The MIT License is a permissive free software license originating at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the late 1980s. As a permissive license, it puts only limited restriction on reuse and has, reasonable license compatibility, it is compatible. The MIT license is compatible with many copyleft licenses, such as the GNU General Public License; the MIT license permits reuse within proprietary software, provided that either all copies of the licensed software include a copy of the MIT License terms and the copyright notice, or the software is re-licensed to remove this requirement. MIT-licensed software can be re-licensed as proprietary software, which distinguishes it from copyleft software licenses; as of 2015, MIT was the most popular software license on GitHub, ahead of any GPL variant and other free and open-source software licenses. Notable projects that use the MIT License include the X Window System, Ruby on Rails, Node.js. A common form of the MIT License is this: Copyright <year> <copyright holders> Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files, to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, modify, publish, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE. An intermediate form of license used by the X Consortium for X11 used the following wording: Copyright <date> X Consortium Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files, to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, modify, publish, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE X CONSORTIUM BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE. Except as contained in this notice, the name of the X Consortium shall not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written authorization from the X Consortium. X Window System is a trademark of Inc.. Because MIT has used many licenses for software, the Free Software Foundation considers "MIT License" ambiguous. "MIT License" may refer to the X11 License. The "MIT License" published by the Open Source Initiative is the same as the "Expat License"; the X11 License and the "MIT License" chosen for ncurses by the Free Software Foundation both include the following clause, absent in the Expat License: Except as contained in this notice, the name of the above copyright holders shall not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written authorization.
The original BSD license includes a clause requiring all advertising of the software to display a notice crediting its authors. This "advertising clause" is present in the modified MIT License used by XFree86; the University of Illinois/NCSA Open Source License combines text from both the MIT and BSD licenses. The ISC license contains similarities to both the MIT and simplified BSD licenses, the biggest difference being that language deemed unnecessary by the Berne Convention is omitted. Like the BSD license, the MIT license does not include an express patent license. Both the BSD and the MIT licenses were drafted before the patentability of software was recognized under US law; the Apache License version 2.0 is a permissive license that includes an explicit contributor's patent license. The MIT license contains terms that are used in defining the rights of a patent holder in 35 U. S. Code section 154 namely "use", "sell"; this has been construed by some commentators as an implicit license to use any underlying patents.
As of 2015, according to Black Duck Software and a 2015 blog from GitHub, the MIT license was the most popular free software license, with the GNU GPLv2 coming second in their sample of repositories. I
Marc Fontecave is a French chemist. An international specialist in bioinorganic chemistry, he teaches at the Collège de France in Paris, where he heads the Laboratory of Chemistry of Biological Processes. Marc Fontecave is a graduate of the École normale supérieure de l'enseignement technique, holds a doctorate in science. In 2005, he was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences and from 2008-2009 he held the Chair of Chemistry of Biological Processes at the Collège de France, he is a member of the EDF scientific council. Marc Fontecave has deepened his understanding of the structure and reactivity of the metal centres present in metalloproteins, its research can have applications in the fields of chemistry, health and energy. 2015: Chevallier of the Légion d'Honneur 2011: Achille-Le-Bel Grand Prize of the Société chimique de France 2010: Chevalliet of the Ordre National du Méritet 2009: Sir Raman Chair of the Indian Academy of Sciences 2005: Member of the French Academy of Sciences 2005: Senior member of the Institut universitaire de France 2004: CNRS Silver medal 1996: Policart-Lacassagne Prize of the French Academy of Sciences 1991-1996: Junior member of IUF.
