Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
MS Westerdam is a Vista Class cruise ship owned by Holland America Line. She is the third ship of the class to be operated by the line, as well as being the third ship to bear the name Westerdam, her sister ships are MS Oosterdam, MS Zuiderdam, MS Noordam. The prefixes of the four ships' names represent the four directions of the compass in Dutch. Westerdam was christened on 25 April 2004 in Italy by Dutch actress Renée Soutendijk; as with all Vista-class ships, Westerdam is equipped with a CODAG power plant and an Azipod propulsion system. The theme of her art collection is Dutch heritage in the New World. Paintings of historic Dutch ships, such as Henry Hudson's Halve Maen, various sculptures and statues are displayed throughout the ship. Contemporary pieces include an original Andy Warhol portrait and sculptures by Sedona artist Susanna Holt. In an April 2007 refit 34 cabins were added as well as modifications to several public areas of the ship. On 10 May 2011 while maneuvering through Yakutat Bay, south of Kluane National Park, British Columbia, Westerdam struck ice and incurred hull damage 15 feet below the waterline.
On 28 June 2014, the Westerdam suffered a boiler room fire after leaving the Port of Seattle. There were 2,086 passengers and 798 crew members with no reported injuries, she returned to Seattle and was cleared the next day by the United States Coast Guard to return to sea. On 25 June 2015, a Promech Air de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otter carrying a pilot and eight passengers from the Westerdam on a Holland America Line sightseeing excursion over southeastern Alaska crashed into the face of a granite cliff near Ella Lake, 20 miles northeast of Ketchikan, killing all nine people on board; the first Westerdam sailed for Holland America Line from 1946 to 1965. It was a combined cargo/passenger ship with accommodations for 143 first-class passengers. While being constructed during World War II, this ship was sunk three times before making its maiden voyage, it was sunk by Allied forces on 27 August 1942 in the shipyard in Rotterdam. The Germans raised the ship in September 1944, but it was sunk by the Dutch underground forces.
After being raised a second time, the resistance again sank it on 17 January 1945. The ship was completed and operated on the transatlantic run making two eight-day crossings each month between Rotterdam and New York, she ended her career on 4 February 1965. The second Westerdam began service as Homeric for Home Lines in 1986. Holland America Line acquired the ship in 1988. After 643 cruises spanning over 13 years with Holland America, she was transferred to sister company, Costa Crociere in 2002, renamed Costa Europa. Since she has been placed on a ten-year lease to Thomson Cruises, active as of April 2010, renamed once more as MS Thomson Dream. Holland America Line official website
Diciotti-class offshore patrol vessel
The Diciotti class is an Italian-designed offshore patrol vessel, presently in use with the Italian Coast Guard, Iraqi Navy, Armed Forces of Malta and Panama SENAN. These ships are designed and built by Fincantieri on the bay of La Spezia to Muggiano and Riva Trigoso shipyards. Based on the earlier experimental Saettia class, the Diciotti class is an advanced and improved version with a longer length, more power and hence greater patrol endurance. In 2003, the Armed Forces of Malta ordered a replacement for the former East German Kondor class patrol boats P29, P30 and P31, due to the increase in flow of refugees from North Africa to Europe; the design for P61 provides a clear rear half to the ship, providing sufficient space with reinforcement to land a helicopter, up to the size of an AW139. P61 has the capability of carrying out patrols up to Sea State 5, withstand sea conditions up to Sea State 7, it can launch a rib patrol boat via a rear launch ramp up to Sea State 4. This combination of modifications increases vessel weight to 450-tonnes, reduces standard crew capacity to 25.
Maximum unrefueled patrol length at 20 knots is 3,000 nautical miles. The €17m Euros contract, financed from the 5th Italo-Maltese Financial Protocol, covered the construction of the vessel together with an associated training and logistic support package; the ship was commissioned on October 1, 2005 and operational from November 5, 2005. P61 acts as the flagship of the Armed Forces of Malta; the vessel has been updated in 2017 with overhaul and engine refit, by Fincantieri, to a cost around €7 million. In 2006, the new Iraqi Navy signed a contract with the Italian Government to purchase four modified Diciotti class vessels to patrol its 58 kilometre coast line; the vessels are to be built by Fincantieri at Riva Trigoso, with modifications including increased crew capacity of 38. The contract comprises the provision of logistical support and crew training with each crew completing a 7-week training course. In cooperation with the Marina Militare, each commissioning crew is provided with a week’s bridge simulator course at the Naval Academy in Livorno.
