Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits; as of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, which in 2015 became the Metropolitan City of Genoa, counted 855,834 resident persons. Over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera. Located on the Gulf of Genoa in the Ligurian Sea, Genoa has been one of the most important ports on the Mediterranean: it is the busiest in Italy and in the Mediterranean Sea and twelfth-busiest in the European Union. Genoa has been nicknamed la Superba due to its glorious impressive landmarks. Part of the old town of Genoa was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2006 as Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli; the city's rich cultural history in art and cuisine allowed it to become the 2004 European Capital of Culture. It is the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, Andrea Doria, Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Mazzini, Renzo Piano and Grimaldo Canella, founder of the House of Grimaldi, among others.
Genoa, which forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of Northwest Italy, is one of the country's major economic centers. The city has hosted massive shipyards and steelworks since the 19th century, its solid financial sector dates back to the Middle Ages; the Bank of Saint George, founded in 1407, is among the oldest in the world and has played an important role in the city's prosperity since the middle of the 15th century. Today a number of leading Italian companies are based in the city, including Fincantieri, Selex ES, Ansaldo Energia, Ansaldo STS, Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone, Piaggio Aerospace, Mediterranean Shipping Company and Costa Cruises; the flag of Genoa is a red cross on a white field. The English Monarch paid an annual tribute to the Doge of Genoa for this privilege." The patron saint of Genoa was Saint Lawrence until at least 958, but the Genoese transferred their allegiance to Saint George at some point during the 11th or 12th century, most with the rising popularity of the military saint during the Crusades.
Genoa had a banner displaying a cross since at latest 1218 as early as 1113. But the cross banner was not associated with the saint. A depiction of this flag is shown in the Genoese annals under the year 1227; the Genoese flag with the red cross was used alongside this "Saint George's flag", from at least 1218, known as the insignia cruxata comunis Janue. The saint's flag was the city's main war flag, but the cross flag was used alongside it in the 1240s; the Saint George's flag remained the main flag of Genoa at least until the 1280s. The flag now known as the "St. George's Cross" seems to have replaced it as Genoa's main flag at some point during the 14th century; the Book of Knowledge of All Kingdoms shows it, inscribed with the word iustiçia, described as: And the lord of this place has as his ensign a white pennant with a red cross. At the top it is inscribed in this manner; the city of Genoa covers an area of 243 square kilometres between the Ligurian Sea and the Apennine Mountains. The city stretches along the coast for about 30 kilometres from the neighbourhood of Voltri to Nervi, for 10 kilometres from the coast to the north along the valleys Polcevera and Bisagno.
The territory of Genoa is popularly divided into 5 main zones: the centre, the west, the east, the Polcevera and the Bisagno Valley. Genoa is adjacent to two popular Ligurian vacation spots: Portofino. In the metropolitan area of Genoa lies Aveto Natural Regional Park. Genoa has a humid subtropical climate in the Köppen climate classification, since only one summer month has less than 40 millimetres of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as oceanic or Mediterranean; the average yearly temperature is around 19 °C during 13 °C at night. In the coldest months: December and February, the average temperature is 12 °C during the day and 6 °C at night. In the warmest months – July and August – the average temperature is 27.5 °C during the day and 21 °C at night. The daily temperature range is limited, with an average range of about 6 °C between high and low temperatures. Genoa sees significant moderation from the sea, in stark contrast to areas behind the Ligurian mountains such as Parma, where summers are hotter and winters are quite cold.
Annually, the average 2.9 of nights recorded temperatures of ≤0 °C. The coldest temperature recorded was −8 °C on the night of February 2012. Average annual number of days with temperatures of ≥30 °C is about 8, average four days in July and August. Average annual temperature of the sea is 17.5 °C, from 13 °C in the period January–March to 25 °C in August. In the period from June to October, the average sea temperature exceeds
Breakwaters are structures constructed near the coasts as part of coastal management or to protect an anchorage from the effects of both weather and longshore drift. Breakwaters reduce the intensity of wave action in inshore waters and thereby reduce coastal erosion or provide safe harbourage. Breakwaters may be small structures designed to protect a sloping beach and placed 100–300 feet offshore in shallow water. An anchorage is only safe if ships anchored there are protected from the force of high winds and powerful waves by some large underwater barrier which they can shelter behind. Natural harbours are formed by such barriers as reefs. Artificial harbours can be created with the help of breakwaters. Mobile harbours, such as the D-Day Mulberry harbours, were floated into position and acted as breakwaters; some natural harbours, such as those in Plymouth Sound, Portland Harbour, Cherbourg, have been enhanced or extended by breakwaters made of rock. The dissipation of energy and relative calm water created in the lee of the breakwaters encourage accretion of sediment.
