Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Royal Viking Line
The Royal Viking Line was an upmarket cruise line that operated from 1972 until 1998. The company was the child of Warren Titus and had its headquarters at One Embarcadero Center in San Francisco. Each of the initial three vessels was owned by one of its initial investing partners. The first, the Royal Viking Star, was completed in July,1972, the second, the Royal Viking Sky, was owned by Nordenfjeldske Dampskibsselskab of Trondheim. She was completed in July 1973, the third ship, the Royal Viking Sea, was ready in December of the same year. Her owner was A. F. Klaveness & Co, Warren S. Titus became the first president of Royal Viking Line, which established its US head office in San Francisco. However, the Star was two feet shorter, and her interior arrangement differed slightly from her two fleet-mates, other differences included the placement of small lounges and facilities such as the library. These vessels were intended for voyages to exotic destinations. As such, they featured numerous single staterooms and suites, Royal Viking Line prided itself on single-seating dining, and the restaurant was situated unusually high in the ship, with large windows.
Another popular feature was a glass-enclosed lounge high atop the bridge and this increased each ships capacity by 200 passengers, and mainly included the addition of cabins. Aft of the lounge, a new lounge and nine penthouse suites with balconies. The size of the restaurant was doubled and now occupied nearly half of one deck in order to maintain single-seating dining. Royal Viking Star was stretched in 1981, Royal Viking Sky in 1982, the lengthening of the ships both improved the ships profiles and their economics. In 1984 Torstein Hagen arranged a USD240 million management buyout of the company, after the buyout had been announced, but before it closed, the two companies owning Royal Viking decided to sell the company instead to Norwegian Caribbean Line, part of the Kloster group. The offices were moved to Coral Gables and Warren Titus departed in 1987, while under Kloster ownership, Royal Viking built a fourth ship, the Royal Viking Sun. Constructed by Wärtsilä in Turku, she was 39,000 GRT, the final ship built for Royal Viking was the Royal Viking Queen completed in 1992.
She was just 10,000 GRT, carrying only 212 passengers and sharing a general arrangement with the Seabourn Pride and Seabourn Spirit of Seabourn Cruise Line, in 1993, the Westward ex Royal Viking Star became the Star Odyssey for Royal Cruise Line. The passenger capacity on each of the three ships had been increased to 850, mainly with the addition of staterooms amidships on the Bridge Deck
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago. The capital is Nassau on the island of New Providence, the designation of the Bahamas can refer either to the country or to the larger island chain that it shares with the Turks and Caicos Islands. As stated in the mandate/manifesto of the Royal Bahamas Defence Force, the Bahamas is the site of Columbus first landfall in the New World in 1492. At that time, the islands were inhabited by the Lucayan, although the Spanish never colonised the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola. The islands were mostly deserted from 1513 until 1648, when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera, the Bahamas became a British Crown colony in 1718, when the British clamped down on piracy. After the American War of Independence, the Crown resettled thousands of American Loyalists in the Bahamas, they brought their slaves with them, Africans constituted the majority of the population from this period.
Slavery in the Bahamas was abolished in 1834, Today the descendants of slaves and free Africans make up nearly 90% of the population, issues related to the slavery years are part of society. The Bahamas became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1973, retaining Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch, in terms of gross domestic product per capita, the Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the Americas, with an economy based on tourism and finance. The name Bahamas is derived from either the Taino ba ha ma, alternatively, it may originate from Guanahani, a local name of unclear meaning. In English, the Bahamas is one of two countries whose self-standing short name begins with the word the, along with The Gambia. Taino people moved into the uninhabited southern Bahamas from Hispaniola and Cuba around the 11th century and they came to be known as the Lucayan people. An estimated 30,000 Lucayan inhabited the Bahamas at the time of Christopher Columbus arrival in 1492, Columbuss first landfall in the New World was on an island he named San Salvador.
Some researchers believe this site to be present-day San Salvador Island, an alternative theory holds that Columbus landed to the southeast on Samana Cay, according to calculations made in 1986 by National Geographic writer and editor Joseph Judge, based on Columbuss log. Evidence in support of this remains inconclusive, on the landfall island, Columbus made first contact with the Lucayan and exchanged goods with them. The Spanish forced much of the Lucayan population to Hispaniola for use as forced labour, the slaves suffered from harsh conditions and most died from contracting diseases to which they had no immunity, half of the Taino died from smallpox alone. The population of the Bahamas was severely diminished, in 1648, the Eleutherian Adventurers, led by William Sayle, migrated from Bermuda. These English Puritans established the first permanent European settlement on an island which they named Eleuthera—the name derives from the Greek word for freedom and they settled New Providence, naming it Sayles Island after one of their leaders.
