|1992||L.A. freeway scene
—Terminator 2: Judgment Day (James Cameron)
|Burning building/Escape through old tunnel - Backdraft (Ron Howard) |
Roof scene - The Hard Way (John Badham)
Helicopter blades sequence - The Last Boy Scout (Tony Scott)
Second jump from the plane - Point Break (Kathryn Bigelow)
|1993||Mel Gibson's motorcycle crash
—Lethal Weapon 3 (Richard Donner)
|Aliens chase through tunnel - Alien 3 (David Fincher) |
Plane crash - Alive (Frank Marshall)
Oklahoma land race - Far and Away (Ron Howard)
Helicopter explosion - Under Siege (Andrew Davis)
—The Fugitive (Andrew Davis)
|Opening catwalk sequence - Cliffhanger (Renny Harlin) |
Motorcycle scene - Hard Target (John Woo)
T-Rex/Jeep scene - Jurassic Park (Steven Spielberg)
Lena Olin handcuffed in backseat of a car - Romeo is Bleeding (Peter Medak)
|1995||Bus escape/Airplane explosion
—Speed (Jan de Bont)
|Escape from exploding ship - Blown Away (Stephen Hopkins) |
Ambush of CIA convoy - Clear and Present Danger (Phillip Noyce)
Bridge explosion/Limo rescue - True Lies (James Cameron)
—Braveheart (Mel Gibson)
|Airplane hangar shootout - Bad Boys (Michael Bay) |
Underground shootout/explosion - Broken Arrow (John Woo)
Drive through NYC/Subway explosion and derailment - Die Hard with a Vengeance (John McTiernan)
|1997||Truck drives through farm equipment
—Twister (Jan de Bont)
|Arnold Schwarzenegger freefalls - Eraser (Chuck Russell) |
Aliens blowup cities - Independence Day (Roland Emmerich)
Train/Helicopter chase - Mission: Impossible (Brian De Palma)
Ferrari chase through San Francisco - The Rock (Michael Bay)
—Face/Off (John Woo)
|T-Rex attacks San Diego - The Lost World: Jurassic Park (Steven Spielberg) |
Bug attacks fortress - Starship Troopers (Paul Verhoeven)
Ship sinks - Titanic (James Cameron)
Motorcycle/helicopter chase - Tomorrow Never Dies (Roger Spottiswoode)
|1999||Asteroid destroys New York City
—Armageddon (Michael Bay)
|Gibson/Glover car chase on freeway and through building - Lethal Weapon 4 (Richard Donner) |
Car chase in France with Robert De Niro pursuing Natascha McElhone - Ronin (John Frankenheimer)
Tom Hanks and company land on Normandy Beach - Saving Private Ryan (Steven Spielberg)
|2000||The Pod Race
—Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace (George Lucas)
|End sequence -The Blair Witch Project (Daniel Myrick and Eduardo Sanchez) |
Rooftop/Helicopter scene - The Matrix (The Wachowski Brothers)
Sand monster scene - The Mummy (Stephen Sommers)
—Mission: Impossible 2 (John Woo)
|Plane crash - Cast Away (Robert Zemeckis) |
Roman army vs. Germanic horde - Gladiator (Ridley Scott)
Car chase through construction site - Gone in 60 Seconds (Dominic Sena)
|2002||Japanese attack scene
—Pearl Harbor (Michael Bay)
|First helicopter crash - Black Hawk Down (Ridley Scott) |
Final race - The Fast and the Furious (Rob Cohen)
Cave tomb battle - The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (Peter Jackson)
|2003||Battle for Helm's Deep
—The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (Peter Jackson)
|Collision on Highway 23 - Final Destination 2 (David R. Ellis) |
The Escape - Minority Report (Steven Spielberg)
Arena Conflict - Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones (George Lucas)
|2004||Battle at Gondor
—The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (Peter Jackson)
|Intercoastal Freeway Pursuit - Bad Boys II (Michael Bay) |
Escape from Mongolia - Charlie's Angels: Full Throttle (McG)
Champion Crane Chase - Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (Jonathan Mostow)
|2005||Destruction of Los Angeles
—The Day After Tomorrow (Roland Emmerich)
|Beverly Hills plane crash - The Aviator (Martin Scorsese) |
Moscow car chase - The Bourne Supremacy (Paul Greengrass)
Subway battle - Spider-Man 2 (Sam Raimi)
Desert Terrorist Assault - Team America: World Police (Trey Parker)
