Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Portugal)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is a Portuguese government ministry. It is located in Lisbon. List of Ministers of Foreign Affairs Media related to Ministry of Foreign Affairs at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Montenegro is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Herzegovina to the northwest. Montenegro has an area of 13,812 square kilometres and a population of 620,079, its capital Podgorica is one of the twenty-three municipalities in the country. Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital. During the Early Medieval period, three principalities were located on the territory of modern-day Montenegro: Duklja corresponding to the southern half. In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja from the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty; the independent Principality of Zeta emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries, ruled by the House of Balšić between 1356 and 1421, by the House of Crnojević between 1431 and 1498, when the name Montenegro started being used for the country. After falling under Ottoman rule, Montenegro regained de facto independence in 1697 under the rule of the House of Petrović-Njegoš, first under the theocratic rule of prince-bishops, before being transformed into a secular principality in 1852.
Montenegro's de jure independence was recognised by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, following the Montenegrin–Ottoman War. In 1905, the country became a kingdom. After World War I, it became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. On the basis of an independence referendum held in May 2006, Montenegro declared independence and the federation peacefully dissolved on 3 June of that year. Since 1990, the sovereign state of Montenegro has been governed by the Democratic Party of Socialists and its minor coalition partners. Classified by the World Bank as an upper middle-income country, Montenegro is a member of the UN, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, the Central European Free Trade Agreement, it is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean.
The country's name derives from Venetian and translates as "Black Mountain", deriving from the appearance of Mount Lovćen when covered in dense evergreen forests. The native name Crna Gora came to denote the majority of contemporary Montenegro only in the 15th century, it had referred to only a small strip of land under the rule of the Paštrovići, but the name came to be used for the wider mountainous region after the Crnojević noble family took power in Upper Zeta. The aforementioned region became known as Stara Crna Gora'Old Montenegro' by the 19th century to distinguish the independent region from the neighbouring Ottoman-occupied Montenegrin territory of Brda' Highlands'. Montenegro further increased its size several times by the 20th century, as the result of wars against the Ottoman Empire, which saw the annexation of Old Herzegovina and parts of Metohija and southern Raška, its borders have changed little since losing Metohija and gaining the Bay of Kotor. After the second session of the AVNOJ during World War II in Yugoslavia, the modern state of Montenegro was founded as the Federal State of Montenegro on 15 November 1943 within the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia by the ZAVNOCGB.
After DF Yugoslavia became the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, the Federal State of Montenegro was renamed to the People's Republic of Montenegro on 29 November 1945. In 1963, the FPRY was renamed to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and coincidentally, the People's Republic of Montenegro was renamed to the Socialist Republic of Montenegro; as the breakup of Yugoslavia occurred, the SRCG was renamed to the Republic of Montenegro on 27 April 1992 within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia by removing the adjective "socialist" from the republic's title. Since 22 October 2007, a year after its independence, the name of the country became known as Montenegro; the ISO Alpha-2 code for Montenegro is ME and the Alpha-3 Code is MNE. In the 9th century, three Slavic principalities were located on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja corresponding to the southern half, the west, Rascia, the north. Duklja gained its independence from the Byzantine Roman Empire in 1042. Over the next few decades, it expanded its territory to neighbouring Rascia and Bosnia, became recognised as a kingdom.
Its power started declining at the beginning of the 12th century. After King Bodin's death, several civil wars ensued. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son and his grandson Constantine Bodin. By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro came under the rule of the Balšić noble family the Crnojević noble family, by the 15th century, Zeta was more referred to as Crna Gora; as the nobility fought for the throne, the kingdom was weakened, by 1186, it was conquered by Stefan Nemanja and incorporated into the Serbian realm as a province named Zeta. After the Serbian Empire collapsed in the second half of the 14th century, the most powerful Zetan family, the Balšićs, became sovereigns of Zeta. In 1421, Zeta was a
Zooarchaeology is the branch of archaeology that studies faunal remains related to ancient people. Faunal remains are the items left behind, it includes: bones, hair, scales, proteins and DNA. Of these items and shells are the ones that occur most at archaeological sites where faunal remains can be found. Most of the time, most of the faunal remains do not survive, they decompose or break because of various circumstances. This can cause difficulties in interpreting their significance; the development of zooarchaeology in Eastern North America can be broken up into three different periods. The first being the Formative period starting around the 1860s, the second being the Systematization period beginning in the early 1950s, the Integration period which began about 1969. Full-time zooarchaeologists didn’t come about until the Systematization period. Before that it was just a technique, applied but not studied. Zooarchaeological specialists started to come about because of a new approach to archaeology known as processual archaeology.