To survive, the settlers salvaged goods from wrecks, in 1670 King Charles II granted the islands to the Lords Proprietors of the Carolinas in North America
Transportation is not the only purpose of cruising, particularly on cruises that return passengers to their originating port, with the ports of call usually in a specified region of a continent. There are even cruises to nowhere or nowhere voyages where the ship makes 2–3 night round trips without any ports of call, by contrast, dedicated transport oriented ocean liners do line voyages and typically transport passengers from one point to another, rather than on round trips. The gradual evolution of passenger ship design from ocean liners to cruise ships has seen passenger cabins shifted from inside the hull to the superstructure with private verandas, the distinction between ocean liners and cruise ships has blurred, particularly with respect to deployment. Larger cruise ships have engaged in longer trips such as transoceanic voyages which may not return to the port for months. Some former ocean liners operate as cruise ships, such as Marco Polo, the only dedicated transatlantic ocean liner in operation as a liner of December 2013 is Queen Mary 2 of the Cunard fleet.
The industrys rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to a North American clientele added every year since 2001, smaller markets, such as the Asia-Pacific region, are generally serviced by older ships. These are displaced by new ships in the growth areas. The worlds largest cruise ship is currently Royal Caribbean Internationals Harmony of the Seas beating her sister ships by about 2.15 meters, the birth of leisure cruising began with the formation of the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company in 1822. The company started out as a line with routes between England and the Iberian Peninsula, adopting the name Peninsular Steam Navigation Company. It won its first contract to deliver mail in 1837, in 1840, it began mail delivery to Alexandria, via Gibraltar and Malta. The company was incorporated by Royal Charter the same year, becoming the Peninsular, P&O first introduced passenger cruising services in 1844, advertising sea tours to destinations such as Gibraltar and Athens, sailing from Southampton.
The forerunner of modern cruise holidays, these voyages were the first of their kind, the company introduced round trips to destinations such as Alexandria and Constantinople. It underwent a period of expansion in the latter half of the 19th century, commissioning larger. Some sources mention Francesco I, flying the flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and she was built in 1831 and sailed from Naples in early June 1833, preceded by an advertising campaign. The cruise ship was boarded by nobles and royal princes from all over Europe, however, it was restricted to the aristocracy of Europe and was not a commercial endeavour. Christian Wilhelm Allers published an account of it as Backschisch. The first vessel built exclusively for cruising, was Prinzessin Victoria Luise of Germany, designed by Albert Ballin. The ship was completed in 1900, the practice of luxury cruising made steady inroads on the more established market for transatlantic crossings
Star Legend (ship)
Star Legend is a cruise ship constructed by Schichau-Seebeckwerft in Bremerhaven and operated by Windstar Cruises. She is the sister ship of Star Pride and Star Breeze, all designed by Petter Yran. Under one of her previous names, Seabourn Legend, she was featured in the 1997 film Speed 2 and she departed the Seabourn fleet in April 2015, and entered service for Windstar Cruises in May 2015. The Construction of Royal Viking Queen began in 1990 by Schichau-Seebeckwerft in Bremerhaven and she was the last ship to be built for Royal Viking Line and the smallest. She was originally planned for Seabourn Cruise Line in 1990, was delayed due to financial constraints and was ultimately purchased by Royal Viking Line. She was launched on May 1991, and was completed on February 1992 and she was put into service for Kloster Cruise. She operated her sea trials and her maiden voyage began on February 11,1992 and was finished on February 29,1992, the ship operated on various crossings for Royal Viking Line, a Kloster subsidiary.