Backdraft is a 1991 American drama thriller film directed by Ron Howard and written by Gregory Widen. The film stars Kurt Russell, William Baldwin, Scott Glenn, Jennifer Jason Leigh, Rebecca De Mornay, Donald Sutherland, Robert De Niro, Jason Gedrick and J. T. Walsh, it is about Chicago firefighters on the trail of a serial arsonist. The film grossed $77.9 million domestically and $74.5 million in foreign markets, for a total gross of $152.4 million. The film received three Academy Award nominations. Two firefighters of Engine 17 of the Chicago Fire Department are brothers. Lt. Stephen "Bull" McCaffrey, the elder, is experienced, while Brian has labored under his brother's shadow his entire life. Brian returns to firefighting after a number of other career falters, though Stephen has doubts that Brian is fit to be a firefighter. In 1971, Brian witnessed the death of their firefighting father, Captain Dennis McCaffrey, while accompanying him on a call; the longest serving of all the men at Engine 17, John "Axe" Adcox, served under the McCaffreys' father, was like an uncle to the boys when their father died.
He attacks fires head on, but is concerned about Stephen's unorthodox methods and disregard for safety procedures. Helen McCaffrey is the mother of their son, Sean. Helen has grown fearful of Stephen's dedication to firefighting and the risks he takes. While they are still in love, she Sean. Martin Swayzak is an alderman on the Chicago City Council. Swayzak has supported fire department budget cuts. Many of the rank and file firemen believe. Fire Department Captain Donald "Shadow" Rimgale is a dedicated arson investigator and veteran firefighter, he is called in, because a number of recent fires resemble the results of pyromaniac Ronald Bartel, imprisoned for years. Brian is reassigned as his assistant after a falling out with Stephen. Rimgale manipulates Ronald's obsession with fire to ensure Ronald's annual parole application is rejected, it is revealed during an investigation that Swayzak was paid off by contractors to shut down firehouses, so they could be converted into community centers, with the contractors receiving contracts for the construction.
Brian rekindles a relationship with Jennifer Vaitkus, an aide to Swayzak. When Engine 17 answers a call in a high-rise, Stephen urges them to move in to take out the fire despite Adcox's advice to wait for back-up. Brian's friend and fellow trainee, Tim Krizminski, opens a door creating a backdraft, his face is burned beyond recognition, he survives. Adcox and Brian both blame Tim's condition on Stephen's reckless tactics. Rimgale and Brian go to Swayzak's home to confront him after learning of his connection to the victims; the two interrupt a masked man about to set the place on fire. The latter is burned on his shoulder by an electrical socket. Rimgale is injured in an explosion. In his hospital bed, Rimgale tells Brian to visit Ronald again. Ronald helps Brian realize that only a firefighter would be so careful as to not let backdraft fires rage out of control. Brian suspects Stephen, but spots a burn in the shape of an electrical socket on Adcox's back, reveals his suspicions to his brother just before an alarm.
When Brian realizes Adcox has heard their exchange, he jumps aboard Truck 46 after borrowing some turnout gear. Stephen confronts Adcox about the deadly backdrafts during a multiple-alarm fire at a chemical plant. Adcox admits that he set the fires to kill associates of Swayzak, because Swayzak was benefiting from the deaths of firefighters; when an explosion destroys the catwalk they are on, Stephen grabs Adcox's hand while hanging on to the remains of the catwalk. Stephen refuses Adcox' advice to let go of him. Adcox is killed, but Stephen, although injured, survives. Stephen dies with Brian by his side on the way to the hospital, his final request being that Brian not reveal that Adcox was behind the fires until after Adcox receives a fitting burial. After Stephen and Adcox's funeral and Rimgale, with the help of the police, interrupt Swayzak at a press conference. Rimgale questions Swayzak on a fake manpower study that led to the deaths of several firemen, including Stephen and Adcox, they state that Swayzak engineered the downsizing of the Chicago Fire Department.
This destroys Swayzak's mayoral ambitions. Brian continues as a firefighter despite the loss of his brother. According to the article in Entertainment Weekly, rubber cement from Petronio Shoe Products was used to create some of the fire effects. Industrial Light & Magic created many of the visual effects. Fire fighting professionals have noted that most real structure fires differ from what is shown in the movie by having smoke conditions that obscure vision inside the building completely; the pictures of firefighters searching in movies like Backdraft do not show what it is like to search in a fire. Firefighters are shown advancing through involved structure fires while not wearing the complete complement of protective gear. Most scenes display firefighting without the use of SCBA. Realism in our case would make a bad movie because the fact is that in every fire the smoke conditions obscure all vision. "The movie... came pretty close at times, but it suffered from the same, all too common shortcomings that any visual presentation was bound to encounter Smoke and other miscellaneous factors combine to obscure everything, taking plac
Alien 3 is a 1992 American science fiction horror film directed by David Fincher and written by David Giler, Walter Hill and Larry Ferguson from a story by Vincent Ward. It stars Sigourney Weaver reprising her role as Ellen Ripley and is the third film installment in the Alien franchise, preceded by Aliens and succeeded by Alien Resurrection. Set right after the events of Aliens, Ripley and an Alien organism are the only survivors of the Colonial Marine spaceship Sulaco's escape pod's crash on a planet housing a penal colony populated by violent male inmates. Additional roles are played by Charles Dance, Brian Glover, Charles S. Dutton, Ralph Brown, Paul McGann, Danny Webb, Lance Henriksen, Holt McCallany, Danielle Edmond; the film faced problems during production, including shooting without a script, with various screenwriters and directors attached. Fincher, in his feature directorial debut, was brought in to direct after a proposed version with Vincent Ward as director was cancelled well into preproduction.
Alien 3 was released on May 22, 1992. While it underperformed at the American box office, it earned over $100 million outside North America; the film was regarded as inferior to previous installments. Fincher has since disowned the film, blaming deadlines, it was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Visual Effects, seven Saturn Awards, a Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, an MTV Movie Award for Best Action Sequence. In 2003, a revised version of the film known as the Assembly Cut was released without Fincher's involvement, received a warmer reception. A sequel, Alien Resurrection, was released in 1997. In 2179, a fire starts aboard the Colonial Marine spaceship Sulaco; the computer launches an escape pod containing Ellen Ripley, the young girl Newt and the damaged android Bishop. Scans of the crew's cryotubes show a queen facehugger attached to one member; the pod crash-lands on Fiorina "Fury" 161, a foundry facility and penal colony inhabited by male inmates with double-Y chromosome syndrome, a genetic mutation which, within the film universe, gives the afflicted individual a predisposition for antisocial behavior.
The inmates recover its passengers. The same facehugger is seen approaching Spike. Ripley is awakened by the prison doctor, who informs her that she is the sole survivor, she is warned by Harold Andrews, that her presence may have disruptive effects. Ripley insists that Clemens perform an autopsy on Newt, secretly fearing that Newt may be carrying an alien embryo. Despite protests from the warden and his assistant Aaron, the autopsy is conducted and no embryo is found; the bodies of Newt and Hicks are cremated. Elsewhere in the prison, a quadrupedal alien bursts from Spike. Growing to full size, the alien kills Thomas Murphy and Rains and returns outcast prisoner Golic to his psychopathic state — Golic dubs the alien "Dragon". Ripley finds the damaged Bishop in the prison's garbage dump. Just as she is leaving the area, she is cornered by four inmates and raped. Ripley returns to the infirmary and re-activates Bishop, who confirms that a facehugger came with them to Fiorina in the escape pod. Ripley informs Andrews of her previous encounter with the xenomorphs and suggests everyone work together to hunt down and kill it.
The skeptical Andrews does not believe her story, explains that if she were telling the truth, the facility is without weapons. The alien ambushes Ripley and Clemens in the prison infirmary, killing him, slays Ripley, but mysteriously spares her and retreats. Ripley rushes to the cafeteria to warn the others. Andrews orders Aaron to take her back to the infirmary, but the warden himself is dragged into the vents and killed by the monster. Ripley rallies the inmates and proposes they pour flammable toxic waste into the ventilation system and ignite it to flush out the extraterrestrial. However, its intervention causes several inmates are killed. With Aaron's help, Ripley scans herself using the escape pod's medical equipment and discovers the embryo of a xenomorph queen growing inside her, she discovers that Weyland-Yutani hopes to turn the aliens into biological weapons. Deducing that the alien will not kill her because of the embryo she carries, Ripley begs Dillon to kill her, they form a plan to lure the alien into the foundry's molding facility, trap it via a series of closing doors, drown it in molten lead.
The bait-and-chase plan results in the deaths of all the remaining prisoners except Dillon and Morse. Dillon remains in the mold as he allows himself to be killed by the alien as Morse pours the molten lead onto them. Although the alien is covered in molten metal, it escapes the mold but Ripley activates the fire sprinklers, causing its molten metal exoskeleton to cool and shatter, blowing it apart; the Weyland–Yutani team arrives, including scientists armed commandos and a man who looks identical to Bishop, who explains that he is Bishop's creator. He tries to persuade Ripley to undergo surgery to remove the queen embryo, which he falsely claims will be destroyed. Ripley steps back onto a mobile platform, which Morse positions over the furnace; the Weyl
Kathryn Ann Bigelow is an American film director and screenwriter. Covering a wide range of genres, her films include Near Dark, Point Break, Strange Days, K-19: The Widowmaker, The Hurt Locker, Zero Dark Thirty, Detroit. With The Hurt Locker, Bigelow became the first woman to win any of the Academy Award for Best Director, the Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing, the BAFTA Award for Best Direction, the Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Director awards, she became the first woman to win the Saturn Award for Best Director in 1995 for Strange Days. Bigelow was included on the 2010 Time 100 list of most influential people of the year. Bigelow was born in San Carlos, the only child of Gertrude Kathryn, a librarian, Ronald Elliot Bigelow, a paint factory manager, her mother was of Norwegian descent. She attended Sunny Hills High School in California. Bigelow's early creative endeavors were as a student of painting, she enrolled at San Francisco Art Institute in the fall of 1970 and received her Bachelor of Fine Arts in December 1972.
While enrolled at SFAI, she was accepted into the Whitney Museum of American Art's Independent Study Program in New York City. For a while, Bigelow lived as a starving artist, crashing with painter Julian Schnabel in performance artist Vito Acconci's loft, she had a minor role in Richard Serra's video Prisoner's Dilemma. Bigelow teamed up with Philip Glass on a real-estate venture in which they renovated distressed apartments downtown and sold them for a profit. Bigelow entered the graduate film program at Columbia University, where she studied theory and criticism and earned her master's degree, her professors included Vito Acconci, Sylvère Lotringer, Susan Sontag, as well as Andrew Sarris and Edward W. Said, she worked with the Art & Language collective and Lawrence Weiner, she taught at the California Institute of the Arts. While working with Art & Language, Bigelow began a short film, The Set-Up, which found favor with director Miloš Forman teaching at Columbia University, which Bigelow submitted as part of her MFA at Columbia.
Bigelow's short. The film portrays "two men fighting each other as the semioticians Sylvère Lotringer and Marshall Blonsky deconstruct the images in voice-over." Bigelow asked her actors to beat and bludgeon each other throughout the film's all-night shoot. Her first full-length feature was The Loveless, a biker film that she co-directed with Monty Montgomery, it featured Willem Dafoe in his first starring role. Next, she directed Near Dark. With this film, she began her lifelong fascination with manipulating genre. In the same year, she directed a music video for the New Order song "Touched by the Hand of God". Bigelow's subsequent films, Blue Steel, Point Break, Strange Days, merged her philosophically minded manipulation of pace with the market demands of mainstream film-making. In the process, Bigelow became recognizable as both an auteur. All three films rethink the conventions of action cinema while exploring gendered and racial politics. Blue Steel starred Jamie Lee Curtis as a rookie police officer, stalked by a psychopathic killer, played by Ron Silver.
As with Near Dark, Eric Red co-wrote the screenplay. The film bankrolled for $10 million, was shot on location in New York due to financial considerations and because Bigelow doesn't "like movies where you see a welfare apartment and it's the size of two football fields."Bigelow followed Blue Steel with Point Break, which starred Keanu Reeves as an FBI agent who poses as a surfer to catch the "Ex-Presidents", a team of surfing armed robbers led by Patrick Swayze who wear Reagan, Nixon, LBJ and Jimmy Carter masks when they hold up banks. Point Break was Bigelow's most profitable'studio' film, taking $80 million at the global box office during the year of its release, yet it remains one of her lowest rated films, both in commercial reviews and academic analysis. Critics argued that it conformed to some of the clichés and tired stereotypes of the action genre and that it abandoned much of the stylistic substance and subtext of Bigelow's other work. In 1993, she directed an episode of the TV series Wild Palms.
Bigelow's 1995 film Strange Days was produced by her ex-husband James Cameron. Despite some positive reviews, the film was a commercial failure. Furthermore, many attributed the creative vision to Cameron, diminishing Bigelow's perceived influence on the film, she directed episodes of Homicide: Life on the Street in 1997 and 1998. Based on Anita Shreve's novel of the same name, Bigelow's 2000 film The Weight of Water is a portrait of two women trapped in suffocating relationships. In 2002, she directed K-19: The Widowmaker, starring Harrison Ford and Liam Neeson, about a group of men aboard the Soviet Union's first nuclear-powered submarine; the film was received with mixed reactions by critics. Bigelow next directed The Hurt Locker, first shown at the Venice Film Festival in September 2008, was the Closing Night selection for Maryland Film Festival in May 2009, theatrically released in the US in June 2009, it qualified for the 2010 Oscars as it did not premiere in an Oscar-qualifying run in Los Angeles until mid-2009.
Set in post-invasion Iraq, the film received "universal acclaim" and a 97% "fresh" rating from the critics aggregated by Rotten Tomatoes. The film stars Jeremy Renner, Brian Geraghty and Anthony Mackie
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger is an Austrian-American actor, businessman, philanthropist, activist and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter. He served as the 38th Governor of California, from 2003 to 2011. Schwarzenegger began lifting weights at the age of 15, he won the Mr. Universe title at age 20 and went on to win the Mr. Olympia contest seven times, remaining a prominent presence in bodybuilding and writing many books and articles on the sport; the Arnold Sports Festival, considered the second most important professional bodybuilding event in recent years, is named after him. He is considered to be one of the greatest bodybuilders of all-time, as well as the sport's most charismatic ambassador. Schwarzenegger gained worldwide fame as a Hollywood action film icon, his breakthrough film was the sword-and-sorcery epic Conan the Barbarian in 1982, a box-office hit that resulted in a sequel. In 1984, he appeared in the title role of James Cameron's critically and commercially successful science-fiction thriller film The Terminator.
He subsequently played a similar Terminator character in most of the franchise's installments, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines, Terminator Genisys. He has appeared in a number of other successful films, such as Commando, The Running Man, Twins, Total Recall, Kindergarten Cop, True Lies. Schwarzenegger married Maria Shriver, a niece of the 35th U. S. President John F. Kennedy and daughter of the 1972 Democratic vice presidential candidate and former Ambassador to France Sargent Shriver, in 1986, they separated in 2011 after he admitted to having fathered a child with another woman in 1997. As a Republican, Schwarzenegger was first elected on October 7, 2003, in a special recall election to replace then-Governor Gray Davis, he was sworn in on November 17. He was re-elected in the 2006 California gubernatorial election, to serve a full term as governor. In 2011, he returned to acting. Schwarzenegger was nicknamed "the Austrian Oak" in his bodybuilding days, "Arnie" or "Schwarzy" during his acting career, "The Governator" during his political career.
Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger was born on July 30, 1947, in Thal, Styria, to Aurelia and Gustav Schwarzenegger. His father was the local chief of police and had served in World War II as a Hauptfeldwebel after voluntarily joining the Nazi Party in 1938, was wounded during the battle of Stalingrad, but was discharged in 1943 following a bout of malaria, he married Schwarzenegger's mother on October 20, 1945. According to Arnold Schwarzenegger, his parents were strict: "Back in Austria it was a different world... if we did something bad or we disobeyed our parents, the rod was not spared." He grew up in a Catholic family. Gustav had a preference for his elder son, over Arnold, his favoritism was "strong and blatant", which stemmed from unfounded suspicion that Arnold was not his biological child. Schwarzenegger has said that his father had "no patience for listening or understanding your problems." He kept in touch with her until her death. In life, he commissioned the Simon Wiesenthal Center to research his father's wartime record, which came up with no evidence of Gustav being involved in atrocities, despite his membership in the Nazi Party and Sturmabteilung.
Gustav's background received wide press attention during the 2003 California recall campaign. At school, Schwarzenegger was academically average, but stood out for his "cheerful, good-humored, exuberant" character. Money was a problem in their household; as a boy, he played several sports influenced by his father. He picked up his first barbell in 1960. At the age of 14, he chose bodybuilding over soccer as a career, he said, "I started weight training when I was 15, but I'd been participating in sports, like soccer, for years, so I felt that although I was slim, I was well-developed, at least enough so that I could start going to the gym and start olympic lifting." However, his official website biography claims that "at 14, he started an intensive training program with Dan Farmer, studied psychology at 15 and at 17 started his competitive career." During a speech in 2001, he said, "My own plan formed. My father had wanted me to be a police officer. My mother wanted me to go to trade school."Schwarzenegger took to visiting a gym in Graz, where he frequented the local movie theaters to see bodybuilding idols such as Reg Park, Steve Reeves, Johnny Weissmuller on the big screen.
When Reeves died in 2000, Schwarzenegger fondly remembered him: "As a teenager, I grew up with Steve Reeves. His remarkable accomplishments allowed me a sense of what was possible when others around me didn't always understand my dreams. Steve Reeves has been part of everything I've been fortunate enough to achieve." In 1961, Schwarzenegger met former Mr. Austria Kurt Marnul, who invited him to train at the gym in Graz, he was so dedicated as a youngster that he broke into the local gym on weekends, so that he could train when it was closed. "It would make me sick to miss a workout... I knew I couldn't look at myself in the mirror the next morning if I did
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Braveheart is a 1995 epic war film directed, co-produced, starring Mel Gibson, who portrays William Wallace, a late 13th-century Scottish warrior. The film is fictionally based on the life of Wallace leading the Scots in the First War of Scottish Independence against King Edward I of England; the film stars Sophie Marceau, Patrick McGoohan and Catherine McCormack. The story is inspired by Blind Harry's epic poem The Actes and Deidis of the Illustre and Vallyeant Campioun Schir William Wallace and was adapted for the screen by Randall Wallace. Development on the film started at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer when producer Alan Ladd Jr. picked up the project from Wallace, but when MGM was going through new management, Ladd left the studio and took the project with him. Despite declining, Gibson decided to direct the film, as well as star as Wallace; the film was filmed in Ireland with a budget around $65 -- 70 million. Braveheart, produced by Gibson's Icon Productions and The Ladd Company, was distributed by Paramount Pictures in North America and by 20th Century Fox internationally.
Released on May 26, 1995, Braveheart received positive reviews from critics, who praised the performances, production values, battle sequences, musical score. The film grossed $210.4 million worldwide. At the 68th Academy Awards, the film was nominated for ten Academy Awards and won five: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Cinematography, Best Makeup, Best Sound Editing; the film's title is taken from the name of Wallace's famous broadsword, the movie's final shot is of that sword on the field at Bannockburn. In 1286, King Edward "Longshanks" invades and conquers Scotland following the death of Alexander III of Scotland, who left no heir to the throne. Young William Wallace witnesses Longshanks' treachery, survives the deaths of his father and brother, is taken abroad on a pilgrimage throughout Europe by his paternal Uncle Argyle, where he is educated. Years Longshanks grants his noblemen land and privileges in Scotland, including Prima Nocte. Meanwhile, a grown Wallace returns to Scotland and falls in love with his childhood friend Murron MacClannough, the two marry in secret.
Wallace rescues Murron from being raped by English soldiers, but as she fights off their second attempt, Murron is captured and publicly executed. In retribution, Wallace leads his clan to slaughter the English garrison in his hometown and send the occupying garrison at Lanark back to England. Longshanks orders his son Prince Edward to stop Wallace by any means necessary. Wallace rebels against the English, as his legend spreads, hundreds of Scots from the surrounding clans join him. Wallace leads his army to victory at the Battle of Stirling Bridge and destroys the city of York, killing Longshanks' nephew and sending his severed head to the king. Wallace seeks the assistance of Robert the Bruce, the son of nobleman Robert the Elder and a contender for the Scottish crown. Robert is dominated by his father, who wishes to secure the throne for his son by submitting to the English. Worried by the threat of the rebellion, Longshanks sends his son's wife Isabella of France to try to negotiate with Wallace as a distraction for the landing of another invasion force in Scotland.
After meeting him in person, Isabella becomes enamored of Wallace. She warns him of the coming invasion, Wallace implores the Scottish nobility to take immediate action to counter the threat and take back the country, asking Robert the Bruce to lead. Leading the English army himself, Longshanks confronts the Scots at Falkirk. There, noblemen Mornay and Lochlan turn their backs on Wallace after being bribed by the king. Wallace is further betrayed when he discovers Robert the Bruce was fighting alongside Longshanks. Wallace kills Lochlan and Mornay for their betrayal, wages a guerrilla war against the English for the next seven years, assisted by Isabella, with whom he has an affair. Robert sets up a meeting with Wallace in Edinburgh, but Robert's father has conspired with other nobles to capture and hand over Wallace to the English. Learning of his treachery, Robert disowns his father. Isabella exacts revenge on the now terminally ill Longshanks by telling him that his bloodline will be destroyed upon his death as she is now pregnant with Wallace's child.
In London, Wallace is brought before an English magistrate, tried for high treason, condemned to public torture and beheading. Whilst being hanged and quartered, Wallace refuses to submit to the king; as cries for mercy come from the watching crowd moved by the Scotsman's valor, the magistrate offers him one final chance, asking him only to utter the word, "Mercy", be granted a quick death. Wallace instead shouts, "Freedom!", the judge orders his death. Moments before being decapitated, Wallace sees a vision of Murron in the crowd. In 1314, now Scotland's king, leads a Scottish army before a ceremonial line of English troops on the fields of Bannockburn, where he is to formally accept English rule; as he begins to ride toward the English, he stops and invokes Wallace's memory, imploring his men to fight with him as they did with Wallace. Robert leads his army into battle against the stunned English, winning the Scots their freedom. Producer Alan Ladd Jr. had the project at MGM-Pathé Communications when he picked up the script from Wallace.
When MGM was going through new management in 1993, Ladd left the studio and took some of its top properties, including Braveheart. Gibson came
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high