Milan Gorkić or Josip Čižinski was a high-ranking Yugoslav communist. He was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia in exile from 1932 until 1937 and prominent member of the Comintern. Gorkić was executed by the NKVD on 1 November 1937 during the Great Purge. Gorkić was born Josef Čižinský in 1904 into a Czech family from Austria-Hungary that had settled in Sarajevo five years earlier in 1899. At the time, Bosnia-Herzegovina was still a vilayet within the Ottoman Empire though in actuality it was run as an occupational zone and a de facto part of Austria-Hungary, his father, Václav Čižinský was an upholster who earlier held membership in the Social Democratic Party of Czechoslovakia. After a short holiday in his hometown, he brought his wife, Gorkić's mother, Antonija Mimerova to Bosnia and Herzegovina, she worked as a seamstress. In Bosnia and Herzegovina his father worked for the Austrian-Hungarian administration. Gorkić was born in Sarajevo in 1904. In 1921, Gorkić's family was deported back to Czechoslovakia, after his father was involved in a strike and accusations of being a communist and a serbophobe.
Gorkić was previously arrested for communist activity, which contributed to his family's deportation. Gorkić entered elementary school in Bosanski Brod in 1910; as a good student, he continued high school education in Derventa, but soon left the school because of the World War. In order to avoid losing an academic year, he tried to enter high school in Slavonski Brod, but this school was closed, so he studied grade five privately. In 1915, Gorkić succeeded in starting grade six in High People's Students' School, a lower high school, entering its second grade. In 1918 he returned to Sarajevo and took entrance exam in order to enroll in the Sarajevo Commerce Academy. During a time spent in Commercial Academy, Gorkić joined the Organization of Intellectual Workers as an fifteen-year-old. Gorkić and other members of the organisation had meetings in Workers' Home, where they read works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, as well as Miroslav Krleža's revolutionary magazine "Plamen". On 1 May 1919 he was arrested along with some of his comrades.
On 4 December 1919, Young Communist League of Yugoslavia was established in Sarajevo. In 1921, after First Congress of SKOJ, it was decided that SKOJ will be separated on two branches, apprentices' and students' branch. Gorkić was named secretary of students' branch. In one newspaper article from 14 October. Gorkić used his pseudonym for the first time. On 28 November 1920, he held a motivational speech in Derventa for members of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia and called them to vote for leaders of the KPJ. In December 1920, Gorkić held teachings in Workers' Home in Sarajevo, soon become one of the most active communists. On the night of 29/30 December, King Alexander of Yugoslavia proclaimed Obznana, a proclamation in which he forbade further activity of the KPJ. Thousands of communists were arrested and their organisations broken. After proclamation of Obznana, KPJ and SKOJ were scattered. Gorkić played a key role in reorganisation of the KPJ and SKOJ, he became Secretary of the Regional Committee of the SKOJ.
In a report to KPJ's congress held in Vienna in 1922, Gorkić stated that before Obznana, regional SKOJ had 300 members, after Obznana regional SKOJ did not have a single member, they only maintained contacts. He and his associates established an illegal organization as a core for future organizing. Soon, they had been provided with a hectograph to multiply propaganda leaflets. Gorkić was assigned to work with the leaflets. Before that, in 1921, he wrote to his illegal organisation in Derventa and this letter was found by the police. In the letter, Gorkić wrote in detail about organisation's activity and meeting place, supposed to be held in Belgrade. However, the meeting never took place, because a communist, Spasoje Stević, made a failed assassination attempt on King Alexander, at the time, a regent. In July 1921 Gorkić visited Belgrade with his friend, Maks Schwarz, after they returned to Brod, both of them were arrested on 29 July. Gorkić stated to the police that he did not go to Belgrade because of the conference, but for education.
Gorkić's activity was observed by the police for a longer period. Gorkić was heard by police on 2 August and spent six months in prison, when he was bailed out by the party along with other imprisoned communists, he was expelled from Commercial Academy. He did not return home to his parents, but instead, continued his political activity. In time, while he was still imprisoned, Gorkić's family was deported back to Czechoslovakia, his father had been accused of anti-Serb sentiment. After Gorkić had been released from prison, he started to work as an editor of Sarajevan workers' magazine "Radničko jedinstvo"; as an editor, he wrote about the international political scene. In 1923, Gorkić was employed in another magazine, named "Narod", he worked in this magazine. During all that time, he was under police surveillance. After his release in 1922, Gorkić was once again under police investigation and it was planned by the police to deport him once the investigation ended, his travel abroad was forbidden, however, he entered and left the country several times.
He was a delegate on first two illegal conferences held in 1922 and 1923. The First Conference was held in Vienna between 3 and 17 April 1922, where Gorkić participated as a delega
Enzo Gragnaniello is an Italian singer-songwriter and composer. Born in Quartieri Spagnoli, Gragnaniello began playing the guitar at the age of 12 and began composing his first songs at 18 years old. In 1977 he formed the group "Banchi nuovi", named after the Committee of unemployed people to which he belonged. Gragnaniello made his solo debut with the eponymous album Enzo Gragnaniello. In 1986 he received his first Targa Tenco, an award he won again in 1990 and 1999. In 1991 his song "Cu'mmè", recorded by Roberto Murolo and Mia Martini, obtained a great commercial success and became instant classics in Italy. In 1999 he entered the competition at the Sanremo Music Festival in a duet with Ornella Vanoni, ranking fourth with the song "Alberi". Gragnaniello composed songs for Adriano Celentano, Gerardina Trovato among others, he is active as a composer of musical scores for stage plays and films. 1983 - Enzo Gragnaniello 1985 - Salita Trinità degli Spagnoli 1990 - Fujente 1991 - Veleno mare e ammore 1993 - Un mondo che non c'è 1994 - Cercando il sole 1996 - Posteggiatore abusivo 1996 - Continuerò 1998 - Neapolis mantra 1998 - Canzoni di rabbia canzoni d'amore 1999 - Oltre gli alberi 1999 - Dai Quartieri al S.
Carlo 2001 - Balìa 2003 - Tribù e passione 2003 - The Best of Enzo Gragnaniello 2005 - Quanto mi costa 2007 - L'Erba Cattiva 2011 - Radice 2013 - Live Official website Enzo Gragnaniello at AllMusic Enzo Gragnaniello at Discogs Enzo Gragnaniello on IMDb