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MIPS architecture

MIPS is a reduced instruction set computer instruction set architecture developed by MIPS Computer Systems, now MIPS Technologies, based in the United States. There are multiple versions of MIPS: including MIPS I, II, III, IV, V; the early MIPS architectures were 32-bit only. As of April 2017, the current version of MIPS is MIPS32/64 Release 6. MIPS32/64 differs from MIPS I–V by defining the privileged kernel mode System Control Coprocessor in addition to the user mode architecture; the MIPS architecture has several optional extensions. MIPS-3D, a simple set of floating-point SIMD instructions dedicated to common 3D tasks, MDMX, a more extensive integer SIMD instruction set using the 64-bit floating-point registers, MIPS16e which adds compression to the instruction stream to make programs take up less room, MIPS MT, which adds multithreading capability. Computer architecture courses in universities and technical schools study the MIPS architecture; the architecture influenced RISC architectures such as Alpha.

The first version of the MIPS architecture was designed by MIPS Computer Systems for its R2000 microprocessor, the first MIPS implementation. Both MIPS and the R2000 were introduced together in 1985; when MIPS II was introduced, MIPS was renamed MIPS I to distinguish it from the new version. MIPS Computer Systems' R6000 microprocessor was the first MIPS II implementation. Designed for servers, the R6000 was fabricated and sold by Bipolar Integrated Technology, but was a commercial failure. During the mid-1990s, many new 32-bit MIPS processors for embedded systems were MIPS II implementations because the introduction of the 64-bit MIPS III architecture in 1991 left MIPS II as the newest 32-bit MIPS architecture until MIPS32 was introduced in 1999. AMIPS Computer Systems' R4000 microprocessor was the first MIPS III implementation, it was designed for use in personal and server computers. MIPS Computer Systems aggressively promoted the MIPS architecture and R4000, establishing the Advanced Computing Environment consortium to advance its Advanced RISC Computing standard, which aimed to establish MIPS as the dominant personal computing platform.

ARC found little success in personal computers, but the R4000 were used in workstation and server computers by its largest user, Silicon Graphics. Other uses of the R4000 included high-end embedded supercomputers. MIPS III was implemented by a number of embedded microprocessors. Quantum Effect Design's R4600 and its derivatives was used in high-end embedded systems and low-end workstations and servers. MIPS Technologies' R4200, was designed for embedded systems and personal computers. A derivative, the R4300i, fabricated by NEC Electronics, was used in the Nintendo 64 game console; the Nintendo 64, along with the PlayStation, were among the highest volume users of MIPS architecture processors in the mid-1990s. The first MIPS IV implementation was the MIPS Technologies R8000 microprocessor chipset; the design of the R8000 began at Silicon Graphics, Inc. and it was only used in high-end workstations and servers for scientific and technical applications where high performance on large floating-point workloads was important.

Implementations were the MIPS Technologies R10000 and the Quantum Effect Devices R5000 and RM7000. The R10000, fabricated and sold by NEC Electronics and Toshiba, its derivatives were used by NEC, Pyramid Technology, Silicon Graphics, Inc. and Tandem Computers in workstations and supercomputers. The R5000 and R7000 found use in high-end embedded systems, personal computers, low-end workstations and servers. A derivative of the R5000 from Toshiba, the R5900, was used in Sony Computer Entertainment's Emotion Engine, which powered its PlayStation 2 game console. Announced on October 21, 1996 at the Microprocessor Forum 1996 alongside the MIPS Digital Media Extensions extension, MIPS V was designed to improve the performance of 3D graphics transformations. In the mid-1990s, a major use of non-embedded MIPS microprocessors were graphics workstations from SGI. MIPS V was completed by the integer-only MDMX extension to provide a complete system for improving the performance of 3D graphics applications.

MIPS V implementations were never introduced. On May 12, 1997, SGI announced the "H1" and "H2" microprocessors; the former was to have been the first MIPS V implementation, was due to be introduced in the first half of 1999. The "H1" and "H2" projects were combined and were canceled in 1998. While there have not been any MIPS V implementations, MIPS64 Release 1 was based on MIPS V and retains all of its features as an optional Coprocessor 1 feature called Paired-Single; when MIPS Technologies was spun-out of Silicon Graphics in 1998, it refocused on the embedded market. Up to MIPS V, each successive version was a strict superset of the previous version, but this property was found to be a problem, the architecture definition was changed to define a 32-bit and a 64-bit architecture: MIPS32 and MIPS64. Both were introduced in 1999. MIPS32 is based on MIPS II with some additional features from MIPS III, MIPS IV, MIPS V. Philips, LSI Logic, IDT, Raza Microelectronics, Inc. Cavium, Loongson Technology and Ingenic Semiconductor have since joined them.