This approach puts more emphasis on explaining. Archaeologists began to specialize in zooarchaeology, their numbers increased from there on. Zooarchaeology is used to answer several questions; these include: What was the diet like, in what ways were the animals used for food? Which were the animals that were eaten, in what amounts, with what other foods? Who were the ones to obtain the food, did the availability of that food depend on age or gender? How was culture, such as technologies and behavior, influenced by and associated with diet? What purposes, other than food, were animals used for? Zooarchaeology can tell us what the environment might have been like in order for the different animals to have survived. In addition to helping us understand the past, zooarchaeology can help us to improve the present and the future. Studying how people dealt with animals, its effects can help us avoid many potential ecological problems; this includes problems involving wildlife management. For example, one of the questions that wildlife preservationists ask is whether they should keep animals facing extinction in several smaller areas, or in one larger area.
Based on zooarchaeological evidence, they found that animals that are split up into several smaller areas are more to go extinct. One of the techniques that zooarchaeologists use is close attention to taphonomy; this includes studying how items are buried and deposited at the site in question, what the conditions are that aid in the preservation of these items, how these items get destroyed. They interpret that information. Another technique that zooarchaeologists use is lab analysis; this analysis can include comparing the skeletons found on site with identified animal skeletons. This not only helps to identify what the animal is, but whether the animal was domesticated or not, yet another technique that zooarchaeologists use is quantification. They make interpretations based on the size of the bones; these interpretations include. As can be seen from the discussion about the name that should be given to this discipline, zooarchaeology overlaps with other areas of study; these include: Anthropology Anthrozoology Archaeology Biology Ecology Ethnography Paleopathology Palaeontology Paleozoology Zoology Such analyses provide the basis by which further interpretations can be made.
Topics that have been addressed by zooarchaeologists include: Human-Animal relationships and interactions were diverse during Prehistory from being a food source to playing a more intimate role in society. Animals have been used in non-economical ways such as being part of a human burial. However, the major zooarchaeology has focused on, eating what by looking at various remains such as bones and fish scales. In the twenty-first century researchers have begun to interpret animals in prehistory in wider cultural and social patterns, focusing on how the animals have affected humans and possible animal agency. There is evidence of animals such as the Mountain Lion or the Jaguar being used for ritualistic purposes, but not being eaten as a food source. Animal burials date back to prehistory with examples emerging from the Mesolithic period. In Sweden at the burial site Skateholm I dogs were found buried with children under eight years old or were found buried by themselves; some of the dogs who were buried alone have grave goods similar to their human contemporaries such as flint weapons and deer antlers.
Meanwhile, during the same time period Skateholm II emerged and was different than Skateholm I, as dogs were buried along on the North and West boundaries of the grave area. Another burial site in Siberia near Lake Biakal known as the "Lokomotiv" cemetery had a wolf burial among human graves. Buried together with, but beneath the wolf was a male human skull; the wolf breed was not native to this area as it was warm and other research for the area shows no other wolf habitation. Bazaliiskiy & Savelyev suggests that the presence and significance of the wolf could reflect human interaction. Another example occurred in 300 B. C. in Pazyryk known as the Pazyryk burials where ten horses were buried alongside a human male, the horses were adorned with saddles, among other valuables. The oldest horse as the horse with the grandest attachments. Erica Hill, a professor in archaeology, suggests that the burials of prehistory animals can shed light on human-animal relationships. Zooarchaeology allows researchers to h
Hip hop music
Hip hop music called hip-hop or rap music, is a music genre developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans in the late 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech, chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, rhythmic beatboxing. While used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture; the term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music. Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when block parties became popular in New York City among African-American youth residing in the Bronx; however hip-hop music did not get recorded for the radio or television to play until 1979 due to poverty during hip-hop's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods.