During her service as Royal Viking Queen she was part of the leading cruise ships. In 1995, the name was changed to Queen Odyssey after she was assigned to Royal Cruise Line. She remained in operation for Royal Cruise Line until January 1996, may 1991 — Launched February 11,1992 — Operated sea trials. February 29,1992 — Delivered to Kloster Cruise, named Royal Viking Queen 1995 — Assigned to Royal Cruise Line, Renamed Queen Odyssey January 12,1996 — Acquired by Seabourn Cruise Line, Norway
Nassau is the capital, largest city, and commercial centre of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas. The city has an population of 274,400 as of 2016. The city is located on the island of New Providence, which much like a business district. Nassau is the site of the House of Assembly and various departments and was considered historically to be a stronghold of pirates. The city was named in honour of William III of England, nassaus modern growth began in the late eighteenth century, with the influx of thousands of American Loyalists and their slaves to the Bahamas following the American Revolutionary War. Many of them settled in Nassau and eventually came to outnumber the original inhabitants, as the population of Nassau grew, so did its populated areas. Today the city dominates the island and its satellite, Paradise Island. However, until the post-Second World War era, the outer suburbs scarcely existed, most of New Providence was uncultivated bush until Loyalists were resettled there following the American Revolutionary War, they established several plantations, such as Clifton and Tusculum.
In addition, slaves freed from American ships, such as the Creole case in 1841, were allowed to settle there, Nassau was formerly known as Charles Town, it was burned to the ground by the Spanish in 1684 during one of their frequent wars with the English. The name Nassau derives from the House of Nassau and ultimately from the town of Nassau, due to a lack of effective Governors, Nassau fell on hard times. In 1703 Spanish and French allied forces briefly occupied Nassau, from 1703 to 1718 there was no governor in the colony and by 1713, the sparsely settled Bahamas had become a pirate haven. The Governor of Bermuda stated that there were over 1,000 pirates in Nassau and they proclaimed Nassau a pirate republic, establishing themselves as governors. Examples of pirates that used Nassau as their base are Charles Vane, Thomas Barrow, Benjamin Hornigold, Calico Jack Rackham, Anne Bonny, Mary Read, in 1718, the British sought to regain control of the islands and appointed Captain Woodes Rogers as Royal governor.
He successfully clamped down on the pirates, reformed the civil administration, Rogers cleaned up Nassau and rebuilt the fort, using his own wealth to try to overcome problems. In 1720 the Spanish made an attempt to capture Nassau. During the wars in the Thirteen Colonies, Nassau experienced an economic boom, with funds from privateering, a new fort, street lights and over 2300 sumptuous houses were built and Nassau was extended. In addition to this, mosquito breeding swamps were filled, in 1778 after an overnight invasion, American raiders led by Captain Rathburn, left with ships and military stores after stopping in Nassau for only two days. In 1782 Spain captured Nassau for the last time when Don Juan de Cagigal, governor-general of Cuba, attacked New Providence with 5000 men
Deadweight tonnage or tons deadweight is a measure of how much mass a ship is carrying or can safely carry, it does not include the weight of the ship. DWT is the sum of the weights of cargo, fresh water, ballast water, passengers, DWT is often used to specify a ships maximum permissible deadweight, although it may denote the actual DWT of a ship not loaded to capacity. Deadweight tonnage is a measure of a weight carrying capacity. It should not be confused with displacement which includes the ships own weight, nor other volume or capacity measures such as gross tonnage or net tonnage
MV Boudicca is a cruise ship owned and operated by Fred. She was built in 1973 by Wärtsilä Helsinki Shipyard, Finland as Royal Viking Sky for Nordenfjeldske Dampsibsselskap, which placed the ship in Royal Viking Line service. Prior to entering service with her current owners, the ship has sailed under the names Sunward, Birka Queen, Golden Princess, SuperStar Capricorn, Hyundai Keumgang. Royal Viking Sky was ordered by Nordenfjeldske Dampsibsselskap, Trondheim from the Wärtsilä Hietalahti shipyard in Helsinki and she was one of three near-identical ships ordered by different companies from for Royal Viking Line service. Her sister ships were Royal Viking Star, owned by Bergenske Dampskibsselskap, the Royal Viking Sky was launched from drydock on 25 May 1972 and delivered to her owners on 5 June 1973. Following delivery to Kloster/Royal Viking the Royal Viking Sky was used for cruises around the world. In 1982 she was lengthened from 177.70 metres to 205.47 metres at the A. G. Weser shipyard in Bremerhaven, in 1984 Kloster Cruise acquired the entirety of Royal Viking Line.
