Shelton Jackson "Spike" Lee is an American film director, producer and actor. His production company, 40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks, has produced over 35 films since 1983, he made his directorial debut with She's Gotta Have It, has since directed such films as Do the Right Thing, Jungle Fever, Malcolm X, He Got Game, The Original Kings of Comedy, 25th Hour, Inside Man, Chi-Raq, BlacKkKlansman. Lee had starring roles in ten of his own films. Lee's films have examined race relations, colorism in the black community, the role of media in contemporary life, urban crime and poverty, other political issues, he has won numerous accolades for his work, including an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, a Student Academy Award, a BAFTA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, two Emmy Awards, two Peabody Awards, the Cannes Grand Prix. He has received an Academy Honorary Award, an Honorary BAFTA Award, an Honorary César, the Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize. Lee was born in Atlanta, the son of Jacqueline Carroll, a teacher of arts and black literature, William James Edward Lee III, a jazz musician and composer.
Lee has three younger siblings, Joie and Cinqué, who all worked in many different positions in Lee's films. Director Malcolm D. Lee is his cousin; when he was a child, the family moved to New York. His mother nicknamed him "Spike" during his childhood, he attended John Dewey High School in Brooklyn's Gravesend neighborhood. Lee enrolled in Morehouse College, a black college, where he made his first student film, Last Hustle in Brooklyn, he took film courses at Clark Atlanta University and graduated with a B. A. in mass communication from Morehouse. He did graduate work at New York University's Tisch School of the Arts, where he earned a Master of Fine Arts in film & television. Lee's independent film, Joe's Bed-Stuy Barbershop: We Cut Heads, was the first student film to be showcased in Lincoln Center's New Directors/New Films Festival. In 1985, Lee began work on his first feature film, She's Gotta Have It. With a budget of $175,000, he shot the film in two weeks; when the film was released in 1986, it grossed over $7,000,000 at the U.
S. box office. Lee's 1989 film Do the Right Thing was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay in 1989. Many people, including Hollywood's Kim Basinger, believed that Do the Right Thing deserved a Best Picture nomination. Driving Miss Daisy won Best Picture that year. Lee said in an April 7, 2006, interview with New York magazine that the other film's success, which he thought was based on safe stereotypes, hurt him more than if his film had not been nominated for an award. After the 1990 release of Mo' Better Blues, Lee was accused of antisemitism by the Anti-Defamation League and several film critics, they criticized the characters of the club owners Josh and Moe Flatbush, described as "Shylocks". Lee denied the charge, explaining that he wrote those characters in order to depict how black artists struggled against exploitation. Lee said that Lew Wasserman, Sidney Sheinberg, or Tom Pollock, the Jewish heads of MCA and Universal Studios, were unlikely to allow antisemitic content in a film they produced.
He said he could not make an antisemitic film because Jews run Hollywood, "that's a fact". His 1997 documentary 4 Little Girls, about the children killed in the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Feature Documentary. On May 2, 2007, the 50th San Francisco International Film Festival honored Spike Lee with the San Francisco Film Society's Directing Award. In 2008, he received the Wexner Prize. In 2013, he won The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize, one of the richest prizes in the American arts worth $300,000. In 2015, Lee received an Academy Honorary Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for his contributions to film. Lee directed and produced the MyCareer story mode in the video game NBA 2K16. Lee's film BlacKkKlansman, a drama thriller set in the 1970s, won the Grand Prix at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival, opened the following August, it received nominations for the Academy Award for Best Picture and Best Director, with Lee winning his first competitive Academy Award in the category Best Adapted Screenplay.
In 1991, Lee taught a course at Harvard about filmmaking, in 1993, he began to teach at New York University’s Tisch School of the Arts in the Graduate Film Program. It was there that he received his master of fine arts and was appointed artistic director in 2002, he is now a tenured professor at NYU. In mid-1990, Levi's began producing a series of TV commercials directed by Lee for their 501 button-fly jeans. Marketing executives from Nike offered Lee a job directing commercials for the company, they wanted to pair Lee's character, the Michael Jordan–loving Mars Blackmon, Jordan in a marketing campaign for the Air Jordan line. Lee was called on to comment on the controversy surrounding the inner-city rash of violence involving youths trying to steal Air Jordans from other kids, he said that, rather than blaming manufacturers of apparel that gained popularity, "deal with the conditions that make a kid put so much importance on a pair of sneakers, a jacket and gold". Through the marketing wing of 40 Acres and a Mule, Lee has directed commercials for Converse, Taco Bell, Ben & Jerry's.
