The MLW RS-18 was an 1,800 hp diesel-electric locomotive built by Montreal Locomotive Works between December 1956 and August 1968. It replaced the RS-10 in MLW's catalogue, production totalled 351 locomotives, to eight customers, it was the Canadian version of the ALCO RS-11, although MLW did manufacture the RS-11 for Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México. Canadian National Railway, by far the largest buyer of the RS-18, continued to specify the long hood as the front. By contrast, while all of Canadian Pacific Railway's RS-10s were long-hood-forward, all of their RS-18s were short-hood forward. All of CN and CP's locomotives were delivered with full-height short hoods, as were the first four Pacific Great Eastern Railway, first Roberval and Saguenay Railway unit; the remaining production was for locomotives with a low short-hood, giving the train crew much better forward vision. List of MLW diesel locomotives Pinkepank, Jerry A.. The Second Diesel Spotter's Guide. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing.
Pp. 208, 248–249. ISBN 978-0-89024-026-7. Media related to MLW RS-18 locomotives at Wikimedia Commons
Prime mover (locomotive)
In engineering, a prime mover is an engine that converts fuel to useful work. In locomotives, the prime mover is thus the source of power for its propulsion. In an engine-generator set, the engine is the prime mover, as distinct from the generator. In a diesel-mechanical locomotive, the prime mover is the diesel engine, mechanically coupled to the driving wheels. In a diesel-electric locomotive, the prime mover is the diesel engine that rotates the main generator responsible for producing electricity to power the traction motors that are geared to the drivers; the prime mover can be a gas turbine instead of a diesel engine. In either case, the generator, traction motors and interconnecting apparatus are considered to be the power transmission system and not part of the prime mover. A wired-electric or battery-electric locomotive has no on-board prime mover, instead relying on an external power station; the engine and generator set of a diesel-electric locomotive are sometimes coupled as a removable unit called "the power unit".
The power unit represents the main weight in a locomotive design, other than the body. Its position back and forth is at the designer's choice and may be used to control overall weight distribution. In most locomotives designs, the power unit is placed centrally. In some locomotives, it is offset to one end. In extreme cases, such as C-B wheel arrangements, the weight on each bogie may differ so much that the engine-end bogie is given an extra carrying axle, to keep individual axle loads more consistent. Power pack
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
American Locomotive Company
The American Locomotive Company shortened to ALCO, ALCo or Alco, designed and sold steam locomotives, diesel-electric locomotives, diesel engines and generators, specialized forgings, high quality steel, armed tanks and automobiles and produced nuclear energy. The American Locomotive Company was formed in 1901 by the merger of Schenectady Locomotive Engine Manufactory of Schenectady, New York, with seven smaller locomotive manufacturers; the American Locomotive Automobile Company subsidiary designed and manufactured automobiles under the Alco brand from 1905 to 1913 and produced nuclear energy from 1954 to 1962. The company changed its name to Alco Products, Incorporated in 1955. In 1964 the Worthington Corporation acquired the company; the company went out of business in 1969. The company was created in 1901 from the merger of seven smaller locomotive manufacturers with Schenectady Locomotive Engine Manufactory of Schenectady, New York: Brooks Locomotive Works in Dunkirk, New York Cooke Locomotive and Machine Works in Paterson, New Jersey Dickson Manufacturing Company in Scranton, Pennsylvania Manchester Locomotive Works in Manchester, New Hampshire Pittsburgh Locomotive and Car Works in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Rhode Island Locomotive Works in Providence, Rhode Island Richmond Locomotive Works in Richmond, VirginiaThe newly formed company was headquartered in Schenectady, New York.
