An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece of semiconductor material, silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components; the IC's mass production capability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs. Integrated circuits were made practical by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor device fabrication. Since their origins in the 1960s, the size and capacity of chips have progressed enormously, driven by technical advances that fit more and more transistors on chips of the same size – a modern chip may have many billions of transistors in an area the size of a human fingernail.
These advances following Moore's law, make computer chips of today possess millions of times the capacity and thousands of times the speed of the computer chips of the early 1970s. ICs have two main advantages over discrete circuits: performance. Cost is low because the chips, with all their components, are printed as a unit by photolithography rather than being constructed one transistor at a time. Furthermore, packaged ICs use much less material than discrete circuits. Performance is high because the IC's components switch and consume comparatively little power because of their small size and close proximity; the main disadvantage of ICs is the high cost to fabricate the required photomasks. This high initial cost means. An integrated circuit is defined as: A circuit in which all or some of the circuit elements are inseparably associated and electrically interconnected so that it is considered to be indivisible for the purposes of construction and commerce. Circuits meeting this definition can be constructed using many different technologies, including thin-film transistors, thick-film technologies, or hybrid integrated circuits.
However, in general usage integrated circuit has come to refer to the single-piece circuit construction known as a monolithic integrated circuit. Arguably, the first examples of integrated circuits would include the Loewe 3NF. Although far from a monolithic construction, it meets the definition given above. Early developments of the integrated circuit go back to 1949, when German engineer Werner Jacobi filed a patent for an integrated-circuit-like semiconductor amplifying device showing five transistors on a common substrate in a 3-stage amplifier arrangement. Jacobi disclosed cheap hearing aids as typical industrial applications of his patent. An immediate commercial use of his patent has not been reported; the idea of the integrated circuit was conceived by Geoffrey Dummer, a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the British Ministry of Defence. Dummer presented the idea to the public at the Symposium on Progress in Quality Electronic Components in Washington, D. C. on 7 May 1952.
He gave many symposia publicly to propagate his ideas and unsuccessfully attempted to build such a circuit in 1956. A precursor idea to the IC was to create small ceramic squares, each containing a single miniaturized component. Components could be integrated and wired into a bidimensional or tridimensional compact grid; this idea, which seemed promising in 1957, was proposed to the US Army by Jack Kilby and led to the short-lived Micromodule Program. However, as the project was gaining momentum, Kilby came up with a new, revolutionary design: the IC. Newly employed by Texas Instruments, Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958 demonstrating the first working integrated example on 12 September 1958. In his patent application of 6 February 1959, Kilby described his new device as "a body of semiconductor material … wherein all the components of the electronic circuit are integrated." The first customer for the new invention was the US Air Force. Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit.
His work was named an IEEE Milestone in 2009. Half a year after Kilby, Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor developed a new variety of integrated circuit, more practical than Kilby's implementation. Noyce's design was made of silicon. Noyce credited Kurt Lehovec of Sprague Electric for the principle of p–n junction isolation, a key concept behind the IC; this isolation allows each transistor to operate independently despite being part of the same piece of silicon. Fairchild Semiconductor was home of the first silicon-gate IC technology with self-aligned gates, the basis of all modern CMOS integrated circuits; the technology was developed by Italian physicist Federico Faggin in 1968. In 1970, he joined Intel in order to develop the first single-chip central processing unit microprocessor, the Intel 4004, for which he received the National Medal of Technology and Innovation in 2010; the 4004 was designed by Busicom's Masatoshi Shima and Intel's Ted Hoff in 1969, but it was Faggin's improved design in 1970 that made it a reality.
Advances in IC technology smaller features and la
Gottlieb was an American arcade game corporation based in Chicago, Illinois. The main office and plant was located at 1140-50 N. Kostner Avenue until the early 1970s when a new modern plant and office was located at 165 W. Lake Street in Northlake, IL. A subassembly plant was located in Fargo, ND; the company was established by David Gottlieb in 1927 producing pinball machines while expanding into various other games including pitch-and-bats, bowling games, video arcade games. Like other manufacturers, Gottlieb first made mechanical pinball machines, including the first successful coin-operated pinball machine Baffle Ball in 1930. Electromechanical machines were produced starting in 1935; the 1947 development of player-actuated, solenoid-driven 2-inch bats called "flippers" revolutionized the industry. Players now had the ability to get more points; the flippers first appeared on a Gottlieb game called Humpty Dumpty, designed by Harry Mabs. By this time, the games became noted for their artwork by Roy Parker.
