire. After discharge from the army he moved to Liverpool, on 28 October 1790 married Martha Lea at St Nicholas Church, Liverpool, they had one daughter, as recorded in a manuscript genealogy found amongst the papers of Lt. Colonel Charles MacQuarrie, it was compiled during the lifetime of the last Chief and because of certain births that are mentioned it was written sometime between 28 March 1816 and 14 January 1818. It states that Donald "follows the seafaring business and has one daughter, married, in Liverpool, to the master of a trading vessel, employed in the foreign trade." Furthermore, the Liverpool Directory for the year 1818 describes Donald as "a Mariner, of 13 Ansdell Street, Liverpool."

The above-mentioned daughter, thus granddaughter of Lauchlan MacQuarrie the XVI and last Chief of the clan, was called Agnes MacQuarrie and she was married on 28 January 1816 at Holy Trinity Church, Liverpool, to Captain William Danson, Master of the Frances, a ship named after his mother, Master of the Thisbe of Liverpool. A record of their marriage was published in the Monthly Magazine Vol. 41, 1816 - "Capt. William Danson of Workington to Miss McQuarrie of Liverpool". On 6 April 1824, the Thisbe of Liverpool was reported to have sailed from Liverpool to Quebec, but it never arrived; the wreck of the Thisbe was reported in the Montreal Gazette on 24 Sep 1824: "A Jolly Boat with Thisbe of Liverpool on the stern, was picked up by the Margaret Ann, arrived at Miramichi, in longitude 36. The boat was bottom up; this vessel, it is stated sailed from Liverpool in April last with a valuable cargo for Montreal and has not since been heard of." Captain William Danson, his wife Agnes, née MacQuarrie, four of their children perished on this journey, but their daughter Thisbe Danson survived and had issue, with descendants living today in the UK and Pennsylvania, USA.

Donald MacQuarrie of Ansdell Street was buried in Liverpool on 10 June 1821 aged 75, his wife Martha on 16 December 1827 aged 71. A large portion of the ancient patrimonial property was repurchased by Major-General Lachlan Macquarie, brother of Lt. Colonel Charles MacQuarrie and Governor of New South Wales, from whom Port Macquarie and Macquarie Island in the South Pacific derive their names. On 16 July 1804 both Lachlan MacQuarrie, the last Chief of the Clan, his son Donald were present at the "christening" of Jarvisfield, the estate belonging to Major General Lauchlan Macquarie on the Isle of Mull. Governor Lachlan's mother and the last Chief were half-cousins, they both shared Lachlan MacQuarrie, the XIV Chief, as grandfather, but descended from different wives. Today, the clan MacQuarrie is much alive with an active society of global members. Since nobody has claimed to be the next Chief for 200 years now, the chiefdom has lain dormant; the current h

Kamera Obskura

Kamera Obskura is a 2012 Filipino drama film produced and directed by Raymond Red. It was co-written by Red and Pen Medina, who stars as the protagonist of a fictional lost film recovered by film archivists. Film archivists uncover a lost Filipino black-and-white silent film about an escaped convict who uses a magic camera to help the people of a small town. After showing the 70-minute film, the archivists debate its significance and the best way to preserve Filipino cinema. Pen Medina as Juan, star of the lost silent film Joel Torre Nanding Josef Abe Pagtama Suzette Ranillo Ping Medina Irene Gabriel Lou Veloso Bert Habal Archie Adamos Madlen Nicolas Teddy Co Cesar Hernando Ricky Orellana Red was influenced by Metropolis and Zelig. Red says. Kamera Obskura premiered at the 8th Cinemalaya Independent Film Festival on July 21, 2012. Richard Kuipers of Variety wrote that Red "succeeds marvelously in conceptual and visual terms, but his soundtrack strategy is to divide audiences". Oggs Cruz of Twitch Film criticized both the score and the fictional film-within-a-film but called the concept "utterly brilliant".

Kamera Obskura won Best Original Music Score, Best Direction, Special Jury Prize at Cinemalaya. Kamera Obskura on IMDb Kamera Obskura at Rotten Tomatoes

Hotel (1967 film)

Hotel is a 1967 Technicolor film adaptation of the novel of the same name written by Arthur Hailey. The film stars Rod Taylor, Catherine Spaak, Karl Malden, Kevin McCarthy, Michael Rennie, Merle Oberon, Melvyn Douglas, it is directed by Richard Quine. The story takes place at the fictional St Gregory Hotel in New Orleans, owned by Warren Trent; the hotel is in financial trouble. Hotel manager Peter McDermott involves himself in the proposals from three potential buyers of the property, he takes a romantic interest in Jeanne Rochefort, the beautiful French mistress of one of the bidders, deals with a wide range of routine problems, including a faulty elevator. Jeanne is the mistress of Curtis O'Keefe, who intends to renovate and "modernize" the hotel, with conveyor belts carrying luggage automatically around the building as if it were some sort of modern airport terminal, presenting the customer's bill on a conveyor belt. While this is O'Keefe's vision for a hotel of the future, his immediate plans for the St. Gregory are different: He would remove the fountain in the center of the lobby and replace it with a circular news stand and bookstore.