Samuel R. Callaway left the presidency of the New York Central Railroad to become president of Alco; when Callaway died on June 1, 1904, Albert J. Pitkin succeeded him as president of Alco. In 1904, the American Locomotive Company acquired control of the Locomotive and Machine Company of Montreal, Canada. In 1905, Alco purchased Rogers Locomotive Works of Paterson, New Jersey, the second largest locomotive manufacturer in the United States behind Baldwin Locomotive Works. In the post World War II period, Alco operated manufacturing plants only in Schenectady and Montreal, having closed all the others. After the American Locomotive Company ceased locomotive manufacturing in the United States in 1969, Montreal Locomotive Works continued to manufacture locomotives based on Alco designs. Alco was the second-largest steam locomotive builder in the United States, producing over 75,000 locomotives. Among these were a large number of well-known locomotives. Railroads that favored Alco products included the Delaware & Hudson Railway, the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, the New York Central Railroad, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Milwaukee Road.
Alco was known for its steam locomotives of which the 4-6-4 Hudson, 4-8-2 Mohawk and the 4-8-4 Niagara built for the New York Central and the 4-8-4 FEF and the 4-6-6-4 built for the Union Pacific were fine examples. Alco built many of the biggest locomotives constructed, including Union Pacific's Big Boy. Alco built the fastest American locomotives, the Class A Atlantic and Class F7 Hudson streamliners for the Milwaukee Road's Twin Cities Hiawatha run. Among the ambitious state-of-the-art designs of the late steam era, Alco's Challengers, Big Boys and high speed streamliners stood out for their in-service success. Other than the Delaware & Hudson's application of SKF roller bearings to the drivers and side rods of their own 4-6-2 locomotives in 1924, Alco built the first production steam locomotive in North America to use roller bearings: Timken 1111, a 4-8-4 commissioned in 1930 by Timken Roller Bearing Company was used for 100,000 miles on fifteen major United States railroads before it was purchased in 1933 by the Northern Pacific Railway.
During World War II, Alco produced many 2-10-0 Decapods for the USSR. Many of these were undelivered at the end of the war, ten of these were sold to Finland in 1947. One, Alco builder's No. 75214, is preserved at the Finnish Railway Museum. Though the dual-service 4-8-4 steam locomotive had shown great promise, 1948 was the last year that steam locomotives were manufactured in Schenectady; these were the seven A-2a class 9400-series Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad 2-8-4 "Berkshires." Their tenders had to be subcontracted to Lima Locomotive Works, as Alco's tender shop had been closed. The building was converted to diesel locomotive manufacture, to compete with locomotives manufactured by the automobile industry. Joseph Burroughs Ennis was a senior vice president between 1917 and 1947 and was responsible for the design of many of the locomotives manufactured; the company diversified into the automobile business in 1906, producing French Berliet designs under license. Production was located at Alco's Rhode Island Locomotive Works in Rhode Island.
Two years the Berliet license was abandoned, the company began to produce its own designs instead. An Alco racing car won the Vanderbilt Cup in both 1909 and 1910 and competed in the first Indianapolis 500 in 1911, driven on all three occasions by Harry Grant. But, ALCO's automotive venture was unprofitable, they abandoned automobile manufacture in 1913; the Alco automobile story is notable chiefly as a step in the automotive career of Walter P. Chrysler, who worked as the plant manager. In 1911 he left Alco for Buick in Detroit, where he subsequently founded the Chrysler Corporation in 1925. For a list of Alco diesel locomotive models, see List of ALCO diesel locomotives. Although committed to the steam locomotive, ALCo produced the first
A road switcher is a type of railroad locomotive designed to both haul railcars in mainline service and shunt them in railroad yards. Both type and term are North American in origin. A road switcher must be able to operate and have good visibility in both directions; as a road engine, a road switcher must be able to operate at road speeds, with suitable power and cooling capacity. It has high-speed road trucks rather than low-speed switcher only trucks. Modern road trucks are always equipped with "frictionless" roller bearings, whereas switcher trucks were always equipped with "friction" plain bearings, until plain bearings were outlawed in interchange service on both railcars and locomotives. For the reasons given above, road switchers are hood units; the set-back cab of a hood unit provides more safety in the event of a collision at speed than most switcher designs, the rear visibility is much better than that of a cab unit. Due to their ability to both run at road speeds for long distances and to switch cars, road switchers, as their name implies, are used for road duties, in addition to their yard duties.