However, this can lead to excessive salient build up, resulting in tombolo formation, which reduces longshore drift shoreward of the breakwaters. This trapping of sediment can cause adverse effects down-drift of the breakwaters, leading to beach sediment starvation and increased erosion; this may lead to further engineering protection being needed down-drift of the breakwater development. Breakwaters are subject to damage, overtopping in severe storms. Breakwaters can be constructed with one end linked to the shore, otherwise they are positioned offshore 330–1,970 feet from the original shoreline. There are two main types of offshore breakwater and multiple. Length of gap is governed by the interacting wavelengths. Breakwaters may be either fixed or floating, impermeable or permeable to allow sediment transfer shoreward of the structures, the choice depending on tidal range and water depth, they consist of large pieces of rock weighing up to 16 tonnes each, or rubble-mound. Their design is influenced by the angle of other environmental parameters.
Breakwater construction can be either parallel or perpendicular to the coast, depending on the shoreline requirements. Salient formations as a result of breakwaters are a function of the distance the breakwaters are built from the coast, the direction at which the wave hits the breakwater, the angle at which the breakwater is built. Of these three, the angle at which the breakwater is built is most important in the engineered formation of salients; the angle at which the breakwater is built determines the new direction of the waves, in turn the direction that sediment will flow and accumulate over time. A breakwater structure is designed to absorb the energy of the waves that hit it, either by using mass, or by using a revetment slope. In coastal engineering, a revetment is a land backed structure whilst a breakwater is a sea backed structure. Rubble mound breakwaters use structural voids to dissipate the wave energy. Rubble mound breakwaters consist of piles of stones more or less sorted according to their unit weight: smaller stones for the core and larger stones as an armour layer protecting the core from wave attack.
Rock or concrete armour units on the outside of the structure absorb most of the energy, while gravels or sands prevent the wave energy's continuing through the breakwater core. The slopes of the revetment are between 1:1 and 1:2, depending upon the materials used. In shallow water, revetment breakwaters are relatively inexpensive; as water depth increases, the material requirements—and hence costs—increase significantly. Caisson breakwaters have vertical sides and are erected where it is desirable to berth one or more vessels on the inner face of the breakwater, they use the mass of the caisson and the fill within it to resist the overturning forces applied by waves hitting them. They are expensive to construct in shallow water, but in deeper sites they can offer a significant saving over revetment breakwaters. An additional rubble mound is sometimes placed in front of the vertical structure in order to absorb wave energy and thus reduce wave reflection and horizontal wave pressure on the vertical wall.
Such a design provides additional protection on the sea side and a quay wall on the inner side of the breakwater, but it can enhance wave overtopping. A similar but more sophisticated concept is a wave-absorbing caisson, including various types of perforation in the front wall; such structures have been used in the offshore oil-industry, but on coastal projects requiring rather low-crested structures, e.g. on an urban promenade where the sea view is an important aspect like in Beirut and Monaco. In the latter, a project is presently ongoing at the Anse du Portier including 18 wave-absorbing 27 m high caissons. Wave attenuators consist of concrete elements properly dimensioned placed horizontally just one feet under the free surface, positioned along a line parallel to the coast; the wave attenuator has four sea-side slabs, one vertical slab, two rear-side slabs, each separated from the next by a space of 200 millimetres. This row of 4 front side slabs and two rear side slabs
Burmeister & Wain
Burmeister & Wain was a large established Danish shipyard and leading diesel engine producer headquartered in Copenhagen, Denmark. Founded by two Danes and an Englishman, its earliest roots stretch back to 1846. Over its 150-year history, it grew into a strong company through the end of the 1960s. In the 1970s, global competitive pressures from the far east, began to take their toll. In 1980, B&W became MAN B&W Diesel A/S, part of MAN B&W Diesel Group, a subsidiary of the German corporation MAN AG, with operations worldwide; the company still maintains operations at three main sites in Denmark for manufacturing and licensing of its two-stroke engines and complete propulsion systems. Hans Heinrich Baumgarten was from the town of Halstenbek near Pinneberg, in the Duchy of Holstein, an area of Germany, under the rule of the king of Denmark, he was apprenticed as a coffin maker by a farmer. He was a carpenter before becoming a machine minder at the Danish newspaper Berlingske Tidende, whose printing office he worked for in Berlin.