MIPS32/MIPS64 Release 5 was

Cieszyn Silesia Euroregion

Euroregion Cieszyn Silesia is one of the euroregions between Poland and Czech Republic. It has area of more than 680,000 inhabitants; the largest cities are Havířov from Czech side. It was established on 22 April 1998, it comprises a large part of the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia: in Poland: 12 municipalities of the Cieszyn County, 2 municipalities of the Bielsko County, 1 municipality in Wodzisław County and Jastrzębie Zdrój. in the Czech Republic: 16 municipalities of the Karviná District and 24 municipalities in the eastern part of the Frýdek-Místek District. Wide development of the region exchange of experience and information support for culture and sport in the region development of regional transport infrastructure improvement of the security of citizens tourism development cooperation between schools and support for ecological initiatives Olza Czantoria Wielka Godów, Silesian Voivodeship Official homepage Euregio-teschinensis

Molo San Vincenzo Lighthouse

Molo San Vincenzo Lighthouse is an active lighthouse located at the end of the western side to the entrance of the Port of Naples, Campania on the Tyrrhenian Sea. The first lighthouse was built in 1487 under the reign of Ferdinand I of Naples on plan of Luca Bengiamo and was called Torre San Vincenzo, however the lighthouse was damaged in 1495 in the clashes between the Aragonese and the French and rebuilt under Frederick of Naples. In 1624 the lantern was destroyed by fire and the reconstruction, attributed to Pietro De Marino, was completed in 1626. In 1843 a lighthouse, 43 metres high, was built on the Molo Beverello and in 1933 it was destroyed in order to enlarge the harbour; the current lighthouse was activated in 1916 and consists of a red masonry cylindrical tower, 24 feet high, with balcony and lantern, mounted on a stone square prism block base. The tower is characterized by three windows framed in white; the lantern, painted in white and the dome in grey metallic, is positioned at 25 metres above sea level and emits three white flashes in a 15 seconds period, visible up to a distance of 22 nautical miles.

The lighthouse is automated and is operated by the Marina Militare with the identification code number 2424 E. F. List of lighthouses in Italy Naples Servizio Fari Marina Militare

Manor of Denbury

Denbury is an historic manor in Devonshire, England. The manor house, known as Denbury Manor is situated on the edge of the village of Denbury; the manor of Denbury was long owned by the Reynell family of East Ogwell in Devon seated at adjoining West Ogwell. The Reynell estates passed by marriage to the Taylor family. In 1726 Joseph Taylor married Rebecca Whitrow, daughter of John Whitrow of Dartmouth and niece and heiress of Richard Reynell of East Ogwell, West Ogwell and of Denbury, twice elected a Member of Parliament for Ashburton 1702-8 and 1711-34. Joseph Taylor was the son of Captain Joseph Taylor, Royal Navy, of Plymouth, whose family was from Lyme Regis in Dorset, captain of the flag-ship stationed at Plymouth at the time of the death of Queen Anne in 1714; the mural monument of Captain Joseph Taylor is in Denbury Church sculpted by John Weston of Exeter, is in the shape of a grey obelisk on the top part of, sculpted a portrait medallion, on the lower part a relief-sculpted anchor and other naval symbols and several canon which appear to lie behind the obelisk, with an inscribed sarcophagus below.

The lengthy Latin inscription, now much faded, was composed by his friend Dr. Williams, of Exeter. Joseph Taylor was a Member of Parliament for Ashburton 1739-41 and was educated at Exeter College, Oxford and as a law student at the Middle Temple. Richard Reynell had bequeathed his estates "to be sold for the benefit of" his niece Rebecca Whitrow, Taylor's wife, Taylor duly purchased such estates as the "absolute estate of inheritance — in Devon or elsewhere" which, as required by his marriage settlement, he settled upon his wife and his eldest son. Thomas Taylor, eldest son, who married Eliza Pierce and heiress of Adam Pierce of Yendacott in the parish of Shobrooke, Devon; as her surviving correspondence reveals she was "a cultured and intelligent woman, who had strong opinions of her own concerning not only the running of her life but on the subjects of books and literature". In about 1750 Thomas Taylor began to rebuild the manor house at West Ogwell, as recorded by Polwhele: "Three parts of this parish at present are the property of Mr Taylor who built a large house here about forty years ago but left it unfinished.