He intervened in the public debate to encourage public reappropriation of major scientific research and simplification of the French research system. During the reflection on the energy transition, with his colleagues from the French Academy of Sciences, he encouraged the use of nuclear and shale gas; as the problem of storing and restoring intermittent renewable energies has not been solved, he criticizes the forced march towards energy transition. He argues. On 29 December 2018, he criticised L'Affaire du siècle, a successful petition in a World forum calling for the French State to be condemned for its failure to respect climate commitments, as "unfair and ineffective ". Chemistry of biological processes: an introduction, Paris, Éditions Fayard, "Collège de France" series, 2009, 60 p. Ecology: "There is no chance of a revolution happening "2 on lemonde.fr on 3 September 2018
US Highway 33 is a part of the United States Numbered Highway System, once located in Berrien County, Michigan. At the time it was removed from the state, it was only about 2.8 miles long running north from the Indiana state line to an intersection with US 12 south of Niles. The highway was not part of the US Highway System in the state, it was extended further north to the community of Lake Michigan Beach. This extension became the only section of US 33, routed independent of another highway until it was truncated to Niles. In 1997, US 33 was removed from the state. At the time it last existed in Michigan, US 33 started at the Indiana state line at an intersection with State Line Road. From there it ran due north along 11th Street through a residential neighborhood parallel to the St. Joseph River. Just past an intersection with Fulkerson Road, the highway curved to the northeast as it approached Bell Road. US 33 terminated at a five-ramp partial cloverleaf interchange with US 12 south of the city of Niles in Bertrand Township.
According to the Michigan Department of Transportation, the agency that maintained the roadway, in 1998, the last year it was US 33, the highway carried between 17,192 and 24,669 vehicles on average, daily. Additionally, the roadway that carried the highway designation is listed on the National Highway System, a network of roads important to the country's economy and mobility; the State Trunkline Highway System was created on May 13, 1913, by an act of the Michigan Legislature. Division 5 followed a course from Niles northward to Mackinaw City. In 1919, the Michigan State Highway Department signposted the highway system for the first time, the future US 33 corridor was assigned the original M-58 designation from the state line northward through Niles to St. Joseph; when the United States Numbered Highway System was created on November 11, 1926, the corridor received the US 31 designation. The US 33 designation was added to US 31 from the state line northward to St. Joseph on January 1, 1938, ending at the intersection with US 12/US 31 at Main Street and Niles Avenue.
It was dedicated as part of the Blue and Gray Trail on May 2 of that year. In November 1960, the US 33 designation was extended northward along US 31 from St. Joseph through Benton Harbor to Hagar Shore Road in Lake Michigan Beach. Three years a segment of the Interstate 96 freeway opened northeast of Benton Harbor, US 31 was rerouted to follow it, leaving US 33 to its own alignment between Scottdale and Lake Michigan Beach, now following 1⁄2 mile of Hagar Shore Road east to its I-96/US 31 interchange; this was the first time that US 33 had a section of its routing in Michigan, not concurrent with another highway. Additional freeway for US 31 was built in the late 1970s into the 1980s. Called the St. Joseph Valley Parkway, the first section of this freeway through Berrien County was completed in 1979 and ran from the Indiana state line north to US 12. US 33 was all but eliminated in Michigan on June 9, 1986, when the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials approved a request by MDOT to truncate the designation to the intersection with US 12 south of Niles.
Signage was updated in September 1986, renumbering the northern section to M-63 and the section between downtown Niles and US 12 as a rerouted Bus. US 12; the last segment of US 33 between US 12 and the state line was removed on April 25, 1997, when AASHTO approved a joint request by MDOT and its counterpart in Indiana to truncate the highway designation to an intersection with US 20 in Elkhart, Indiana. This remaining segment in Michigan became part of an extended M-51 when the signage was changed a year later. On March 5, 2010, a segment of Bus. US 12 used by US 33 in downtown Niles was transferred back to city control. Otherwise, except for a slight reroute at Scottdale, all of US 33 at its greatest extent from 1963 through 1986 remains part of a state highway in Michigan. From the state line into Niles, it is M-51. From the west side of downtown Niles, it is M-139 to Scottdale, from there north, it is M-63; the entire highway was in Bertrand Township, Berrien County. Michigan Highways portal US 33 at Michigan Highways