In the late 1950s the company made more widespread use of digital score reels, making multiple player games more practical as most scoring was expressed by cluttered series of lights in the back box. The score reels appeared on single-player games, now known as "wedgeheads" because of their distinctive tapering back box shape. By the 1970s the artwork on Gottlieb games was always by Gordon Morison, the company had begun designing their games with longer 3-inch flippers, now the industry standard; the company made the move into solid state machines starting in the late 1970s. The first few of these were remakes of electromechanical machines such as Joker Poker and Charlie's Angels. By that time, multiple player machines were more the mode and wedgeheads were no longer being produced; the last wedgehead was T. K. O. and the last single player machine was The Aliens. Gottlieb was bought by Columbia Pictures in 1976. In 1983, after the Coca-Cola Company had acquired Columbia, Gottlieb was renamed Mylstar Electronics, but this proved to be short-lived.
By 1984 the video game industry in North America was in the middle of a shakeout and Columbia closed down Mylstar at the end of September 1984. A management group, led by Gilbert G. Pollock, purchased Mylstar's pinball assets in October 1984 and continued the manufacture of pinball machines under a new company, Premier Technology; as a result of this a number of prototype Mylstar arcade games, which were not purchased by the investors, were never released. Premier did go on to produce 1989's Exterminator. Premier Technology, which returned to selling pinball machines under the name Gottlieb after the purchase, continued in operation until the summer of 1996, when the declining demand for pinball machines forced the company to cease business. Premier sold off all its assets for the benefit of its creditors. Gottlieb's most popular pinball machine was Baffle Ball, their final machine was Barb Wire. Today, Gottlieb's pinball machines, as well as the "Gottlieb" and "D. Gottlieb & Co." trademarks, are owned by Gottlieb Development LLC of Pelham Manor, New York.
Most of Gottlieb's video games are owned by Columbia Pictures. No Man's Land – licensed from Universal New York! New York! – licensed from Sigma Enterprises Reactor Q*bert Mad Planets Krull Juno First – licensed from Konami M. A. C. H. 3 – laserdisc game. Them – laserdisc game. Videoman and Guardian Insector Arena – An earlier and simpler version of what became Wiz Warz Knightmare Faster, More Challenging Q*bert – developed under Mylstar name Screw Loose – developed under Mylstar name Tylz – developed under Mylstar name Video Vince and the Game Factory – developed under Mylstar name Wiz Warz – developed under Mylstar name Incomplete list: Baffle Ball Stop and Sock Mibs Play-Boy Brokers Tip Big Broadcast Sunshine Baseball Sweet Heart Incomplete list: Relay Playboy Humpty Dumpty #1 Miss America Lady Robin Hood Jack'n Jill Olde King Cole K. C. Jones Bank-A-Ball #34 Buffalo Bill Knock Out Triplets #40 Minstrel Man Disc Jockey Skill Pool Queen of Hearts Quartette Quintette Gold Star Dragonette Diamond Lill Hawaiian Beaty Frontiersman Southern Belle Wishing Well #107 Classy Bowler Rainbow Derby Day Harbor Lights Ace High World Champ Contest Criss Cross Queen of Diamonds World Beauties Around the world Dancing Dolls Flipper Texan Foto Finish Corral Cover Girls Flipper Clown Olympics Liberty Belle Rack-A-Ball Flying Chariots Gigi Slick Chick Sweet Hearts Swing Along Bowling Queen Happy Clown Ship Mates W
MOS Technology CIA
The 6526/8520 Complex Interface Adapter was an integrated circuit made by MOS Technology. It served as an I/O port controller for the 6502 family of microprocessors, providing for parallel and serial I/O capabilities as well as timers and a Time-of-Day clock; the device's most prominent use was in the Commodore 64 and Commodore 128, each of which included two CIA chips. The Commodore 1570 and Commodore 1571 floppy disk drives contained one CIA each. Furthermore, the Amiga home computers and the Commodore 1581 floppy disk drive employed a modified variant of the CIA circuit called 8520. 8520 is functionally equivalent to the 6526 except for the simplified TOD circuitry. The CIA had two 8-bit bidirectional parallel I/O ports; each port had a corresponding Data Direction Register, which allowed each data line to be individually set to input or output mode. A read of these ports always returned the status of the individual lines, regardless of the data direction, set. An internal bidirectional 8-bit shift register enabled the CIA to handle serial I/O.