It stands near the church and is occupied by Farmer Howard, who rents the estate and whose family are more than half the parisioners." Pierce Joseph Taylor of West Ogwell and of Denbury House and heir, who in 1790 completed the rebuilding of West Ogwell House commenced by his father. The manor house of East Ogwell was abandoned, Polwhele wrote of East Ogwell Church: "Close adjoining to the church are the ivy-grown ruins of the mansion house of the Reynells, inhabited at present by large flocks of pigeons". Pierce Joseph Taylor was educated at Eton College and his correspondence whilst a pupil there to his mother survives, he was promoted to Lt-Captain to Captain in the 3rd Dragoon Guards in January 1779. In 1781 when a Captain in the 21st Light Dragoons his portrait was painted by John Downman, he married Charlotte Cooke, 5th daughter of Rev. William Cooke, Dean of Ely and Provost of King's College, Cambridge, his son was Maj-Gen Thomas William Taylor, CB, of West Ogwell House, an officer of the Honourable East India Company at Madras, Lt-Gov of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst and a Groom of the Bedchamber to King William IV, whose mural monument survives in Denbury Church.

In 1807 Denbury was sold by the Taylor family of West Ogwell to Mrs. Robert Froude, mother of Rev. Robert Froude, Archdeacon of Totnes, Rector of Dartington and Rector of Denbury. Denbury was conveyed to her two daughters for life; the present manor house comprises a 17th-century core to, added a Georgian facade, with pseudo-mediaeval alterations in 1825 by Rev. Hurrell Froude, son of the Archdeacon and an Anglican priest and an early leader of the Oxford Movement. Walter Septimus Curtis was the owner of the estate in the early 1900s, he was lord of adjoining Newton Abbot and Newton Bushel. He was educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, he was the 3rd and youngest son of John Curtis by his wife Juliana Davies, eldest daughter of John Davies of Manchester. Walter's grandfather was Matthew Curtis of Thornfield in the parish of Heaton Mersey, the leading manufacturer of cotton-spinning machinery in Britain and thrice Mayor of Manchester. Walter married Eleanor Francis Master and heiress of Robert Edward Master, JP, Madras Civil Service, of Hillingdon Furze, Middlesex, by whom he had one son, Robert Master Curtis and 6 daughters, including Lettice Curtis an aviator, flight test engineer, air racing pilot, sportswoman.

Walter Curtis made substantial additions including the gatehouse and the high and long boundary wall in which it is set built between 1912 and 1914, which stretches from the village of Denbury for several hundred yards along the roadside, past Denbury Green. His coat of arms is sculpted on a stone tablet above the inner entrance of the gatehouse. In 1975 Denbury manor house was the home of Lt-Col. Cyril Moseley Townsend, Durham Light Infantry


The Oreet is a kinship group among the Kalenjin people of Kenya, similar in concept to a clan. The members of an oreet were not related by blood as evidenced by the adoption of members of the Uasin Gishu Maasai by Arap Sutek, the only Nandi smith at the time, his proteges would be adopted into every other clan as smiths. More famously, the lineage of the Talai Orkoiik were adopted members of the Segelai Maasai. Membership and identification by Oreet traditionally served the purpose of regulating marriage, arbitrating in murder cases and a support system when payment of blood money was required. In modern Kenya, identification by oreet is declining among the Kalenjin; however oreet histories have gained prominence as a means of studying the settlement and formation of the Nandi sub-tribe of the Kalenjin. Like the wider Kalenjin Occupation of the Rift, a look at the individual Nandi clan histories shows that the narrative of origin, though containing elements of truth over simplifies the formation of the Nandi sub-tribe.