Subsequently in 1991 Royal Viking Sky was transferred to the fleet of Norwegian Cruise Line under the name Sunward, already in 1992 the Sunward was sold to Birka Cruise, who renamed the ship Birka Queen for Baltic Sea cruising. Her career with Birka only lasted for the 1992 northern hemisphere summer season, in 1993 the ship was chartered to Princess Cruises, becoming their Golden Princess. Following delivery of newer tonnage to Princess Cruises, the company terminated the charter of the Golden Princess, subsequently Birka Cruises sold the ship to Star Cruises, who renamed her SuperStar Capricorn. In 1998 the SuperStar Capricorn was chartered by Star Cruises to Hyundai Merchant Marine, huyndais cruise operations failed already in 2001, and the Hyundai Keumgang was returned to Star Cruises and resumed service under the name SuperStar Capricorn. In 2004 the ship was sold to Iberocruceros, who renamed her Grand Latino for Mediterranean cruising out of Spain, in 2005 the ship was sold to Fred.
Olsen Cruise Lines and renamed Boudicca, following changing of her main engines at the Blohm + Voss shipyard in Hamburg, the ship entered service with Fred. In March 2010, the ship was relocated to its new base in Liverpool, where it has replaced the MV Black Prince, on 25 January 2015, the ship carrying more than 1,000 people was left without power off Morocco after an engine room fire. The fire at 04,00 BST left the listing and in pitch black, said Dave Tonkin. Fred Olsen, the company owns the ship, said it was now fully stable and had five engines running again. The three formal restaurants, Heligan Room and Tintagel Restaurant to starboard and Four Seasons Restaurant to port, are on Deck 6, there is a common buffet servery for breakfast and lunch. There is an informal, buffet restaurant amidships, the Secret Garden, the main show lounge, the Neptune Lounge, sits aft and contains a stage and dance floor
Sulzer Ltd. is a Swiss industrial engineering and manufacturing firm, founded by Salomon Sulzer-Bernet in 1775 and established as Sulzer Brothers Ltd. in 1834 in Winterthur, Switzerland. Today it is a traded company with international subsidiaries. The companys shares are listed on the Swiss Stock Exchange, Sulzer Brothers helped develop shuttleless weaving, and their core business was loom manufacture. Rudolf Diesel worked for Sulzer in 1879, and in 1893 Sulzer bought certain rights to diesel engines, Sulzer built their first diesel engine in 1898. Chemtech - Components and services for separation columns and static mixing The Sulzer Ltd shares are registered at the SIX Swiss Exchange, Sulzer was blacklisted by the Allies during World War II due to an increase in trade with Axis countries. Sulzer refused to sign an agreement to limit the sale of marine diesel engines to the Axis countries. Sulzer developed a series of rail engines in the 1930s and 1940s which were used extensively in diesel locomotives in the UK, Europe.
A small number were used in locomotives in Africa and Australia, the Sulzer LDA engine was widely used by British Rail and Romanian Railways. Many were built under licence by Vickers-Armstrong at Barrow as six-, eight- and twelve-cylinder form, the twelve-cylinder engine was used in the British Rail Class 47, Romanian Railways Class 60/62, Polish Railways Class ST43, China Railways ND2, and several others. The 12LDA28 engine was a bank engine having, in effect. Sulzer V-type engines for rail use bore the type number LVA, in the late 1970s, locomotive rebuilder Morrison Knudsen installed a series of Sulzer power units into several existing locomotives. The first applications were of the marine based 6ASL25/30 & 8ASL25/30 series used in a Morrison-Knudsen demonstrator, teething problems plagued these machines and their operation in revenue earning service was brief. Research into correcting their problems continued but was curtailed by Morrison Knudsen late in 1982. These power units were descendents of the LVA range, in 1990, Sulzer spun off the diesel engine division into a separate company named New Sulzer Diesel and sold most of the shares in it, retaining only a minority ownership.
In 1997, NSD was absorbed by Wärtsilä, creating Wärtsilä NSD, Wärtsilä NSD makes the worlds largest diesel engine, the Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C. They are one of the few companies that create an intelligent diesel main propulsion engine
Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. A peninsula with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the country has borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland, Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia, which includes Scandinavia. Finlands population is 5.5 million, and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region,88. 7% of the population is Finnish people who speak Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages, the second major group are the Finland-Swedes. In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe, Finland is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, from the late 12th century, Finland was an integral part of Sweden, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status.