The chip could accept serial input clocked from an external source, could send serial output clocked with one of the built-in programmable timers. An interrupt was generated, it was possible to implement a simple "network" by connecting the shift register and clock outputs of several computers together. The maximum bitrate is 500 kbit/s for the 2 MHz version; the CIA incorporates a fix to a bug in the serial-shift register in the earlier 6522 VIA. The CIA was intended for use with the 1541 drive for the Commodore 64, but was not used because of the goal of VIC-20 compatibility, causing disk speeds to be as slow as on the VIC-20. Two programmable interval timers were available, each with sub-microsecond precision; each timer consisted of a 16-bit read-only presettable down counter and a corresponding 16-bit write-only latch. Whenever a timer was started, the timer's latch was automatically copied into its counter, the counter would decrement with each clock cycle until underflow, at which an interrupt would be generated.
The timer could run in either "one-shot" mode, halting after the first interrupt, or "continuous" mode, reloading the latch value again and starting the timer cycle anew. In addition to generating interrupts, the timer output could be gated to the second I/O port; as configured in the Commodore 64 and Commodore 128, the CIA's timing was controlled by the phase two system clock, nominally one MHz. This meant that the timers decremented at one microsecond intervals, the exact time period being determined by whether the system used the NTSC or PAL video standard. In the C-128, clock stretching was employed so the CIA's timing was unaffected by whether the system was running in SLOW or FAST mode, it was possible to generate long timing intervals by programming timer B to count timer A underflows. If both timers were loaded with the maximum interval value of 65,535, a timing interval of one hour, 11 minutes, 34 seconds would result. A real-time clock is incorporated in the CIA, providing a timekeeping device more conducive to human needs than the microsecond precision of the interval timers.
Time is kept in the American 12-hour AM/PM format. The TOD clock consists of four read/write registers: hours, minutes and tenths of a second. All registers read out in BCD format. Reading from the registers will always return the time of day. In order to avoid a carry error while fetching the time, reading the hours register will halt register updating, with no effect on internal timekeeping accuracy. Once the tenths register has been read, updating will resume, it is possible to read any register other than the hours register "on the fly," making the use of a running TOD clock as a timer a practical application. If the hours register is read, however, it is essential to subsequently read the tenths register. Otherwise, all TOD registers will remain "frozen." Setting the time involves writing the appropriate BCD values into the registers. A write access to the hours register will halt the clock; the clock will not start again. Owing to the order in which the registers appear in the system's memory map, a simple loop is all, required to write the registers in the correct order.
It is permissible to write to only the tenths register to "nudge" the clock into action, in which following a hardware reset, the clock will start at 1:00:00.0. In addition to its timekeeping features, the TOD can be configured to act as an alarm clock, by arranging for it to generate an interrupt request at any desired time. Due to a bug in many 6526s, the alarm IRQ would not always occur when the seconds component of the alarm time is zero; the workaround is to set the alarm's tenths value to 0.1 seconds. The TOD clock's internal circuitry is designed to be driven by either 50 or 60 Hz clock signal, which can be inexpensively derived from the mains power source AC, resulting in a stable timekeeper with little long-term drift; the ability to work with both power line frequencies allowed a single version of the 6526 to be used in computers operated in countries with either 50 or 60 Hz mains power lines. It is important to note that contrary to the popular belief, NTSC or PAL video standards are not directly linked to mains power frequency.