After trying to start a business with different partners, while in Berlin he was allowed an audience, on the subject of establishing a business in Copenhagen, with Crown Prince Christian of Denmark, visiting. Shortly thereafter, in 1843 he was granted a Danish Royal Charter and what would become Burmeister & Wain was launched with the opening of a mechanical workshop in Copenhagen. Carl Christian Burmeister was born into poverty; the son of a cook and restaurant keeper, he studied at the Polytechnical Institute in Copenhagen from 1836–1846, now the Technical University of Denmark. He had been awarded a scholarship abroad after recommendation following an assistantship to Hans Christian Ørsted, director there at the time. Burmeister joined the H. H. Baumgarten Company in 1846, which became a partnership with the opening of its engineering works, was renamed B&B. Soon came the establishment of the B&B foundry in 1847, the delivery of its first steam engine in 1848, the renting of the Jacob Holm Shipyard at the'Englishman's Place' in 1851, the delivery of their first ship S/S Hermod in 1854, before Baumgarten retired from regular duties in 1861.
With Baumgarten as a co-owner, in 1865, William Wain joined what became B&W. In 1872 the company became a limited liability corporation; that same year saw the founding of the Refshale Island shipyard. At this point, Baumgarten, as the first founder, became a director of the board of what he would see become Burmeister & Wain Maskin- og Skibsbyggeri in 1880. Wain, from Bolton, England had apprenticed as an engineer in his youth and come up through the trades, he had worked for the Royal Dutch dockyards. He came to have several designs to his credit within the company and his ingenuity was seen as "instrumental" in establishing its reputation. Production of stationary paraffin engines began in 1890. In 1898, a year after introducing it to the world, B&W director Ivar Knudsen negotiated with Rudolf Diesel exclusive Danish manufacturing rights for the diesel engine. A test engine was built that same year; the 1903-1904 year saw delivery of their first diesel engine to the N. Larsen Carriage Factory.
1911-1912 saw the world's first ocean-going diesel-powered ship, M/S Selandia, start her maiden voyage from Copenhagen to Bangkok with two B&W four-stroke main engines. The larger Teglholmen iron foundry was established in the 1920-1921 year to provide capacity for growth in the coming years of business acquisition. William Elmgreen worked at Burmeister & Wain in Copenhagen as a 20 year old apprentice in 1922, his father Jens. He recalled that at that time some 12,000 workers were engaged to build ships, manufacture diesel engines and carry out ship repairs of all kinds, he was one of 2,500 men on Refshale Island and repairing ships. They had private lockers for their gear, their bikes were sheltered in enormous sheds, had access to modern shower rooms – all regarded as modern conveniences in 1922. In the canteen - seating 2,500 - a hot lunch cost 0.75 Kr, beer was available in unlimited quantities. On one hot summer's day, seventy cases @ 50 bottles per case of beer were consumed in the canteen by the workers in their lunch hour and a half.
Well-cooked food was picked up at the food bar, run by the Workers’ Cooperative and soft drinks were available. Tools were available at the tool sheds, workers paid if they lost any; each worker was allocated a number. He was engaged on a piece work basis, worked in a propeller gang; the first B&W two-stroke diesel engine set off to sea in 1930 and the world's largest diesel engine at the time was delivered in 1933 to H. C. Ørsted Power Station. Steady progress and consolidation continued through the period of World War II and the subsequent period of reinvigorated prosperity; the first turbocharged two-stroke diesel engine was commissioned in 1952 with larger and more innovative designs to follow. By this point, the company's engines and licensed designs were used worldwide throughout the industry. Meanwhile, post-war east Asian economies began to emerge as an industrial force. In 1971, the shipyard and the engineering works were split into two independent companies. A more challenging period ensued until the 1979-1980 year when B&W Diesel A/S was established, its shares were sold to MAN, of Germany.