In the spirit of the notion of Adolf Ivar Arwidsson, we are not Swedes, we do not want to become Russians, let us therefore be Finns, nevertheless, in 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the nation in the world to give the right to vote to all adult citizens. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent, in 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Reds supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the Whites, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia and Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era, Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.
It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive Nordic-style welfare state, resulting in widespread prosperity, Finnish GDP growth has been negative in 2012–2014, with a preceding nadir of −8% in 2009. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, a large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, though freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution. The first known appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three rune-stones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti, the third was found in Gotland, in the Baltic Sea. It has the inscription finlandi and dates from the 13th century, the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, which is mentioned first known time AD98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, in addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian
Norwegian Cruise Line
Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings Ltd. is a Bermudian company operating cruise ships, headquartered in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida. It began operations in 1966 under the name Norwegian Caribbean Line, the company is best known for its Freestyle Cruising concept, which means that there are no set times or seating arrangements for meals, nor is formal attire required. Norwegian is a traded company with 44% publicly listed on NASDAQ, with major shareholders including Genting Group, Apollo Global Management. Norwegian Cruise Line controls approximately 8% of the total share of the cruise market. Arison soon left to form Carnival Cruise Lines, while Kloster acquired additional ships for Caribbean service, like the original Sunward of 1966, Norwegianss second ship, the Starward had the capability to carry automobiles through a well concealed stern door. Later, this area was turned into cabins and a two movie theater, which is now a casino. Norwegian was responsible for many of the innovations that have now become standard throughout the industry.
Norwegian made headlines with the acquisition of the France in 1979, rebuilding the liner as a cruise ship, the conversion cost more than $100 million USD. The Norway was at the significantly larger than any existing cruise ship. Her success paved the way for a new era of giant cruise ships, she was sold for scrap and renamed the SS Blue Lady and beached at Alang, India in August 2006 with claims that she had not been cleaned of toxic materials. On September 11,2007, the India Supreme Court issued an order permitting her to be broken-up at Alang, Norwegian has expanded to other parts of the world, including Alaska, Europe and Hawaii. Between 1997 and 2001 the company operated out of Australia under the name Norwegian Capricorn Line. Its subsidiary Orient Lines, founded in 1991 to run the Marco Polo, was acquired in 1998, Norwegian itself was acquired by the Star Cruises, subsidiary of Malaysia-based Genting Group, in 2000. In 2007 Star Cruises sold the Marco Polo to Transocean Tours, Orient Lines will cease trading when the ship is delivered to its new owners.
In 2003 the company announced the purchase of the famed American-flagged liners SS United States, although it has promised to restore the United States to service, the future of the ship remains uncertain to this day. In their July 2007 fiscal report, Norwegian noted the sale of the Independence, on July 1,2010, the SS United States Conservancy struck a deal to buy the SS United States for $3 million. On February 1,2011, the ownership was transferred to the SS United States Conservancy. In August 2007, Star Cruises sold 50% of Norwegian for $1 billion to US-based Apollo Management in order to strengthen Norwegians financial position
Phoenix Reisen is a Germany-based travel agency that operates a fleet of cruise ships. The company first entered the business in 1988 by chartering the Soviet Union-owned cruise ship SS Maxim Gorkiy. In 1993 a second ship joined the Phoenix Reisen fleet, when SS Albatros was chartered from V-Ships. Unlike the Maxim Gorkiy, which retained the colours of her owners in Phoenix service, due to numerous mechanical problems, Phoenix Reisen decided to prematurely terminate the charter of the Albatros in December 2003. As a replacement Phoenix quickly chartered MS Crown in January 2004, in 2005 the company fleet expanded to include three ships for the first time when MS Alexander von Humboldt was chartered from V-Ships. A fourth ship followed in 2006 with the charter of MS Amadea, in 2008 the first Alexander von Humboldt was replaced by a larger vessel chartered from Club Cruise, confusingly named MS Alexander von Humboldt. In late 2008 the charter of the Maxim Gorkiy ended, in May 2009 Phoenix Reisen chartered MS Athena from Nina SpA.
In April 2011, the company took delivery of MV Artania, which formerly sailed as MV Artemis for P&O Cruises