Among the guests at the hotel are the Duke and Duchess of Lanbourne, a wealthy couple hiding out after fleeing from an accident in their car. A hotel detective, attempts to blackmail the Duke and Duchess; the Duchess responds by asking Dupere to drive the car from the accident to Washington D. C. for $25,000, but he gets caught outside of the city. Keycase, a professional thief, is working the hotel using a range of techniques and some female accomplices. In the beginning of the film he picks up a discarded key found in an ashtray at the airport. During the course of the film he sneaks into hotel rooms and steals the guests' money, but now that they can buy things by credit card, he finds that most of the guests carry little cash. Meanwhile, a black couple, Dr. Elmo Adams and his wife, attempt to rent a room at the St. Gregory, having made a reservation. However, Trent tells the assistant manager filling in for McDermott not to allow them accommodation; the Adamses are denied their room, the couple disappear only to be followed by a man with a camera.

When McDermott finds out he berates Trent for doing something that would jeopardize the preferred bid, from a union that will maintain the style – and jobs – of the St. Gregory. After tracking them down to another hotel, McDermott offers the couple their room back, but when he goes to pick them up, they have left the hotel. After contacting the NAACP, they inform McDermott that they had not had anything planned for the St. Gregory in terms of pushing to allow blacks to check into the hotel; the couple winds up in a Washington newspaper, damaging both O'Keefe's deal and the alternate deal with the union, leaving only the option of selling the hotel to a buyer who plans to destroy it and build an office tower. O'Keefe asks Trent, who brings McDermott along, to hear it. During the meeting, McDermott gets a call revealing that "Dr." Elmo Adams is not a doctor after all and works as an employee for an O'Keefe Hotel in Philadelphia. McDermott reveals that O'Keefe offered him $20,000 to convince Trent to take the deal, implies that Rochefort slept with him so that he wouldn't be at the hotel to properly handle the arrival of the black guests.

Hotel owner Trent decides to reject the unscrupulous O'Keefe's offer and sell the St. Gregory to the man who will demolish it. Keycase's luck changes when he blithely talks himself out of one tough spot by grabbing an ordinary-looking attache case, which belongs to the Duke and Duchess, he gets to a room, calms his pounding heart, uses one of his key collection to open the case to see what it contains. The case is filled with the cash to pay off Dupere. Counting himself lucky, Keycase heads for the elevator to leave. In the elevator, Keycase is joined by other guests; the elevator stops between floors. McDermott and his assistant manager take the adjacent elevator to the same level and transfer passengers through the roof; the Duke and Keycase are the last two in the failing car. Keycase refuses to leave his briefcase; the Duke is able to wrestle the case away and help Keycase out of the car, but right the brakes fail, sending the Duke to his death. The Duchess tells police she was responsible for the auto accident, hoping to save her late husband's reputation.

She saves Dupere by denying that any blackmail had occurred. The police detectives, seeing through the ruse, decide not to press charges. McDermott rounds up the remaining guests, including Jeanne, buys drinks on the house as a final toast to the St. Gregory. Rod Taylor as Peter McDermott Catherine Spaak as Jeanne Rochefort Karl Malden as Keycase Milne Melvyn Douglas as Warren Trent Richard Conte as Det. Dupere Merle Oberon as the Duchess Caroline Michael Rennie as the Duke of Lanbourne Kevin McCarthy as Curtis O'Keefe Carmen McRae as Christine Alfred Ryder as Capt. Yolles Roy Roberts as Bailey Al Checco as Herbie Chandler Sheila Bromley as Mrs. Grandin Harry Hickox as Sam William Lanteau as Mason Ken Lynch as Joe Laswell Clinton Sundberg as Lawrence Morgan Tol Avery as Kilbrick Davis Roberts as Dr. Elmo Adams Hotel Hotel List of American films of 1967 Hotel on I

Erga omnes

Erga omnes is a Latin phrase which means "towards all" or "towards everyone". In legal terminology, erga omnes rights or obligations are owed toward all. For instance, a property right is an erga omnes entitlement, therefore enforceable against anybody infringing that right. An erga omnes right can here be distinguished from a right based on contract, unenforceable except against the contracting party. In international law, it has been used as a legal term describing obligations owed by states towards the community of states as a whole. An erga omnes obligation exists because of the universal and undeniable interest in the perpetuation of critical rights. Any state has the right to complain of a breach. Examples of erga omnes norms include genocide; the concept was recognized in the International Court of Justice's decision in the Barcelona Traction case:… an essential distinction should be drawn between the obligations of a State towards the international community as a whole, those arising vis-à-vis another State in the field of diplomatic protection.