In May 2009, the first vessel, Patrol Ship 701 named Fatah, was handed over at the Muggiano, La Spezia shipyard. The crew had been training since January 2009, now headed for Umm Qasr, a 20 day/5,000 nautical mile journey via the Mediterranean, Suez Canal and Red Sea. There, additional training was completed, before the vessel took over duties from the British Royal Marine patrols, who reverted to training the new crew; the vessels are used to patrol the exclusive economic zone, control maritime traffic, for search and rescue and fire fighting. Following an agreement reached in June 2010, Italy delivered CP 902 Ubaldo Diciotti and CP 903 Luigi Dattilo to SENAN - National Air and Navy Service of Panama as P 901 and P 902 in April 2014. Falaj 2-class patrol vessel - a more armed patrol vessel based on the Diciotti
Little San Salvador Island
Little San Salvador Island known as Half Moon Cay, is one of about 700 islands that make up the archipelago of The Bahamas. It is located halfway between Eleuthera and Cat Island, it is a private island, owned by Holland America Line, which uses it as a port of call for the cruise ships it operates in the region. Prior to being owned by HAL, Little San Salvador was the private island of Norwegian Cruise Line. Little San Salvador Island is located about 100 miles southeast of Nassau. Holland America Line purchased the island in December, 1996 for a price of $6 million USD, it has since developed 50 acres of the 2,400-acre island, with the stated goal of maintaining as much habitat as possible for wildlife. The island is a significant nesting area for waterfowl; the island does not have deep water docking, requiring the use of tenders for cruise ship passengers to disembark and embark. Activities offered on the island include swimming, scuba diving, jet-skiing and snorkeling. Deep-sea fishing, glass-bottom boat rides, nature walks are available.
A variety of water toys are available for rent, including Hobie catamarans, Sunfish sailboats, windsurfing sailboards, kayaks. There are volleyball and basketball courts, shuffleboard, a fitness trail with exercise stations, horseback riding, nature trails for hiking. Bahamas Ministry of Tourism
Rarotonga is the most populous island of the Cook Islands, with a population of 10,572, out of the country's total resident population of 14,974. Captain John Dibbs, master of the colonial brig Endeavour, is credited as the European discoverer on 25 July 1823, while transporting the missionary Rev. John Williams; the Cook Islands' Parliament buildings and international airport are on Rarotonga. Rarotonga is a popular tourist destination with many resorts and motels; the chief town, Avarua, on the north coast, is the capital of the Cook Islands. The volcanic island of Rarotonga stands over 14,750 feet above the ocean floor, it is 32 km in circumference and has an area of 67.19 km2. At a depth of 4,000 m the volcano is nearly 50 km in diameter. Te Manga, at 658 m above sea level, is the highest peak on the island; the island is surrounded by a lagoon, which extends more than a hundred metres to the reef slopes steeply to deep water. The reef fronts the shore to the north of the island, making the lagoon there unsuitable for swimming and water sports, but to the south east around Muri, the lagoon is at its widest and deepest.
This part of the island is the most popular with tourists for swimming and boating. Agricultural terraces and swamps surround the central mountain area. Along the southeast coast off Muri Beach are four small coral islets within a few hundred metres of the shore and within the fringing coral reef. From north to south, the islets are: Motutapu, 11.0 hectares Oneroa, 10.6 hectares Koromiri, 3.0 hectares Taakoka, 1.7 hectares The interior of the island is dominated by eroded volcanic peaks cloaked in dense vegetation. Paved and unpaved roads allow access to valleys but the interior of the island remains unpopulated due to forbidding terrain and lack of infrastructure. A large tract of land has been set aside in the south east as the Takitumu Conservation Area to protect native birds and plants the endangered kakerori, the Rarotonga flycatcher; the earliest evidence of human presence in the Southern Cook Islands has been dated to around AD 1000. Trading contact was evidently maintained with the Austral Islands, Society Islands and the Marquesas to import basalt, used for making local adze heads, while a pottery fragment found on Ma'uke has been traced to Tongatapu to the west, the main island of Tonga.
At least 30 of the traditional Polynesian crop plants found here were introduced from the west. Fletcher Christian did not land. Captain Theodore Walker sighted the island in 1813 on the ship Endeavour; the first recorded landing by a European was Captain Philip Goodenough with William Wentworth in 1814 on the schooner Cumberland. On 30 May 1965, five sounding rockets were launched from Rarotonga for studying a solar eclipse. Rarotonga is divided into vaka. Te Au O Tonga on the northern side of the island, Takitumu on the eastern and southern side and Puaikura on the western side. On the other hand, the island is divided into five Land Districts; the Land District of Avarua is represented under vaka Te Au O Tonga, the Land Districts of Matavera and Titikaveka are represented under vaka Takitumu and the Land District Arorangi is represented under vaka Puaikura. In 2008, the three vaka councils of Rarotonga were abolished. Palm-studded white sandy beaches fringe most of the island, there is a popular cross-island walk that connects Avatiu valley with the south side of the island.
It passes the Te Rua Manga, the prominent needle-shaped rock visible from the air and some coastal areas. Hikes can be taken to the Raemaru, or flat-top mountain. Other attractions include the ancient marae, Arai te Tonga. Popular island activities include snorkeling, scuba diving, bike riding, kite surfing, deep-sea fishing, boat tours, scenic flights, going to restaurants, seeing island shows, tennis, zipping around on mopeds, sleeping on the beach. There are many churches open for service with a cappella singing; the pace of life is so relaxed that at night people congregate at the sea wall that skirts the end of the airport's runway to be "jetblasted" by incoming planes. Rarotonga has three harbours, Avatiu and Avana, of which only Avatiu harbour is of commercial significance; the Port of Avatiu serves a small fleet of inter-island and fishing vessels, with cargo ships visiting from New Zealand via other Pacific Islands ports. Large cruise ships visit Rarotonga but the port is too small for cruise ships to enter and they are required to anchor off shore outside the harbour.
The island is encircled by Ara Tapu, that traces the coast. Three-quarters of Rarotonga is encircled by the ancient inner road, Ara Metua. 29 km long, this road was constructed in 11th century and for most or all of its whole length was paved with large stone slabs. Along this road are several important marae, including Arai Te Tonga, the most sacred shrine in Rarotonga. Due to the mountainous interior, there is no road crossing the island. Rarotonga has only two bus routes: anticlockwise. Although there are bus stops, the buses set down anywhere en route. Visitors to the island who rent motor scooters or cars for local transportation are required to get a Cook Islands driver license. Visitors from Australia, New Zealand, US, Canada, UK and the EU can now drive in the Cook Islands for up to six months using their overseas license. Rarotonga International Airport is the international airport of the Cook Islands
Deadweight tonnage or tons deadweight is a measure of how much weight a ship can carry, not its weight, empty or in any degree of load. DWT is the sum of the weights of cargo, fresh water, ballast water, provisions and crew. DWT is used to specify a ship's maximum permissible deadweight, although it may denote the actual DWT of a ship not loaded to capacity. Deadweight tonnage is a measure of a vessel's weight carrying capacity, does not include the weight of the ship itself, it should not be confused with displacement, which includes the ship's own weight, nor other volume or capacity measures such as gross tonnage or net tonnage. Deadweight tonnage was expressed in long tons but is now given internationally in tonnes. In modern international shipping conventions such as the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, deadweight is explicitly defined as the difference in tonnes between the displacement of a ship in water of a specific gravity of 1.025 at the draft corresponding to the assigned summer freeboard and the light displacement of the ship.
Fort Lauderdale, Florida
Fort Lauderdale is a city in the U. S. state of Florida, 28 miles north of Miami. It is the county seat of Broward County; as of the 2017 census, the city has an estimated population of 180,072. Fort Lauderdale is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,158,824 people in 2017; the city is a popular tourist destination, with an average year-round temperature of 75.5 °F and 3,000 hours of sunshine per year. Greater Fort Lauderdale, encompassing all of Broward County, hosted 12 million visitors in 2012, including 2.8 million international visitors. In 2012, the county collected $43.9 million from the 5% hotel tax it charges, after hotels in the area recorded an occupancy rate for the year of 72.7 percent and an average daily rate of $114.48. The district has 561 motels comprising nearly 35,000 rooms. Forty-six cruise ships sailed from Port Everglades in 2012. Greater Fort Lauderdale has over 4,000 restaurants, 63 golf courses, 12 shopping malls, 16 museums, 132 nightclubs, 278 parkland campsites, 100 marinas housing 45,000 resident yachts.