At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a DJ mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats. Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Notable artists at this time include DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy, Marley Marl, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Moe Dee, Kurtis Blow, Doug E. Fresh, Warp 9, The Fat Boys, Spoonie Gee; the Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight" is regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop.
Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres. New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. and LL Cool J. The Golden age hip hop period was an innovative period between the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth. Schoolly D, N. W. A, Ice-T, Ice Cube, the Geto Boys are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap.
In the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such as Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. East Coast hip hop in the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop of the Native Tongues posse as well as the hardcore rap of artists such as Mobb Deep, Wu-Tang Clan, Onyx. East Coast hip hop had gangsta rap musicians such as Kool G Rap and the Notorious B. I. G.. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999; the popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to wane. During the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, B.o. B were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as Drake, Nicki Minaj, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar all have been popular. Trap, a subgenre of hip hop has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as Migos, Travis Scott, Kodak Black; the creation of the term hip hop is credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap, it is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U. S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching.
Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, used by other artists such as The Sugarhi
International vehicle registration code
The country in which a motor vehicle's vehicle registration plate was issued may be indicated by an international licence plate country code known as an International Registration Letter or International Circulation Mark. The sign must be displayed on the rear of the vehicle; the sign may either be placed separately from the registration plate, or be incorporated into the vehicle registration plate. The allocation of codes is maintained by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe as the Distinguishing Signs Used on Vehicles in International Traffic, authorised by the UN's Geneva Convention on Road Traffic of 1949 and the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic of 1968. Many vehicle codes created since the adoption of ISO 3166 coincide with ISO two- or three-letter codes; the 2004 South-East Asian Agreement... for the Facilitation of Cross-Border Transport of Goods and People uses a mixture of ISO and DSIT codes: Myanmar uses MYA, China CHN, Cambodia KH, Thailand uses T, Laos LAO, Vietnam VN.
The Vienna Convention on Road Traffic was concluded in Vienna on 8 November 1968. Since its entry into force on 21 May 1977, in signatory countries it replaces previous road traffic conventions, notably the 1949 Geneva Convention on Road Traffic, in accordance with its Article 48. One of the main benefits of the convention for motorists is the obligation on signatory countries to recognize the legality of vehicles from other signatory countries; when driving in other signatory countries, the distinguishing sign of the country of registration must be displayed on the rear of the vehicle. The sign may either be placed separately from the registration plate as a white oval plate or sticker, or be incorporated in the vehicle registration plate; when the distinguishing sign is incorporated in the registration plate, it must appear on the front registration plate of the vehicle. The physical requirements for the separate sign are defined in Annex 3 of the Vienna Convention, which states that the letters shall be in black on a white background having the shape of an ellipse with the major axis horizontal.
The distinguishing sign should not be affixed in such a way that it could be confused with the registration number or impair its legibility. When the distinguishing sign is incorporated into the registration plate, it must appear on the front registration plate of the vehicle, may be supplemented with the flag or emblem of the national state, or the emblem of the regional economic integration organization to which the country belongs; the distinguishing sign should be displayed on the far left or far right of the registration plate. When a symbol, flag or emblem is displayed, the distinguishing sign shall be placed on the far left of the plate; the distinguishing sign shall be positioned so as to be identifiable and so that it cannot be confused with the registration number or impair its legibility. The distinguishing sign shall therefore be at least a different colour from the registration number, or have a different background colour from that reserved for the registration number, or be separated from the registration number, preferably with a line.
The requirement to display a separate distinguishing sign is not necessary within the European Economic Area, for vehicles with license plates in the common EU format which satisfy the requirements of the Vienna Convention, so are valid in non-EU countries signatory to the convention. Separate signs are not needed for Canada and the United States, where the province, state or district of registration is embossed or surface-printed on the vehicle registration plate. Aircraft registration International Driving Permit ISO 3166 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia; the Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has been recognized as an independent state by 113 out of 193 United Nations member states, 10 of which have subsequently withdrawn recognition.