Since the 1960s, road switchers have displaced cab units in heavy-haul freight service. Some road switchers were provided with twin control stands, so that the units could operate conventionally in either "long hood forward" or "short hood forward" directions. However, twin control engineer positions have fallen into disuse as all operations are now run "short hood forward". For obvious reasons, the short hood is labeled "F". Alco's RS-1 was the first successful example of the type, all modern hood units are laid out in a similar fashion; the RS-1, being the first example of a road switcher, having been developed when plain bearings were still common were equipped with plain bearings. Subsequently, roller bearing conversions were implemented, new units were ordered with roller bearings; the RS-1 had a long manufacturing history, so most 1940s units might be ordered with plain bearings, but most 1960s units might be ordered with roller bearings. Fairbanks Morse entered the road switcher field in 1947 with the H-20-44.
EMD was the last to enter the field and failed to capture much of the market with their first road switcher the BL2. The RS-3 was the best known of the Alco RS road switchers and was produced in more numbers than the RS-1 and RS-2 designs combined. Although Alco produced the first known road switcher, EMD's GP7 was the most successful model from this early period road switchers. Few or no EMD GPs and no EMD SDs were ordered with plain bearings, any plain bearing-equipped GPs were updated to incorporate roller bearings. Although it is always controversial to generalize about "generations" of road switchers, these ubiquitous workhorses may be divided into: Generation 1, 1,999 hp or lower, net for traction. Although at one point 6,000 hp, net for traction, units were made, these fell into disuse, most have been scrapped by North American railroads; the most common new units made today are 4,300 hp to net for traction. Within the Americas, road switchers are always diesel-electric, with the "transmission" system being either direct current or alternating current.
For economic and performance reasons, 2,500 horsepower and lower units had a dc generator, producing 600 volts dc, whereas 3,000 horsepower and higher units had an ac alternator with integral rectifier, producing 1,200 volts dc, nominal. Units with ac final drive accepted the 1,200 volts dc from the alternator/rectifier and inverted this to 1,200 volts three-phase variable frequency ac; the term "road switcher" is not used in the UK. The nearest equivalent is the type 1 locomotive. None of these designs match the Road Switcher; the British Rail Class 14 and British Rail Class 17 have the low engine covers, but the cab is located centrally. Two other designs had the cab near one end like the road switcher, i.e. British Rail Class 15 and British Rail Class 16; however the engine covers reach the cab roof level. The most successful type 1 locomotive is the British Rail Class 20, which still has some members in service. In this case, the cab is at one end with high engine covers; the term "road switcher" is not used in Germany either, but there are some types of heavy shunters suited for those tasks and used for them, like the DB Class V 90 and the Voith Gravita.
Belgian state railways NMBS/SNCB operate 170 German built engines in their class 77, both for shunting and for mainline haulage. PKP class SM42 is a Polish 74-ton diesel locomotive used for shunting, light main railroad cargo haulage, passenger service. 1822 units were built, used by Polish carriers but some were exported abroad. The
The ALCO RS-1 was a 4-axle road switcher diesel-electric locomotive built by Alco-GE between 1941 and 1953 and the American Locomotive Company from 1953 to 1960. The Montreal Locomotive Works built three RS-1s in 1954; this model has the distinction of having the longest production run of any diesel locomotive for the North American market. The RS-1 was in production for 19 years from the first unit Rock Island #748 in March 1941 to the last unit National of Mexico #5663 in March 1960; the hood unit configuration of the RS-1 pioneered the road switcher type of diesel locomotive, beginning the move away from the carbody units which were the standard design for road diesel locomotives before then. Most North American locomotives built. In 1940, the Rock Island Railroad approached ALCO about building a locomotive for both road and switching service; the first thirteen production locomotives were requisitioned by the US Army, the five railroads affected had to wait while replacements were manufactured.