Lee's films have examined race relations, colorism in the black community, the role of media in contemporary life, urban crime and poverty, other political issues. His films are noted for their unique stylistic elements, including the use of dolly shots to portray the characters "f
Paul Verhoeven is a Dutch director and film producer. Active in both the Netherlands and Hollywood, Verhoeven's blending of graphic violence and sexual content with social satire are trademarks of both his drama and science fiction films, he directed the films Turkish Delight, RoboCop, Total Recall, Basic Instinct, Starship Troopers and Elle. Turkish Delight received the award for Best Dutch Film of the Century at the Netherlands Film Festival, his films altogether received a total of nine Academy Award nominations for editing and effects. Verhoeven won the Saturn Award for Best Director for Robocop, his Dutch war film Black Book was nominated for a BAFTA Award for Best Film Not in the English Language and was voted by the Dutch public, in 2008, as the best Dutch film made. In contrast, he won the Golden Raspberry Awards for Worst Director for Showgirls; the Seattle Times praised Verhoeven by saying, "director Paul Verhoeven appears to be a one-man Dutch movie industry," while The San Diego Union called Verhoeven "a busy bee whose movies pollinate the festival circuit."
Paul Verhoeven was born in Amsterdam on 18 July 1938, the son of a school teacher, Wim Verhoeven, a hat maker, Nel van Schaardenburg. His family lived in the village of Slikkerveer. In 1943 the family moved to The Hague, the location of the German headquarters in the Netherlands during World War II; the Verhoeven house was near a German military base with V1 and V2-rocket launchers, bombed by Allied forces. Their neighbours' house was hit and Verhoeven's parents were killed when bombs fell on a street crossing. From this period, Verhoeven mentioned in interviews, he remembers images of violence, burning houses, dead bodies on the street, continuous danger; as a small child he experienced the war as an exciting adventure and compares himself with the character Bill Rowan in Hope and Glory. Verhoeven's father became head teacher at the Van Heutszschool in The Hague, Paul attended this school. Sometimes they watched informative films at home with the school's film projector. Verhoeven and his father liked to see American films that were in the cinema after the liberation, such as The Crimson Pirate.
They went ten times to see The War of the Worlds. Verhoeven was a fan of the Dutch comic Dick Bos; the character Dick Bos is a private detective. Verhoeven liked comic drawing. Other fiction he liked were the Edgar Rice Burroughs Barsoom series. Verhoeven attended public secondary school Gymnasium Haganum in The Hague. Beginning in 1955, he studied at Leiden University, where he joined the elite fraternity Minerva. Verhoeven graduated with a doctorandus in Mathematics and Physics. Verhoeven made his first film A Lizzard Too Much for the anniversary of his students' corps in 1960. In his last years at university Verhoeven attended classes at the Netherlands Film Academy. After this he made three more short films: Nothing Special, The Hitchhikers, Let's Have a Party. Verhoeven has not used his mathematics and physics degree, opting instead to invest his energies in a career in film. After his studies he entered the Royal Dutch Navy as a conscript, he made the documentary Het Korps Mariniers about the Navy, which won the French Golden Sun award for military films.
In 1967 Verhoeven married Martine Tours, with whom he had two daughters and Helen. When he left the Navy, Verhoeven took his skills to Dutch television. First, he made a documentary about Anton Mussert named Mussert, his first major success was the 1969 Floris television series. The concept of Floris was inspired by foreign series like Thierry La Fronde. Verhoeven's first feature film Business Is Business was not well received, his first national success came in 1973 with Turkish Delight, starring Rutger Hauer and Monique van de Ven. This film is based on a novel by bestselling Dutch author Jan Wolkers and tells the passionate love story of an artist and a young liberal girl from a conservative background; the film received an Academy Award nomination for Best Foreign Language Film in 1974. In 1999 the film won a Golden Calf for Best Dutch Film of the Century. Verhoeven's 1975 film Katie Tippel again featured Hauer and van de Ven, but it would not match the success of Turkish Delight. Verhoeven built on his reputation and achieved international success with his Golden Globe nominated film Soldier of Orange, starring Rutger Hauer and Jeroen Krabbé.
The film, based on a true story about the Dutch resistance in World War II, was written by Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema. Soldier of Orange received the 1979 LA Film Critics Award for best foreign language film, it was nominated for a Golden Globe in 1980. In 1980 Verhoeven made the film Spetters with Rutger Hauer; the story is sometimes compared to Saturday Night Fever, but the film has more explicit violence and sexuality, which are sometimes seen as the trademarks of Paul Verhoeven. Verhoeven's film The Fourth Man is a horror film starring Renée Soutendijk, it was written by Gerard Soeteman from a novel by the Dutch writer Gerard Reve. This film would be Verhoeven's last Dutch film production until the 2006 film Black Book. Gerard Soeteman wrote the scr
Braveheart is a 1995 epic war film directed, co-produced, starring Mel Gibson, who portrays William Wallace, a late 13th-century Scottish warrior. The film is fictionally based on the life of Wallace leading the Scots in the First War of Scottish Independence against King Edward I of England; the film stars Sophie Marceau, Patrick McGoohan and Catherine McCormack. The story is inspired by Blind Harry's epic poem The Actes and Deidis of the Illustre and Vallyeant Campioun Schir William Wallace and was adapted for the screen by Randall Wallace. Development on the film started at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer when producer Alan Ladd Jr. picked up the project from Wallace, but when MGM was going through new management, Ladd left the studio and took the project with him. Despite declining, Gibson decided to direct the film, as well as star as Wallace; the film was filmed in Ireland with a budget around $65 -- 70 million. Braveheart, produced by Gibson's Icon Productions and The Ladd Company, was distributed by Paramount Pictures in North America and by 20th Century Fox internationally.