NoteThere are unofficial codes in common use, such as "AS" for Asturias, "CAT" for Catalonia, "CYM" for Wales, "BZH" for Brittany, "VL" for Flanders, "V" for Vojvodina/Vajdaság, "TS" for Transylvania,"PR" for Puerto Rico, "SIC" for Székely Land and "CD" for "Corps Diplomatique". In addition, in some areas, vehicle-style stickers have been used to denote and promote other entities, such as towns, islands and associations; these irregular stickers always bear an explanation of the code in small print near the edge of the sticker, as the codes used are so unknown. A separate system is used for vehicles belonging to the diplomats of foreign countries with license plate from the host country; that system is host country-specific and varies from country to country. For example TR on a diplomatic car in the USA indicates Italian, not Turkish; such markings in Norway are indicated with numbers only, again different from international standards (e.g. 90 means Slovakian. "RPW": Neil Parker and John Weeks, Registration Plates of the World, Europlate.
A multinational corporation or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization which owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country. Black's Law Dictionary suggests that a company or group should be considered a multinational corporation if it derives 25% or more of its revenue from out-of-home-country operations. A multinational corporation can be referred to as a multinational enterprise, a transnational enterprise, a transnational corporation, an international corporation, or a stateless corporation. There are subtle but real differences between these three labels, as well as multinational corporation and worldwide enterprise. Most of the largest and most influential companies of the modern age are publicly traded multinational corporations, including Forbes Global 2000 companies. Multinational corporations are subject to criticisms for lacking ethical standards, that this shows up in how they evade ethical laws and leverage their own business agenda with capital, the military backing of their own wealthy host nation-states.
They have become associated with multinational tax havens and base erosion and profit shifting tax avoidance activities. A multinational corporation is a large corporation incorporated in one country which produces or sells goods or services in various countries; the two main characteristics of MNCs are their large size and the fact that their worldwide activities are centrally controlled by the parent companies. Importing and exporting goods and services Making significant investments in a foreign country Buying and selling licenses in foreign markets Engaging in contract manufacturing — permitting a local manufacturer in a foreign country to produce their products Opening manufacturing facilities or assembly operations in foreign countriesMNCs may gain from their global presence in a variety of ways. First of all, MNCs can benefit from the economy of scale by spreading R&D expenditures and advertising costs over their global sales, pooling global purchasing power over suppliers, utilizing their technological and managerial know-how globally with minimal additional costs.
Furthermore, MNCs can use their global presence to take advantage of underpriced labor services available in certain developing countries, gain access to special R&D capabilities residing in advanced foreign countries. The problem of moral and legal constraints upon the behavior of multinational corporations, given that they are "stateless" actors, is one of several urgent global socioeconomic problems that emerged during the late twentieth century; the best concept for analyzing society's governance limitations over modern corporations is the concept of "stateless corporations". Coined at least as early as 1991 in Business Week, the conception was theoretically clarified in 1993: that an empirical strategy for defining a stateless corporation is with analytical tools at the intersection between demographic analysis and transportation research; this intersection is known as logistics management, it describes the importance of increasing global mobility of resources. In a long history of analysis of multinational corporations we are some quarter century into an era of stateless corporations - corporations which meet the realities of the needs of source materials on a worldwide basis and to produce and customize products for individual countries.
One of the first multinational business organizations, the East India Company, was established in 1601. After the East India Company, came the Dutch East India Company, founded March 20, 1603, which would become the largest company in the world for nearly 200 years; the main characteristics of multinational companies are: In general, there is a national strength of large companies as the main body, in the way of foreign direct investment or acquire local enterprises, established subsidiaries or branches in many countries. Multinational corporations can select from a variety of jurisdictions for various subsidiaries, but the ultimate parent company can select a single legal domicile. Corporations can engage in tax avoidance through their choice of jurisdiction, but must be careful to avoid illegal tax evasion. Multinational corporations may be subject to the laws and regulations of both their domicile and the additional jurisdictions where they are engaged in business. In some cases, the jurisdiction can help to avoid burdensome laws, but regulatory statutes target the "enterprise" with statutory language around "control".
For small corporations, registering a foreign subsidiary can be expensive and complex, involving fees and forms.