The requisitioned RS-1s were remanufactured by ALCO into six axle RSD-1s for use on the Trans-Iranian Railway to supply the Soviet Union during World War Two. Several examples exist at tourist railways and railway museums, including: Boone & Scenic Valley Railroad's RS-1 purchased in 1951 by the Lake Superior and Ishpeming Railroad as #1002, sold to the Calumet & Hecla Railroad in 1967 as #205. Purchased by Continental Grain Company, Marshalltown, IA circa 1975. Donated to the Iowa Railroad Historical Society, Boone & Scenic Valley Railroad in 1996, painted and lettered as Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway #244. Consumers Power 401 1951 built RS-1 #79350 former Rutland 401 spent her final years of service switching coal cars at Consumers Energy's Essexville, MI power plant on the Saginaw River the unit is now at the Saginaw Railway Museum. Grand Trunk Western 1951 at the Illinois Railway Museum Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 745 at the Louisiana Steam Train Association yard in Jefferson, LA Eastman Kodak Company 9 is preserved at the Rochester & Genesee Valley Railroad Museum.
Green Mountain Railroad 405 Catskill Mountain Railroad #400 and #401 tourist train in Kingston NY. Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railway #101 the only known locomotive existing from that railroad, is at the Lake Superior Railroad Museum and has been restored for occasional use on the North Shore Scenic Railroad. Algers and Western Railway #4 - Built as Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railway #103, it is in service on the French Lick Scenic Railway, a line operated by the Indiana Railway Museum Ann Arbor Railroad #20 is owned by the Southern Michigan Railroad Society in Clinton, MI and on loan to Shepherd, MI Railroad Depot Museum and Display Ann Arbor Railroad #21 is owned by the Southern Michigan Railroad Society in Clinton, MI. #21 is set to undergo cosmetic and operational repairs and a return to operational status by the end of 2015. Soo Line 350 survives on display at the Whippany Railway Museum in New Jersey as Morristown & Erie 21. Former Washington Terminal 57 is owned and in storage on the East Penn Railroad at Quakertown, Pennsylvania.
Great Northern 182 is on display at the West Coast Railway Heritage Park in Squamish, British Columbia. Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 743 is on display at the Oklahoma Railway Museum in Oklahoma City, OK. List of ALCO diesel locomotives List of MLW diesel locomotives Dorin, Patrick C.. Chicago and North Western Power. Burbank, California: Superior Publishing. P. 138. ISBN 0-87564-715-4. Alco RS1 Study-Part I The Original Road Switcher by Don Dover Extra 2200 South Issue #57 Jul-Sep 1976 pp. 18–24. Alco RS1 Study-Part II The Original Road Switcher by Don Dover Extra 2200 South Issue #58 Oct-Dec 1976 pp. 18–21. Alco RS1 Roster Part 1 by Bob Carman and Joe Brockmeyer Extra 2200 South Issue #58 Oct-Dec 1976 pp. 22–23. Alco RS1 Study-Part III The Original Road Switcher by Don Dover Extra 2200 South Issue #59 Jan-Mar 1977 pp. 24–26. Diesel Shop roster with all data from Extra 2200 South http://www.thedieselshop.us/Alco_RS1. HTML
Montreal Locomotive Works
Montreal Locomotive Works was a Canadian railway locomotive manufacturer which existed under several names from 1883 to 1985, producing both steam and diesel locomotives. For a number of years it was a subsidiary of the American Locomotive Company. MLW's headquarters and manufacturing facilities were located in Quebec; the Locomotive and Machine Company of Montreal Limited was created in 1883, producing for the growing domestic market—notably the Canadian Pacific Railway, the Grand Trunk Railway, the Intercolonial Railway and, after 1922, the Canadian National Railway. In 1901, the American Locomotive Company headquartered in Schenectady, New York, was formed by the merger of several struggling locomotive manufacturers. Alco purchased the Locomotive & Machine Company of Montreal in 1904 to tap into the Canadian market with its emerging designs; the Montreal subsidiary was renamed Montreal Locomotive Works several years later. MLW became an exclusive Alco design shop and acquired a substantial portion of the Canadian steam locomotive market.