Though engine production at Christianshavn was discontinued in 1987, successful engine programs were rolled out. At Teglholmen in 1988 a sp
Panama City is the capital and largest city of Panama. It has an urban population of 880,691, with over 1.5 million in its metropolitan area. The city is located in the province of Panama; the city is the political and administrative center of the country, as well as a hub for banking and commerce. The city of Panama was founded on August 1519, by Spanish conquistador Pedro Arias Dávila; the city was the starting point for expeditions. It was a stopover point on one of the most important trade routes in the American continent, leading to the fairs of Nombre de Dios and Portobelo, through which passed most of the gold and silver that Spain took from the Americas. On January 28, 1671, the original city was destroyed by a fire when privateer Henry Morgan sacked and set fire to it; the city was formally reestablished two years on January 21, 1673, on a peninsula located 8 km from the original settlement. The site of the devastated city is still in ruins; the city was founded on August 15, 1519, by Pedro Arias de Ávila known as Pedrarias Dávila.
Within a few years of its founding, the city became a launching point for the exploration and conquest of Peru and a transit point for gold and silver headed back to Spain through the Isthmus. In 1671 Henry Morgan with a band of 1400 men attacked and looted the city, subsequently destroyed by fire; the ruins of the old city still remain and are a popular tourist attraction known as Panamá la Vieja. The city was rebuilt in 1673 in a new location 5 miles southwest of the original city; this location is now known as the Casco Viejo of the city. One year before the start of the California Gold Rush, the Panama Railroad Company was formed, but the railroad did not begin full operation until 1855. Between 1848 and 1869, the year the first transcontinental railroad was completed in the United States, about 375,000 persons crossed the isthmus from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 225,000 in the opposite direction; this traffic increased the prosperity of the city during that period. The construction of the Panama Canal was of great benefit to the economy.
Of particular note are the improvements in health and sanitation brought about by the American presence in the Canal Zone. Dr. William Gorgas, the chief sanitary officer for the canal construction, had a large impact, he hypothesized that diseases were spread by the abundance of mosquitos native to the area, ordered the fumigation of homes and the cleansing of water. This led to yellow fever being eradicated by November 1905, as well malaria rates falling dramatically. However, most of the laborers for the construction of the canal were brought in from the Caribbean, which created unprecedented racial and social tensions in the city. During World War II, construction of military bases and the presence of larger numbers of U. S. military and civilian personnel brought about unprecedented levels of prosperity to the city. Panamanians had limited access, or no access at all, to many areas in the Canal Zone neighboring the Panama city metropolitan area; some of these areas were military bases accessible only to United States personnel.
Some tensions arose between the people of Panama and the U. S. citizens living in the Panama Canal Zone. This erupted in 1964 events, known as Martyrs' Day. In the late 1970s through the 1980s the city of Panama became an international banking center, bringing a lot of undesirable attention as an international money-laundering locale. In 1989 after nearly a year of tension between the United States and Panama, President George H. W. Bush ordered the invasion of Panama to depose General Manuel Noriega, the country's de facto dictator; as a result, a portion of the El Chorrillo neighborhood, which consisted of old wood-framed buildings dating back to the 1900s, was destroyed by fire. In 1999, the United States transferred control of the Panama Canal Zone to Panama, which remains in control today; the city of Panama is still a banking center, although with visible controls in the flow of cash. Shipping is handled through port facilities in the area of Balboa operated by the Hutchison Whampoa Company of Hong Kong and through several ports on the Caribbean side of the isthmus.