The Nandi sub-tribe was formed through the settlement of the Nandi region by members of various Kalenjin clans from different regions. The traditional Nandi account is that the first settlers in their country came from Elgon, formed the Kipoiis clan, they were led by a man named Kakipoch, founder of the Nandi section of the Kalenjin. They are said to have settled in the emet of Aldai in south-western Nandi. Kakipoch's people were joined by a few Kipsikis, who were followed by people from the other Kalenjin branches; the account of settlement by the 17 clans present in the early decades of the 20th century is as follows. Clan symbols range from birds, wild animals and snake to bees. Although the sun is not an animal, ` she' is called ` tiondo' in the same sense as a lion, it is claimed. Hence Moi is regarded as the'leader' and in child stories this is shown as the source of babies in a family; the jackal is claimed to have been the last tiondo to be allocated and comes along with several rules of favour.

Hence though the Nandi claim'Cheptaab oreet age ne wendi oreet age' literally'a daughter from one clan goes to another clan and belongs in the new clan', to mean a woman has no clan, the Tungo girls are permitted to retain their clan identity

Soviet cruiser Marshal Timoshenko

Marshal Timoshenko was a Project 1134A Berkut A class cruiser of the Soviet Navy. The eighth ship of her class, the vessel served during the Cold War with the Northern Fleet operating in the Atlantic Ocean but travelling to various ports in the Mediterranean and Red Seas; the cruiser was taken out of service to be modernised in 1988 but a lack of funds meant the work was not completed. Instead Marshal Timoshenko was decommissioned in 1992. Marshal Timoshenko was the eighth ship of her class of ten Project 1134A Berkut A cruisers, designed by Vasily Anikeyev, they were designated as Large Anti-Submarine Ships in accordance with their primary mission of countering NATO submarines. As a Kresta II-class cruiser, Marshal Timoshenko was 156.5 metres long with a beam of 17.2 m and a draught of 5.96 m. She displaced 5,600 tons standard, 6,500 tons light and 7,535 full load, had a complement of 343; the ship was equipped with a hangar aft to carry a single Kamov Ka-25 Hormone-A helicopter. Marshal Timoshenko was propelled by two TV-12 steam geared turbines powered by four high pressure boilers which created 75,000 kilowatts, giving her a maximum speed of 34 knots.

She had a range of 5,200 nmi at 1,754.86 nmi at 32 kn. For her primary role as an anti-submarine cruiser, Marshal Timoshenko mounted two quadruple launchers for eight anti-submarine missiles in the Metel anti-ship complex, she was equipped with two RBU-6000 12-barrel and two RBU-1000 6-barrel rocket launchers to protect against close-in threats. The Ka-25 helicopter embarked on the cruiser was capable of aiding in the search and destruction of submarines. Marshal Timoshenko was armed with four AK-725 57 mm L/80 DP guns situated in two twin mountings to protect against aerial threats; the vessel had four 30 mm AK-630 CIWS mountings, was armed with two twin launchers for the 48 V-611 surface-to-air missiles they carried in the M-11 Shtorm system. She mounted two quintuple mountings for 533 mm dual-role torpedoes. Marshal Timoshenko was equipped with the MR-600 Voskhod early warning air search radar, the MR-310U Angara-M search radar, the Volga navigational radar. For anti-submarine warfare she had improved MG-332T Titan-2T hull mounted sonar.

For fire control purposes she had Grom-M for the surface-to-air missiles, MR-103 Bars for the AK725 and MR-123 Vympel for the AK-630. Marshal Timoshenko had a MG-26 communications outfit and a MG-35 Shtil sonar. Built in the Zhdanov Shipyard with the serial number 728, Marshal Timoshenko, named for Soviet World War II army commander Semyon Timoshenko, was laid down on 2 November 1972 and launched on 21 October 1973. Averin, A. B.. Адмиралы и маршалы. Корабли проектов 1134 и 1134А.. Moscow: Voennaya Kniga. ISBN 978-5-902863-16-8. Berezhnoy, S. S.. Советский ВМФ 1945-1995: крейсера, большие противолодочные корабли, эсминцы. Морская коллекция. Modelist-konstruktor. Chant, Christopher. A Compendium of Armaments and Military Hardware. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415710725. Hampshire, Edward. Soviet Cold War Guided Missile Cruisers. New Vanguard 242. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-1740-2. Pavlov, Alexander. Военные корабли СССР и России 1945-1995 гг. Справочник.. Yakutsk: Sakhapoligradizdat.

OCLC 464542777. Marshal Timoshenko photographs on Marshal Timoshenko photo album on