Additionally, some computers did not derive their TOD clock frequency from the mains power source. For example, both NTSC and PAL variants of Commodore SX-64 use 60 Hz TOD clock supplied by a dedicated crystal. KERNAL operating system in Commodore 64 for example will determine the vi
Static random-access memory
Static random-access memory is a type of semiconductor memory that uses bistable latching circuitry to store each bit. SRAM exhibits data remanence, but it is still volatile in the conventional sense that data is lost when the memory is not powered; the term static differentiates SRAM from DRAM. SRAM is faster and more expensive than DRAM. Advantages: Simplicity – a refresh circuit is not needed Performance Reliability Low idle power consumptionDisadvantages: Price Density High operational power consumption The power consumption of SRAM varies depending on how it is accessed. On the other hand, static RAM used at a somewhat slower pace, such as in applications with moderately clocked microprocessors, draws little power and can have a nearly negligible power consumption when sitting idle – in the region of a few micro-watts. Several techniques have been proposed to manage power consumption of SRAM-based memory structures. General purpose products with asynchronous interface, such as the ubiquitous 28-pin 8K × 8 and 32K × 8 chips, as well as similar products up to 16 Mbit per chip with synchronous interface used for caches and other applications requiring burst transfers, up to 18 Mbit per chip integrated on chip as RAM or cache memory in micro-controllers as the primary caches in powerful microprocessors, such as the x86 family, many others to store the registers and parts of the state-machines used in some microprocessors on application specific ICs, or ASICs in Field Programmable Gate Array and Complex Programmable Logic Device Many categories of industrial and scientific subsystems, automotive electronics, similar, contain static RAM.
Some amount is embedded in all modern appliances, etc. that implement an electronic user interface. Several megabytes may be used in complex products such as digital cameras, cell phones, etc. SRAM in its dual-ported form is sometimes used for realtime digital signal processing circuits. SRAM is used in personal computers, workstations and peripheral equipment: CPU register files, internal CPU caches and external burst mode SRAM caches, hard disk buffers, router buffers, etc. LCD screens and printers normally employ static RAM to hold the image displayed. Static RAM was used for the main memory of some early personal computers such as the ZX80, TRS-80 Model 100 and Commodore VIC-20. Hobbyists home-built processor enthusiasts prefer SRAM due to the ease of interfacing, it is much easier to work with than DRAM as there are no refresh cycles and the address and data buses are directly accessible rather than multiplexed. In addition to buses and power connections, SRAM requires only three controls: Chip Enable, Write Enable and Output Enable.
In synchronous SRAM, Clock is included. Non-volatile SRAMs, or nvSRAMs, have standard SRAM functionality, but they save the data when the power supply is lost, ensuring preservation of critical information. NvSRAMs are used in a wide range of situations – networking and medical, among many others – where the preservation of data is critical and where batteries are impractical. PSRAMs have a DRAM storage core, combined with a self refresh circuit, they appear externally as a slower SRAM. They have a density/cost advantage over true SRAM, without the access complexity of DRAM. Bipolar junction transistor – fast but consumes a lot of power MOSFET – low power and common today Asynchronous – independent of clock frequency. Address, data in and other control signals are associated with the clock signalsIn 1990s, asynchronous SRAM used to be employed for fast access time. Asynchronous SRAM was used as main memory for small cache-less embedded processors used in everything from industrial electronics and measurement systems to hard disks and networking equipment, among many other applications.