Balboa, located within the greater Panama metropolitan area, was part of the Panama Canal Zone, the administration of the former Panama Canal Zone was headquartered there. Panamá is located between tropical rain forest in the northern part of Panama; the Parque Natural Metropolitano, stretching from Panama City along the Panama Canal, has unique bird species and other animals, such as tapir and caimans. At the Pacific entrance of the canal is the Centro de Exhibiciones Marinas, a research center for those interested in tropical marine life and ecology, managed by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Tropical forests around Panama are vital for the functioning of the Panama Canal, providing it with the water required for its operation. Due to the canal's importance to the Panamanian economy, tropical forests around the canal have been kept in an pristine state. Along the western side of the canal is the Parque Nacional Soberanía, which includes the Summit botanical gardens and a zoo; the best known trail in this national park is Pipeline Road, popular among birdwatchers.
Hamburg America Line
The Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft referred to as Hamburg America Line, was a transatlantic shipping enterprise established in Hamburg, in 1847. Among those involved in its development were prominent citizens such as Albert Ballin, Adolph Godeffroy, Ferdinand Laeisz, Carl Woermann, August Bolten, others, its main financial backers were Berenberg Bank and H. J. Merck & Co, it soon developed into the largest German, at times the world's largest, shipping company, serving the market created by German immigration to the United States and immigration from Eastern Europe. On 1 September 1970, after 123 years of independent existence, HAPAG merged with the Bremen-based North German Lloyd to form Hapag-Lloyd AG. In the early years, the Hamburg America Line connected European ports with North American ports, such as Hoboken, New Jersey, or New Orleans, Louisiana. With time, the company established lines to all continents; the company built a large ocean liner terminal at Cuxhaven, Germany, in 1900.
Connected directly to Hamburg by a dedicated railway line and station, the HAPAG Terminal at Cuxhaven served as the major departure point for German and European immigrants to North America until 1969 when ocean liner travel ceased. Today it serves as a cruise ship terminal. In 1858, its liner Austria sank. In 1891, the cruise of the Augusta Victoria in the Mediterranean and the Near East from 22 January to 22 March, with 241 passengers including Albert Ballin and wife, is stated to have been the first passenger cruise. Christian Wilhelm Allers published an illustrated account of it as "Bakschisch". In 1897, its steamer Arcadia was wrecked on the rocks off Newfoundland. In 1900, 1901 and 1903 its liner Deutschland won the Blue Riband taking the prize from the Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse. In 1906 Prinzessin Victoria Luise ran aground off the coast of Jamaica. No lives were lost by the grounding. In 1912, its liner SS Amerika was the first ship to warn Titanic of icebergs. HAPAG's general director, Albert Ballin, believed that safety, size and luxury would always win out over speed.
Thus he conceived the three largest liners yet to be built, named the Imperator and Bismarck. The first two were in service before the First World War. In 1914, the Vaterland was caught in port at Hoboken, New Jersey at the outbreak of World War I and interned by the United States, she was seized, renamed Leviathan after the declaration of war on Germany in 1917, served for the duration and beyond as a troopship. After the war, she was retained by the Americans in war reparations. In 1919 Vaterland's sister ships – Imperator and the unfinished Bismarck – were handed over to the allies as war reparations to Britain, they were sold to the Cunard Line and White Star Line and renamed Berengaria and Majestic. In 1917, its liner Allemannia was "torpedoed by German submarine near Alicante". In 1939, the HAPAG liner St. Louis was unable to find a port in Cuba, the United States, or Canada willing to accept the more than 950 Jewish refugees on board and had to return to Europe. On 9 April 1940, when German warships attacked Kristiansand, during Operation Weserübung, the HAPAG freighter Seattle sailed into the crossfire between the warships and Norwegian coastal artillery.
She was holed and sunk, her crew became prisoners of war. The Hamburg America Line lost the entirety of its fleet twice, as a result of World Wars I and II. In 1970, the company merged with its longstanding rival, Norddeutscher Lloyd of Bremen, to establish the present-day company Hapag-Lloyd. Holland America Line Norwegian America Line Scandinavian America Line Swedish American Line USS President Lincoln SS Imperator Hertford Fleet information The history of the Hamburg-America Line Historic photos of Hoboken and Hamburg America Line ports Passenger Lists from the Hamburg-Amerika Linie Hamburg-Amerika Line ships This collection contains 16 photographs depicting ship interior and exterior views of Hamburg-Amerika Line's luxury passenger ships Augusta Victoria and Normannia by Louis Koch, Bremen Documents and clippings about Hamburg America Line in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea