Silver Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Silver Line is a limited-stop bus route with some bus rapid transit features operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Silver Line route runs between the El Monte Station, Downtown Los Angeles, South Los Angeles, the Harbor Gateway Transit Center in Gardena and San Pedro; the Silver Line offers frequent, all-stops service along the El Monte Busway and the Harbor Transitway, two grade-separated transit facilities built into the Los Angeles freeway system. The Silver Line was created as part of the conversion of the El Monte Busway and the Harbor Transitway from lanes reserved for buses and high occupancy vehicles into the Metro ExpressLanes that allow solo drivers to pay a toll to use lanes; the tolls collected have been used to improve amenities at stops. As Silver Line buses travel along the El Monte Busway and the Harbor Transitway they serve stations built into the center or side of the roadway. There is a 3.5 mile gap between the western end of El Monte Busway and the northern end of the Harbor Transitway in Downtown Los Angeles, where Silver Line buses travel on surface streets, making a limited number of stops.
Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the G Line while retaining its silver coloring. Two services are operated under the Silver Line name: Route 910 operates with daily 24-hour service serving only the portion of the route between El Monte station, Downtown Los Angeles and the Harbor Gateway Transit Center. Route 950 operates with daily service serving the entire route between El Monte station, Downtown Los Angeles and San Pedro; the eastern section of Silver Line route runs on the El Monte Busway between the El Monte Station in El Monte and Union Station in Downtown Los Angeles. The southern section of the route runs on the Harbor Transitway between 37th Street/USC station in Downtown Los Angeles and the Harbor Gateway Transit Center near the city of Carson. Buses travel between the eastern and southern sections along surface streets in Downtown Los Angeles where Silver Line buses make a limited amount of stops near major employment centers, tourist destinations and Metro Rail stations.
Silver Line route 950 trips continue south of the Harbor Gateway Transit Center along the Harbor Freeway to San Pedro traveling in general purpose freeway lanes and making two stops en route at stations located on the side of the freeway near off and on ramps. In San Pedro, Silver Line route 950 buses once again travel along surface streets, serving the Harbor Beacon Park & Ride and making frequent stops along Pacific Avenue; the Silver Line connects to all Metro Rail lines, though it will not connect with the Crenshaw/LAX Line, scheduled to open in 2020. The Silver Line charges a premium fare. Metro day passes are accepted as full fare, but all other pass holders must pay for an upgraded 1 zone pass or pay the additional premium charge at the time of boarding. Like the other Metro Rail and Metro Busway lines, the Silver Line operates on a proof-of-payment system. Passengers may board at either the front or rear door of Silver Line buses and validate their Transit Access Pass electronic fare card at readers located on board the bus, near the door.
Metro's fare inspectors randomly inspect buses to ensure passengers have a valid fare product on their TAP card. TAP vending machines are available at most Silver Line stations and are located near most street stops in Downtown Los Angeles. But, because vending machines are not available at all stations and street stops, passengers who need to purchase a card or add funds can do so at the farebox on board the bus. None of the other Metro Rail or Metro Busway lines offer onboard TAP sales; as of December 15, 2014 the fares for the Silver Line are: Metro and Foothill Transit offer a reciprocal fare program called "Silver 2 Silver" where pass holders may ride either Silver Line or Silver Streak buses between Downtown Los Angeles and the El Monte Station. Passengers who have a Metro 7-Day or 30-Day pass, an EZ transit pass, or a Foothill Transit Local 31-Day pass are all charged additional when they board a Silver Line or Silver Streak bus; the El Monte Busway opened along Interstate 10 in 1973.
As the new Harbor Transitway was under construction in the early 1990s, Metro drew up plans to offer a unified bus rapid transit service along both corridors, connected by street running through Downtown Los Angeles. Ridership was radically lower than expected: planners had projected that 65,200 passengers would travel along the Harbor Transitway each day, but after 10 years ridership fell far below those predictions, with the route seeing just 3,000 passengers per weekday in 2004. In the early 2000s, Metro began depicting the two busways on its Metro Rail maps, in 2008, Metro once again looked at the concept of linking them with a "Dual Hub Bus Rapid Transit" route; the service was rolled out as the Silver Line in December 2009. Five Metro Express lines were truncated to terminate at either Harbor Gateway Transit Center or the El Monte station, where passengers would transfer to the Silver Line to continue into Downtown Los Angeles; as part of the Metro ExpressLanes project to convert the El Monte Busway and the Harbor Transitway from lanes reserved for buses and high occupancy vehicles into high occupancy toll lanes that allow solo drivers to pay a toll to use lanes, aging stations were refurbished and frequencies on the route were improved.
The Harbor Transitway is an 11 miles shared-use bus corridor and high-occupany toll roadway that runs in the median of Interstate 110 in Southern California. The main bus service operating on the busway is the Metro Silver Line, introduced on December 13, 2009; the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit line runs on the Harbor Transitway from Harbor Gateway Transit Center to Downtown Los Angeles and continues to El Monte Bus Station. The line operates daily with frequent service. In addition to Metro Silver Line, other Metro bus and municipal bus routes operate on the Harbor Transitway, they include Metro Express lines 442, 460 and 550, Torrance Transit line 4, Gardena Transit line 1X and Orange County Transportation Authority lines 701, 721. Metro Express lines 442 and 550 operate only during weekdays peak hours. Metro Line 442 operates peak a.m. southbound p.m. only. Torrance Transit line 4, Gardena Transit line 1X, Orange County Transportation Authority: 701, 721 operate only during weekday peak hours.
Metro Express line 460 operates daily along with the Metro Silver Line. Busway bus lines originate from Downtown Los Angeles and El Monte, with final destinations in Disneyland, Disney California Adventure Park located in Anaheim, Knott's Berry Farm, Fullerton, Hawthorne, Huntington Beach, San Pedro and Torrance. In November 2012, the existing high-occupancy vehicle lanes within the Transitway were converted to high-occupancy toll lanes; this is part of the larger Metro ExpressLanes project which added major transportation improvements to the area. A few project-mandated improvements along the Transitway are still being completed. There are six transit stations on the main section of the Harbor transitway: 37th Street Station, Slauson Station, Manchester Station, Harbor Freeway/I-105 Station, Rosecrans Station and Harbor Gateway Transit Center. All of these 6 stations are branded as Metro Silver Line stations. There are a further two stations on the freeway to the south of the transitway: Carson Station and Pacific Coast Highway station.
On December 13, Metro Silver Line was extended to terminate in San Pedro. The extension replaced the former Metro Express Line 450; the Silver Line extension follows the routing of Line 450 and terminates at Pacific Ave/21st Street. Along with the replacement of Line 450, a new Metro Silver Line faster version of the line began operation. Dubbed as the Metro Silver Line Express, the line mirrors the current route and stops of Line 450. Not all Metro Silver Line trips end in San Pedro. After 20 years of planning and construction the combined high-occupancy roadway and transitway was opened in 1998 at a cost of $500 million. Provision was made for the transitway to continue further north from Adams Boulevard/ Flower Street to join the El Monte Busway and construction of the busway included'ski jumps' just past the on/off ramps at this point. During the early months of the busway ridership was 3,000 boardings a day. Initial usage was only 5% of the predicted 65,000 and fares were reduced from $3.35 to $1.35 in 2000 to encourage additional usage.
Months Metro officials made several changes to their bus services operating on the Harbor Transitway. During the 1990s Metro staff was studying the possibility of connecting the El Monte Busway with the Harbor Transitway by operating a bus rapid transit line; the project was supported by Metro, but plans were scrapped because of the lack of funds to operate the bus rapid transit line. The project was revealed early 2009 by staff; the new project would be called the Dual Hub BRT, called the Metro Silver Line. The line got its color from the former color on the El Monte Busway, silver; the project looked at operating a bus rapid transit on both the El Monte Busway and Harbor Transitway serving Downtown Los Angeles as the halfway point of the line. Future project amenities looked similar to the ones on the Metro Orange Line. A council meeting was held to propose a fare for the Metro Silver Line; the line was proposed to operate with a local fare, but was changed due to the interference of Foothill Transit's Silver Streak line which does not have a local fare.
The Metro Silver Line was presented to several council meetings for support from passengers and was approved for implementation. The Metro Silver Line was introduced on December 13, 2009 using both the Harbor Transitway and the El Monte Busway for a 26-mile service operating on the freeways. Usage on the Harbor Transit way has increased with the implementation of the Metro Silver Line. In particular, ridership has increased between 7th Street/Metro Center Station and the Harbor Freeway Station. Weeks after the Silver Line began service, Metro mailed thousands of brochures of the Metro Silver Line to people living near the I-110 freeway to become aware of the new bus rapid transit line; the Metro ExpressLanes project began work in 2010 to add improvements to the public transport services and facilities. The security of the Harbor Gateway Transit Center was improved in November 2010 and CCTV was installed. Bike lockers were installed and the existing building was re-purposed as a Sheriff substation.
Improvements were made to the Slauson and Manchester stations. The high-occupancy lanes between Harbor Gateway Transit Center and Adams Blvd were converted to high-occupancy toll lanes. Opened in November 2012, the HOT lanes require Fastrak transponders. Other changes include: Bus priority is being expanded in Downtown Los Angeles, which will improve performance of the Metro Silver Line. New security cameras and digit
Purple Line Extension
The Purple Line Extension known as the Westside Subway Extension and the Subway to the Sea, is a new heavy rail subway corridor in Los Angeles County, extending the Metro Purple Line from its current terminus at Wilshire/Western station in Los Angeles to the Westside region. Under construction, the corridor will become part of the Los Angeles Metro Rail; the project is being planned by Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The subway has been given high priority by Metro in its long range plan, funding for the project is included in Measure R and Measure M; the draft environmental impact statement was completed in September 2010. A locally preferred alternative was selected in October 2010. Metro released the final environmental impact report in 2012; the project was approved between Western Avenue and La Cienega Boulevard at the Metro Board of Directors meeting on April 26, 2012, with the western leg, including the controversial Century City location, deferred until the next board meeting.
The location of the Century City station at Constellation Boulevard was approved by the Metro board of directors on May 24, 2012. This project's phase one and phase two are under construction. Combined, the two sections will add nearly 7 miles of heavy rail service to the City of Los Angeles. Construction on phase 1, between the existing Wilshire/Western station and the planned Wilshire/La Cienega station, started on November 11, 2014. Phase 2 pre-construction work between Wilshire/La Cienega station and Century City station began in April 2017 and the official phase 2 groundbreaking ceremony took place on February 23, 2018. Phase 3 advanced utility relocation pre-groundbreaking work began in February 2018 for the future Westwood/UCLA station and Westwood/VA Hospital station; this work will continue for two years. No groundbreaking for phase 3 has been scheduled. A phase 4 has been talked about extending the Purple Line from the Westwood/VA Hospital station under Wilshire Boulevard to Santa Monica beach, connecting with the Expo Line and future BRT on Lincoln Boulevard.
Current plans are to extend the line and necessary infrastructure west to Westwood. The following new subway stations will be built: Phase one Wilshire/La Brea Wilshire/Fairfax Wilshire/La Cienega Phase two Wilshire/Rodeo Century City/Constellation Phase three Wilshire/UCLA Westwood/VA Hospital Funding is being sought to accelerate the project's timeline as officials prefer to open all stations by the start of the 2028 Summer Olympics and Paralympic Games, which Los Angeles will host. Early transit planners recognized the importance of Wilshire Boulevard as a spine and key boulevard in Los Angeles. Early plans for regional Metro Rail envisioned a rapid-transit route between Downtown and the Westside, with a branch going north on Fairfax to Hollywood and into the San Fernando Valley. In 1961, the "New Proposed Backbone Route Plan" described a subway along Wilshire Boulevard from Westwood to Downtown; this project was never funded. Ballot initiatives in 1968 and 1974 to build a subway to West Los Angeles were rejected by voters, but in 1980 voters passed Proposition A, which created a half-cent county sales tax to fund rail construction.
The Southern California Rapid Transit District, one of Metro's predecessors, planned a subway that would extend from Downtown Los Angeles to Fairfax Avenue north on Fairfax to Hollywood and the Valley. Due to the "methane zone" that plan was modified, Vermont Avenue was chosen for the north-south route instead of Fairfax. Several factors led to the eventual halt of plans to extend the subway west along Wilshire Boulevard. For decades, the route was mired in political and socioeconomic debate, with politicians giving vent to anti-subway sentiments and NIMBY isolationism; the City of Beverly Hills opposed the subway, as did two key legislators from the area: Congressman Henry Waxman and Los Angeles City Councilman Zev Yaroslavsky. Following a methane explosion in 1985 at a Ross Dress for Less clothing store near Fairfax and Third Street, Congressman Waxman worked to designate a large part of Mid-Wilshire as a "methane zone." This zone stretched on either side of Wilshire Boulevard from Hancock Park to west of Fairfax.
Waxman was able to pass federal legislation banning all tunneling through this zone. Subsequently, any plans for a subway west of Western Avenue diverted the line south around the methane zone, using Crenshaw and San Vicente Boulevards; these plans never came to fruition, to qualify for federal funding, the SCRTD instead started anew and rerouted the subway north on Vermont Avenue traveling west under Hollywood Boulevard and north toward the Valley. The Red Line was completed in 2000; the Red Line project began in 1986. Soon after construction began, the project began to draw a considerable amount of bad press. Access to many local businesses was blocked for weeks. Disagreements arose between Metro and Tutor-Saliba over tens of millions of dollars in cost overruns. A sinkhole in Hollywood seemed to symbolize the disastrous nature of the subway project; as a result, in 1998 voters approved a measure sponsored by County Supervisor Yaroslavsky that banned use of Proposition A and Prop C sales tax funds for any subway tunneling in the county.
This ended any chance of a Westside Subway in the foreseeable future. The segment of the Red Line project to Wilshire/Western was completed and b
Purple Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Purple Line is a heavy rail subway line operating in Los Angeles, running between downtown and the Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown districts. It is one of six lines on the Metro Rail System, operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; the Metro Purple Line is one of the city's two subway lines. Although they separate west of Downtown Los Angeles, the two subway lines were branded as two branches of the Red Line; the Purple Line was instituted as its own line, separate from the Red Line, in 2006. As of October 2013, the combined Red and Purple lines averaged 169,478 boardings per weekday. Out of the eight stations served, only two of them are exclusive to the Purple Line, with the other six shared with the Red Line. Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the D Line while retaining its purple coloring; the Metro Purple Line is a 6.4-mile line. At Union Station, passengers can connect to the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit line, the Metro Gold Line; the Purple Line travels southwest through Downtown Los Angeles, passing the Civic Center, Pershing Square and the Financial District.
Passengers can connect to the Metro Silver Line at Civic Center Station. At Pershing Square Station, passengers can board the northbound Metro Silver Line bus at Olive Street/5th Street. At 7th St/Metro Center Station, travelers can connect to the Metro Blue Line, Metro Expo Line and the Metro Silver Line. From here, the train travels between 7th Street and Wilshire Boulevard west through Pico-Union and Westlake, arriving at Wilshire/Vermont in the city's Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown district. Up to this point, track is shared with the Metro Red Line: at Wilshire/Vermont, the two lines diverge; the Purple Line continues west for one additional mile, terminates at Wilshire/Western. The Purple Line runs underground, below Wilshire Boulevard, served on the surface by Metro Local route 20 and Metro Rapid route 720. Despite the duplicate service, Metro considers the redundant bus service justified because both bus routes run from Downtown Los Angeles. Unlike the Purple Line, they run along the entire Wilshire corridor, west to Beverly Hills and Santa Monica.
Trains run between 4:45 a.m. and 11:30 p.m. daily, with late night weekend service running until 2:00 a.m. First and last train times are as follows: To/From Wilshire/Western Eastbound First Train to Union Station: 4:41 a.m. Last Train to Union Station: 11:42 p.m. Westbound First Train to Wilshire/Western: 4:56 a.m. Last Train to Wilshire/Western: 11:27 p.m. During the evenings Purple Line trains sometimes run as shuttles. Passengers must transfer to a Red Line train at Wilshire/Vermont; this will change. Trains on the Purple Line operate every ten minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday, they operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after 10 a.m.. Night service can range between 20–30 minutes; the Purple Line is utilized as a downtown shuttle on its shared segment with the Red Line. The stub between Vermont and Western has a low ridership. According to Metro Service Coordinator Conan Cheung, the stub is operating 11% full during peak hours, lower at other times.
The current Purple Line is the product of a long-term plan to connect Downtown Los Angeles to central and western portions of the city with a heavy rail subway system. Planned in the 1980s to travel west down Wilshire Boulevard to Fairfax Avenue and north to the San Fernando Valley, a methane explosion at a Ross Dress for Less clothing store near Fairfax in 1985, just as construction got underway, led to a legal prohibition on tunnelling in a large part of Mid-Wilshire. Instead, after some wrangling, a new route was chosen up Vermont Avenue to Hollywood Boulevard. However, a short one-mile branch down Wilshire from Vermont to Western was allowed to remain in the system; the service designated as the Purple Line opened in two minimum operating segments: MOS-1, which consisted of the original five stations from Union Station to Westlake/MacArthur Park, opened on January 30, 1993. MOS-2A, including three new stations between Westlake/MacArthur Park and Wilshire/Western, opened in 1996; the Vermont branch began service in 1999.
Both branches were designated as part of the Red Line, but in 2006 trains travelling between Union Station and Wilshire/Western were rebranded the Purple Line for greater clarity. Metro is now aiming to complete the subway to the Westside; the new project is called the Purple Line Extension and the first phase broke ground on November 7, 2014. Metro released the Final Environmental Impact Report on March 19, 2012, the first phase of the project was approved by Metro's Board of Directors on April 26, 2012. Notice to proceed was issued to Tutor Perini on April 26, 2017 for phase two from Wilshire/La Cienega Station to Century City Station. Pre-construction has commenced. Metro is still attempting to obtain funding for phase 3 to Westwood/UCLA; the following table lists the stations of the Purple Line, from east to west: The Purple Line is operated out of the Division 20 Yard located at 320 South Santa Fe Avenue Los Angeles. This yard stores the fleet used on the Purple Line, it is where heavy maintenance is done on the fleet.
Subways get to this yard by continuing on after Union Statio
Gold Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Gold Line is a 31-mile light rail line running from Azusa to East Los Angeles via Downtown Los Angeles serving several attractions, including Little Tokyo, Union Station, the Southwest Museum and the shops of Old Pasadena. The line, one of six in the Metro Rail system, entered service in 2003 and is operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; the Gold Line serves 27 stations. When the Regional Connector is complete in 2021, the Gold Line will undergo a complete restructuring of service; the portion of the Gold Line north of Little Tokyo will be joined with the Blue Line, forming the new A Line while retaining the Blue Line's coloring. In addition, the Eastside portion will be joined with the Expo Line, forming the new E Line, retaining the Expo Line's "E" and Gold Line's coloring. Beginning in East Los Angeles, the Gold Line runs west toward Downtown Los Angeles. From its southern terminus at Atlantic, the line travels west along 3rd Street to Indiana Street, where it turns north for two blocks to 1st Street.
From here, the line continues west to Little Tokyo through a tunnel under Boyle Heights with two underground stations. At Alameda Street in Little Tokyo, the line turns north and crosses over the Hollywood Freeway, stops at Union Station on tracks 1 and 2. At Union Station, riders can connect with the Metro Red and Metro Purple Subway Lines, the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit line as well as several other Metro bus lines, LADOT Dash lines, Metrolink regional commuter trains, Amtrak services including Pacific Surfliner and long distance interstate trains, Amtrak throughway motorcoaches connecting to San Joaquin trains originating at Bakersfield. From Union Station, the Gold Line proceeds north on elevated rail to Chinatown and crosses the Los Angeles River adjacent to the Golden State Freeway. From here, the route continues north/northeast, serving the hillside communities north of downtown, including Lincoln Heights, Mount Washington and Highland Park. Through this stretch, the Gold Line operates at grade, except for a short underpass below Figueroa Street.
North of Highland Park, the route crosses over the Arroyo Seco Parkway. The route continues through South Pasadena and downtown Pasadena at-grade. In Old Pasadena, the line travels underground for half a mile long, passing under Pasadena's main thoroughfare, Colorado Boulevard; the Gold Line enters the median of the Foothill Freeway and continues east to Sierra Madre Villa station, in Pasadena just west of the Arcadia city limits. East of Pasadena, the route crosses over the eastbound lanes of Foothill Freeway west of Santa Anita Avenue, with stops at the Arcadia Station, located at the corner of First Avenue and Santa Clara Street it crosses over Huntington Drive and stops at the Monrovia Station, north of Duarte Road at Myrtle Avenue, it continues eastbound with a stop at the Duarte/City of Hope Station located at the north side of Duarte Road, across the street from the City of Hope Medical Center continues going over the San Gabriel River and stops at the Irwindale Station at Irwindale Avenue, continues over the Foothill Freeway over Foothill Boulevard and stops at the Azusa Station at Azusa Avenue, north of Foothill Boulevard, its terminus is at the APU/Citrus College Station just west of Citrus Avenue.
Metro Gold Line trains operate between 12:45 a.m. daily. Trains on the Gold Line operate every 7 minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday. Middays consist of 12-18 minute headways. Nighttime service operates every 20 minutes; the Gold Line trains travel at a maximum speed of 55 mph. It takes 73 minutes to travel its 31-mile length, at an average speed of 21.9 mph over its length. The Gold Line is slow through the Highland Park area, where trains reach speeds of only 20 mph due to several street crossings and through the curves, where trains travel at about 25 mph. Following the extension to East Los Angeles in 2009, the line's ridership increased to 30,000 daily boardings; as of October 2012, the average weekday daily boardings for the Gold Line stood at 42,417 and as of December 2014 the average daily weekday boardings had increased to 44,707. Following the extension to Azusa, ridership rose to 49,238 as of May 2016. Much of the Gold Line's current right-of-way through the San Gabriel Valley was built by the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley Railroad in 1885 taken over by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, as part of the Pasadena Subdivision, which saw Amtrak service into the early 1990s.
This segment was part of the original plan for the Metro Blue Line, but when a ban on sales tax spending on subway tunnels passed in 1998, the project became a separate line terminating at Union Station. The original Gold Line, between Union Station and Sierra Madre Villa, opened July 26, 2003; the Gold Line Eastside Extension, a separate segment following all new right-of-way extending east from Union Station to East Los Angeles, opened on November 15, 2009. The first stage of the Gold Line Foothill Extension, running from Sierra Madre Villa station in Pasadena to APU/Citrus College station in Azusa, opened on March 5, 2016; the Regional Connector is an under-construction light rail subway corridor through Downtown Los Angeles. It is designed to connect the current Blue and Expo Lines to the current Gold Line and allow a seamless one-seat ride between the Blue and Expo Lines' cur
Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, as well as a diverse residential neighborhood of some 58,000 people. A 2013 study found, it is part of Central Los Angeles. A heritage of the city's founding in 1781, Downtown Los Angeles today is composed of different areas ranging from a fashion district to Skid Row, it is the hub for the city's urban rail transit system and the Metrolink commuter rail system for Southern California. Banks, department stores, movie palaces at one time drew residents and visitors into the area, but the district declined economically and suffered a downturn for decades until its recent renaissance starting in the early 2000s. Old buildings are being modified for new uses, skyscrapers have been built. Downtown Los Angeles is known for its government buildings, parks and other public places; the earliest known settlements in the area of what is now Downtown Los Angeles was by the Tongva, a Native American people. European settlement arrived after Father Juan Crespí, a Spanish missionary charged with exploring sites for Catholic missions in California, noted in 1769 that the region had "all the requisites for a large settlement".
On September 4, 1781, the city was founded by a group of settlers who trekked north from present-day Mexico. Land speculation increased in the 1880s, which saw the population of the city explode from 11,000 in 1880 to nearly 100,000 by 1896. Infrastructure enhancements and the laying of a street grid brought development south of the original settlement into what is today the Civic Center and Historic Core neighborhoods. By 1920, the city's private and municipal rail lines were the most far-flung and most comprehensive in the world in mileage besting that of New York City. By this time, a steady influx of residents and aggressive land developers had transformed the city into a large metropolitan area, with DTLA at its center. Rail lines connected four counties with over 1,100 miles of track. During the early part of the 20th century, banking institutions clustered around South Spring Street, forming the Spring Street Financial District. Sometimes referred to as the "Wall Street of the West," the district held corporate headquarters for financial institutions including Bank of America and Merchants Bank, the Crocker National Bank, California Bank & Trust, International Savings & Exchange Bank.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange was located on the corridor from 1929 until 1986 before moving into a new building across the Harbor Freeway. Commercial growth brought with it hotel construction—during this time period several grand hotels, the Alexandria, the Rosslyn, the Biltmore, were erected — and the need for venues to entertain the growing population of Los Angeles. Broadway became the nightlife and entertainment district of the city, with over a dozen theater and movie palaces built before 1932. Department stores opened flagship stores downtown, including The Broadway, Hamburger & Sons, May Company, JW Robinson's, Bullock's, serving a wealthy residential population in the Bunker Hill neighborhood. Numerous specialty stores flourished including those in the jewelry business which gave rise to the Downtown Jewelry District. Among these early jewelers included the Laykin Diamond Company and Harry Winston & Co. both of which found their beginnings in the Hotel Alexandria at Fifth and Spring streets.
The Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal opened in May 1939, unifying passenger service among various local and long-distance passenger trains. It was built on a grand scale and would be one of the "last of the great railway stations" built in the United States. Following World War II, the development of the Los Angeles freeway network, increased automobile ownership led to decreased investment downtown. Many corporate headquarters dispersed to new suburbs or fell to mergers and acquisitions; the once-wealthy Bunker Hill neighborhood became a haven for low-income renters, its stately Victorian mansions turned into flophouses. From about 1930 onward, numerous old and historic buildings in the plaza area were demolished to make way for street-level parking lots, the high demand for parking making this more profitable than any other option that might have allowed preservation; the drastic reduction in the number of residents in the area further reduced the viability of streetfront businesses that would be able to attract pedestrians.
For most Angelenos, downtown became a drive-out destination. In an effort to combat blight and lure businesses back downtown, the city's Community Redevelopment Agency undertook the Bunker Hill Redevelopment Project in 1955, a massive clearance project that leveled homes and cleared land for future commercial skyscraper development; this period saw the clearing and upzoning of the entire neighborhood, as well as the shuttering of the Angels Flight funicular railway in 1969. Angels Flight resumed operation in 1996 for a period of five years, shutting down once again after a fatal accident in 2001. On March 15, 2010, the railway once again opened for passenger service following extensive upgrades to brake and safety systems. With Class A office space becoming available on Bunker Hill, many of DTLA's remaining financial corporations moved to the newer buildings, leaving the former Spring Street Financial District devoid of tenants above ground floor. Following the corporate headquarters' moving six blocks west, the large department stores on Broadway shuttered, culminating in the 1980s.
However, the Broadway theaters saw much use as Spanish-language movie houses during this time, beginning with the conve
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a