By their nature, the former are the concern of all States. In view of the importance of the rights involved, all States can be held to have a legal interest in their protection; such obligations derive, for example, in contemporary international law, from the outlawing of acts of aggression, of genocide, as from the principles and rules concerning the basic rights of the human person, including protection from slavery and racial discrimination. Some of the corresponding rights of protection have entered into the body of general international law... others are conferred by international instruments of a universal or quasi-universal character. In its opinion of 9 July 2004, the International Court of Justice found "the right of peoples to self-determination" to be a right erga omnes; the finding referred to article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. The UN’s International Law Commission has codified the erga omnes principle in its draft articles on State responsibility as it, in article 48 of these articles, allows all States to invoke a State responsibility which another State incurred due to its unlawful actions, if “the obligation breached is owed to the international community as a whole”.

The ILC refers directly in its comments to this article to the erga omnes principle and the ICJ’s acceptance of it in the Barcelona Traction case. Inter partes Jus cogens

Clinton Avenue Five

The Clinton Avenue Five are five young men who disappeared on August 20, 1978, in Newark, New Jersey. The name is derived from the street; the case went cold. The five teenagers were: Melvin Pittman, aka "Ricky", 17 Ernest Taylor, 17 Alvin Turner, 16 Randy Johnson, 16 Michael McDowell, 16Thirty years in November 2008, while in police custody on an unrelated charge and after a 13-hour interrogation, Philander Hampton confessed that he and his cousin, local contractor Lee Anthony Evans, had lured the teenagers to his former Newark residence with the promise of employment. Angry at the boys for stealing marijuana from his home, Evans had Hampton hold two of them at gunpoint while he rounded up the other three; the boys were locked in. Evans set the house on fire with five gallons of gasoline, all five boys perished. After making this confession, Hampton led investigators to the site of the fire, where authorities searched the grounds for human remains using sonar equipment, but none were found. To date, the remains of the five boys have not been found.

On March 22, 2010, Evans and Hampton were charged with felony murder and arson. Each was held on $5 million bail at the Essex County Jail. Shortly thereafter, Rogers Taylor, a brother of victim Ernest Taylor, said that in 2008 Evans had confessed to him his involvement in the murder. Despite this confession, Judge Peter Vazquez noted Evans' strong ties to the community, his lack of a criminal record, the prosecution's difficult case as reasons for his decision to lower bail from $5 million to $1.25 million and to $950,000. Evans' family posted this amount in the form of three pieces of property. Evans was released from the 32nd anniversary of the teens' murders. Philander Hampton pleaded guilty to the murders at his August 2011 trial and was sentenced to ten years in prison plus $15,000 in relocation expenses upon his release, he was released from custody on February 27, 2017. In September 2011, Floria Turner-McDowell, mother of victim Alvin Turner, had her son declared dead and filed a wrongful death suit against Evans and Hampton two months later.

Lee Anthony Evans represented himself at his November 2011 trial and was acquitted closing the 33-year-old cold case. However, one of the victim's brother Rodgers Taylor, key witness in the case falsely accused a court watcher of going to his house the "night before" and trying to intimidate Taylor about the case. After a small investigation by the Court Judge Costello it was determined that Rodgers Taylor was lying and fabricated the entire event. In November 2013, Evans filed a lawsuit against the Essex County Prosecutor's Office, the Newark police department, United States Senator Cory Booker, claiming he was the victim of malicious prosecution and that his arrest was a political conspiracy to get then-Mayor Booker elected to a second term in office. State and city officials filed motions on January 22, 2015, to dismiss the complaint, stating that Evans had not provided a factual basis to conclude that any of the ECPO defendants had deprived him of his constitutional rights. A third man has been considered a suspect in the case.

This was Maurice Woody-Olds, who died of natural causes in 2008. All three of the suspects are cousins. List of people who disappeared Melvin Pittman at Find a Grave Ernest Taylor at Find a Grave Alvin Turner at Find a Grave Randy Johnson at Find a Grave Michael McDowell at Find a Grave