Nowadays, synchronous SRAM is rather employed like Synchronous DRAM – DDR SDRAM memory is rather used than asynchronous DRAM. Synchronous memory interface is much faster as access time can be reduced by employing pipeline architecture. Furthermore, as DRAM is much cheaper than SRAM, SRAM is replaced by DRAM in the case when large volume of data is required. SRAM memory is however much faster for random access. Therefore, SRAM memory is used for CPU cache, small on-chip memory, FIFOs or other small buffers. Zero bus turnaround – the turnaround is the number of clock cycles it takes to change access to the SRAM from write to read and vice versa; the turnaround for ZBT SRAMs or the latency between read and write cycle is zero. SyncBurst – features synchronous burst write access to the SRAM to increase write operation to the SRAM DDR SRAM – Synchronous, single read/write port, double data rate I/O Quad Data Rate SRAM – Synchronous, separate read and write ports, quadruple data rate I/O Binary SRAM Ternary SRAM A typical SRAM cell is mad
Dual in-line package
In microelectronics, a dual in-line package, or dual in-line pin package is an electronic component package with a rectangular housing and two parallel rows of electrical connecting pins. The package may be inserted in a socket; the dual-inline format was invented by Don Forbes, Rex Rice and Bryant Rogers at Fairchild R&D in 1964, when the restricted number of leads available on circular transistor-style packages became a limitation in the use of integrated circuits. Complex circuits required more signal and power supply leads. Furthermore and rectangular packages made it easier to route printed-circuit traces beneath the packages. A DIP is referred to as a DIPn, where n is the total number of pins. For example, a microcircuit package with two rows of seven vertical leads would be a DIP14; the photograph at the upper right shows three DIP14 ICs. Common packages have as many as 64 leads. Many analog and digital integrated circuit types are available in DIP packages, as are arrays of transistors, light emitting diodes, resistors.
DIP plugs for ribbon cables can be used with standard IC sockets. DIP packages are made from an opaque molded epoxy plastic pressed around a tin-, silver-, or gold-plated lead frame that supports the device die and provides connection pins; some types of IC are made in ceramic DIP packages, where high temperature or high reliability is required, or where the device has an optical window to the interior of the package. Most DIP packages are secured to a PCB by inserting the pins through holes in the board and soldering them in place. Where replacement of the parts is necessary, such as in test fixtures or where programmable devices must be removed for changes, a DIP socket is used; some sockets include a zero insertion force mechanism. Variations of the DIP package include those with only a single row of pins, e.g. a resistor array including a heat sink tab in place of the second row of pins, types with four rows of pins, two rows, staggered, on each side of the package. DIP packages have been displaced by surface-mount package types, which avoid the expense of drilling holes in a PCB and which allow higher density of interconnections.
DIPs are used for integrated circuits. Other devices in DIP packages include resistor networks, DIP switches, LED segmented and bargraph displays, electromechanical relays. DIP connector plugs for ribbon cables are common in other electronic equipment. Dallas Semiconductor manufactured integrated DIP real-time clock modules which contained an IC chip and a non-replaceable 10-year lithium battery. DIP header blocks on to which discrete components could be soldered were used where groups of components needed to be removed, for configuration changes, optional features or calibration; the original dual-in-line package was invented by Bryant "Buck" Rogers in 1964 while working for Fairchild Semiconductor. The first devices looked much like they do today; the rectangular shape allowed integrated circuits to be packaged more densely than previous round packages. The package was well-suited to automated assembly equipment. DIP packages were still large with respect to the integrated circuits within them.
By the end of the 20th century, surface-mount packages allowed further reduction in the size and weight of systems. DIP chips are still popular for circuit prototyping on a breadboard because of how they can be inserted and utilized there. DIPs were the mainstream of the microelectronics industry in the 1980s, their use has declined in the first decade of the 21st century due to the emerging new surface-mount technology packages such as plastic leaded chip carrier and small-outline integrated circuit, though DIPs continued in extensive use through the 1990s, still continue to be used as the year 2011 passes. Because some modern chips are available only in surface-mount package types, a number of companies sell various prototyping adapters to allow those SMT devices to be used like DIP devices with through-hole breadboards and soldered prototyping boards. For programmable devices like EPROMs and GALs, DIPs remained popular for many years due to their easy handling with external programming circuitry However, with In-System Programming technology now state of the art, this advantage of DIPs is losing importance as well.