The period of railway expansion between 1900 and 1915 was unprecedented in Canada, with many new orders for locomotives from various domestic manufacturers. Protective customs tariffs discouraged Canadian railways from purchasing American-built locomotives for use in Canada. Several bankrupt private systems, including the Grand Trunk and Canadian Northern, were nationalized in the years 1918–22. Merged with the federally owned Intercolonial, they formed the federal Crown corporation Canadian National Railways; the federal government mandated that the new, larger public company purchase locomotives from all Canadian manufacturers to discourage domination of the market by any one manufacturer. Between 1918 and the period after World War II, Canadian National modernized its steam locomotive fleet by replacing many of the units it received from its constituent railways. MLW was a major beneficiary of these purchases, along with the Canadian Locomotive Company of Kingston, Ontario. MLW grew during the Second World War when its plant facilities were converted to fabricating matériel for the Commonwealth/Allied war effort, including the Ram tank and the Sexton self-propelled gun.
Following World War II, MLW and other locomotive builders reverted to building locomotives. MLW continued to benefit from Canada's restrictive trade policies which prevented a flood of U. S. imports. However, the switch from steam to diesel-electric locomotive production opened the door to new competitors. In 1949, the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors established a Canadian subsidiary named General Motors Diesel Division in London, Ontario. MLW's long-established steam locomotive competitor, the Canadian Locomotive Company, had entered into a partnership with Baldwin and imported and produced the designs of Baldwin and its subsidiary Whitcomb. Westinghouse was the main supplier of Baldwin's electrical transmission components. After Baldwin folded, CLC became a licensee of Fairbanks-Morse and manufactured a number of F-M designs for the Canadian market, including the famous Train Master. CLC was responsible for building General Electric industrial switchers. General Electric did not enter the road diesel-electric market in the United States until the late 1950s, a move it took after dissolving its partnership with Alco in 1953.
In 1960, MLW was awarded the contract to build 36 new subway cars for the Toronto Transit Commission. The M1 Series Subway Cars were notable for being the first rapid transit vehicles to be designed and built in Canada, they were an improvement over the previous rolling stock, being lighter and faster, despite being larger. MLW's venture into rapid transit would be short lived, as the Toronto Transit Commission opted for Hawker Siddeley Canada vehicles from the mid-1960s onwards. In 1949, MLW began to introduce its first Alco-GE-derived diesel designs in response to GMD switchers, some of which were given different names and slight modifications to distinguish between MLW and ALCO-GE versions. In 1951, MLW began to build Alco-GE cab-units for passenger service. Canadian railways continued to rely upon steam locomotives throughout the 1950s, a time when many United States railroads were dieselizing; as in Canada, some Class 1 American railroads continued to use modern steam power through 1959, including the Norfolk & Western Railway and the Union Pacific Railroad.
However, with some isolated exceptions, as in the United States, Canadian railways were dieselized by 1960. Throughout the 1960s, Canadian National Railway continued to implement purchase policies drafted by its government owners which spread procurement among the manufacturers. MLW / Alco-GE road switcher designs were preferred by several railways in North America due to superior rail adhesion at low speeds, making them useful on graded rail lines. Like GMD in London, MLW benefited from Canadian trade policies which were less restrictive than those of the United States in regard to dealing with countries throughout the decolonizing and developing world, permitting MLW to expand a growing export business. MLW's parent, experienced several years of declining business during the 1960s following the entry of former-partner General Electric into the road switcher manufacturing business in the United States; this was due, in part, to continuing reliance on GE's high quality electrical transmissions, sold to Alco and MLW at a disadvantageous price by GE.
Placed in a similar situation when Westinghouse left the railway rotating equipment market in 1953, Fairbanks-Morse developed its own line of rotating equipment, a