Fort Lauderdale is named after a series of forts built by the United States during the Second Seminole War. The forts took their name from Major William Lauderdale, younger brother of Lieutenant Colonel James Lauderdale. William Lauderdale was the commander of the detachment of soldiers. However, development of the city did not begin until 50 years after the forts were abandoned at the end of the conflict. Three forts named "Fort Lauderdale" were constructed: the first was at the fork of the New River, the second was at Tarpon Bend on the New River between the present-day Colee Hammock and Rio Vista neighborhoods, the third was near the site of the Bahia Mar Marina; the area in which the city of Fort Lauderdale would be founded was inhabited for more than two thousand years by the Tequesta Indians. Contact with Spanish explorers in the 16th century proved disastrous for the Tequesta, as the Europeans unwittingly brought with them diseases, such as smallpox, to which the native populations possessed no resistance.
For the Tequesta, coupled with continuing conflict with their Calusa neighbors, contributed to their decline over the next two centuries. By 1763, there were only a few Tequesta left in Florida, most of them were evacuated to Cuba when the Spanish ceded Florida to the British in 1763, under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War. Although control of the area changed between Spain, United Kingdom, the United States, the Confederate States of America, it remained undeveloped until the 20th century; the Fort Lauderdale area was known as the "New River Settlement" before the 20th century. In the 1830s there were 70 settlers living along the New River. William Cooley, the local Justice of the Peace, was a farmer and wrecker, who traded with the Seminole Indians. On January 6, 1836, while Cooley was leading an attempt to salvage a wrecked ship, a band of Seminoles attacked his farm, killing his wife and children, the children's tutor; the other farms in the settlement were not attacked, but all the white residents in the area abandoned the settlement, fleeing first to the Cape Florida Lighthouse on Key Biscayne, to Key West.
The first United States stockade named Fort Lauderdale was built in 1838, subsequently was a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War. The fort was abandoned in 1842, after the end of the war, the area remained unpopulated until the 1890s, it was not until Frank Stranahan arrived in the area in 1893 to operate a ferry across the New River, the Florida East Coast Railroad's completion of a route through the area in 1896, that any organized development began. The city was incorporated in 1911, in 1915 was designated the county seat of newly formed Broward County. Fort Lauderdale's first major development began during the Florida land boom; the 1926 Miami Hurricane and the Great Depression of the 1930s caused a great deal of economic dislocation. In July 1935, an African-American man named Rubin Stacy was accused of robbing a white woman at knife point, he was being transported to a Miami jail when police were run off the road by a mob. A group of 100 white men proceeded to hang Stacy from a tree near the scene of his alleged robbery.
His body was riddled with some twenty bullets. The murder was subsequently used by the press in Nazi Germany to discredit US critiques of its own persecution of Jews and Catholics; when World War II began, Fort Lauderdale became a major US base, with a Naval Air Station to train pilots, radar operators, fire control operators. A Coast Guard base at Port Everglades was established. On July 4, 1961 African Americans started a series of protests, wade-ins, at beaches that were off-limits to them, to protest "the failure of the county to build a road to the Negro beach". On July 11, 1962 a verdict by Ted Cabot went against the city's policy of racial segregation of public beaches. Today, Fort Lauderdale is a major yachting center, one of the nation's largest tourist destinations, the center of a metropolitan division with 1.8 million people. After the war ended, service members returned to the area, spurring an enormous population explosion which dwarfed the 1920s boom; the 1960 Census counted 83,648 people in about 230 % of the 1950 figure.
A 1967 report estimated that the city was 85% developed, the 1970 population figure was 139,590. After 1970, as Fort Lauderdale became built out, growth in the area shifted to suburbs to the west; as cities such as Coral Springs and Pembroke Pines experienced explosive growth, Fort Lauderdale's population stagnated, the ci