Through the 1990s, devices with fewer than 20 leads were manufactured in a DIP format in addition to the newer formats. Since about 2000, newer devices are unavailable in the DIP format. DIPs can be mounted either in sockets. Sockets allow easy replacement of a device and eliminates the risk of damage from overheating during soldering. Sockets were used for high-value or large ICs, which cost much more than the socket. Where devices would be inserted and removed, such as in test equipment or EPROM programmers, a zero insertion force sock
Very Large Scale Integration
Very-large-scale integration is the process of creating an integrated circuit by combining millions of transistors or devices into a single chip. VLSI began in the 1970s when complex semiconductor and communication technologies were being developed; the microprocessor is a VLSI device. Before the introduction of VLSI technology most ICs had a limited set of functions they could perform. An electronic circuit might consist of ROM, RAM and other glue logic. VLSI lets IC designers add all of these into one chip; the history of the transistor dates to the 1920s when several inventors attempted devices that were intended to control current in solid-state diodes and convert them into triodes. Success came after World War II, when the use of silicon and germanium crystals as radar detectors led to improvements in fabrication and theory. Scientists who had worked on radar returned to solid-state device development. With the invention of transistors at Bell Labs in 1947, the field of electronics shifted from vacuum tubes to solid-state device.
With the small transistor at their hands, electrical engineers of the 1950s saw the possibilities of constructing far more advanced circuits. However, as the complexity of circuits grew, problems arose. One problem was the size of the circuit. A complex circuit like a computer was dependent on speed. If the components were large, the wires interconnecting them must be long; the electric signals took time thus slowing the computer. The invention of the integrated circuit by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce solved this problem by making all the components and the chip out of the same block of semiconductor material; the circuits could be made smaller, the manufacturing process could be automated. This led to the idea of integrating all components on a single-crystal silicon wafer, which led to small-scale integration in the early 1960s, medium-scale integration in the late 1960s, large-scale integration as well as VLSI in the 1970s and 1980s, with tens of thousands of transistors on a single chip; the first semiconductor chips held two transistors each.
Subsequent advances added more transistors, as a consequence, more individual functions or systems were integrated over time. The first integrated circuits held only a few devices as many as ten diodes, transistors and capacitors, making it possible to fabricate one or more logic gates on a single device. Now known retrospectively as small-scale integration, improvements in technique led to devices with hundreds of logic gates, known as medium-scale integration. Further improvements led to large-scale integration, i.e. systems with at least a thousand logic gates. Current technology has moved far past this mark and today's microprocessors have many millions of gates and billions of individual transistors. At one time, there was an effort to name and calibrate various levels of large-scale integration above VLSI. Terms like ultra-large-scale integration were used, but the huge number of gates and transistors available on common devices has rendered such fine distinctions moot. Terms suggesting greater than VLSI levels of integration are no longer in widespread use.
In 2008, billion-transistor processors became commercially available. This became more commonplace as semiconductor fabrication advanced from the then-current generation of 65 nm processes. Current designs, unlike the earliest devices, use extensive design automation and automated logic synthesis to lay out the transistors, enabling higher levels of complexity in the resulting logic functionality. Certain high-performance logic blocks like the SRAM cell, are still designed by hand to ensure the highest efficiency. Structured VLSI design is a modular methodology originated by Carver Mead and Lynn Conway for saving microchip area by minimizing the interconnect fabrics area; this is obtained by repetitive arrangement of rectangular macro blocks which can be interconnected using wiring by abutment. An example is partitioning the layout of an adder into a row of equal bit slices cells. In complex designs this structuring may be achieved by hierarchical nesting. Structured VLSI design had been popular in the early 1980s, but lost its popularity because of the advent of placement and routing tools wasting a lot of area by routing, tolerated because of the progress of Moore's Law.
When introducing the hardware description language KARL in the mid' 1970s, Reiner Hartenstein coined the term "structured VLSI design", echoing Edsger Dijkstra's structured programming approach by procedure nesting to avoid chaotic spaghetti-structured program As microprocessors become more complex due to technology scaling, microprocessor designers have encountered several challenges which force them to think beyond the design plane, look ahead to post-silicon: Process variation – As photolithography techniques get closer to the fundamental laws of optics, achieving high accuracy in doping concentrations and etched wires is becoming more difficult and prone to errors due to variation. Designers now must simulate across multiple fabrication process corners before a chip is certified ready for production, or use system-level techniques for dealing with effects of variation. Stricter design rules – Due to lithography and etch issues with scaling, design rules for layout have become stringent.
Designers must keep in mind an increasing list of rules when laying out custom circuits. The overhead for custom design is now reaching a tipping point, with many design houses opting to switch to electronic design automation tools to automate their design process. Timing/design clo