Released on May 26, 1995, Braveheart received positive reviews from critics, who praised the performances, production values, battle sequences, musical score. The film grossed $210.4 million worldwide. At the 68th Academy Awards, the film was nominated for ten Academy Awards and won five: Best Picture, Best Director, Best Cinematography, Best Makeup, Best Sound Editing; the film's title is taken from the name of Wallace's famous broadsword, the movie's final shot is of that sword on the field at Bannockburn. In 1286, King Edward "Longshanks" invades and conquers Scotland following the death of Alexander III of Scotland, who left no heir to the throne. Young William Wallace witnesses Longshanks' treachery, survives the deaths of his father and brother, is taken abroad on a pilgrimage throughout Europe by his paternal Uncle Argyle, where he is educated. Years Longshanks grants his noblemen land and privileges in Scotland, including Prima Nocte. Meanwhile, a grown Wallace returns to Scotland and falls in love with his childhood friend Murron MacClannough, the two marry in secret.
Wallace rescues Murron from being raped by English soldiers, but as she fights off their second attempt, Murron is captured and publicly executed. In retribution, Wallace leads his clan to slaughter the English garrison in his hometown and send the occupying garrison at Lanark back to England. Longshanks orders his son Prince Edward to stop Wallace by any means necessary. Wallace rebels against the English, as his legend spreads, hundreds of Scots from the surrounding clans join him. Wallace leads his army to victory at the Battle of Stirling Bridge and destroys the city of York, killing Longshanks' nephew and sending his severed head to the king. Wallace seeks the assistance of Robert the Bruce, the son of nobleman Robert the Elder and a contender for the Scottish crown. Robert is dominated by his father, who wishes to secure the throne for his son by submitting to the English. Worried by the threat of the rebellion, Longshanks sends his son's wife Isabella of France to try to negotiate with Wallace as a distraction for the landing of another invasion force in Scotland.
After meeting him in person, Isabella becomes enamored of Wallace. She warns him of the coming invasion, Wallace implores the Scottish nobility to take immediate action to counter the threat and take back the country, asking Robert the Bruce to lead. Leading the English army himself, Longshanks confronts the Scots at Falkirk. There, noblemen Mornay and Lochlan turn their backs on Wallace after being bribed by the king. Wallace is further betrayed when he discovers Robert the Bruce was fighting alongside Longshanks. Wallace kills Lochlan and Mornay for their betrayal, wages a guerrilla war against the English for the next seven years, assisted by Isabella, with whom he has an affair. Robert sets up a meeting with Wallace in Edinburgh, but Robert's father has conspired with other nobles to capture and hand over Wallace to the English. Learning of his treachery, Robert disowns his father. Isabella exacts revenge on the now terminally ill Longshanks by telling him that his bloodline will be destroyed upon his death as she is now pregnant with Wallace's child.
In London, Wallace is brought before an English magistrate, tried for high treason, condemned to public torture and beheading. Whilst being hanged and quartered, Wallace refuses to submit to the king; as cries for mercy come from the watching crowd moved by the Scotsman's valor, the magistrate offers him one final chance, asking him only to utter the word, "Mercy", be granted a quick death. Wallace instead shouts, "Freedom!", the judge orders his death. Moments before being decapitated, Wallace sees a vision of Murron in the crowd. In 1314, now Scotland's king, leads a Scottish army before a ceremonial line of English troops on the fields of Bannockburn, where he is to formally accept English rule; as he begins to ride toward the English, he stops and invokes Wallace's memory, imploring his men to fight with him as they did with Wallace. Robert leads his army into battle against the stunned English, winning the Scots their freedom. Producer Alan Ladd Jr. had the project at MGM-Pathé Communications when he picked up the script from Wallace.
When MGM was going through new management in 1993, Ladd left the studio and took some of its top properties, including Braveheart. Gibson came
The Lord of the Rings (film series)
The Lord of the Rings is a film series of three epic fantasy adventure films directed by Peter Jackson, based on the novel The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien; the films are subtitled The Fellowship of The Two Towers and The Return of the King. They are a New Zealand-American venture, produced by WingNut Films and The Saul Zaentz Company and distributed by New Line Cinema; the trilogy was one of the biggest and most ambitious film projects undertaken, with a reported budget of $281–330 million. The three films were shot and in Jackson's native New Zealand. One in every 160 New Zealanders participated in the production. A special extended edition of each film was released on DVD a year after its theatrical release. While the films follow the book's general storyline, they omit some plot elements and include additions to and deviations from the source material. Set in the fictional world of Middle-earth, the films follow the hobbit Frodo Baggins as he and the Fellowship embark on a quest to destroy the One Ring, to ensure the destruction of its maker, the Dark Lord Sauron.
The Fellowship splits up and Frodo continues the quest with his loyal companion Sam and the treacherous Gollum. Meanwhile, heir in exile to the throne of Gondor, along with Legolas, Merry and the wizard Gandalf, unite to rally the Free Peoples of Middle-earth in the War of the Ring in order to aid Frodo by weakening Sauron's forces; the series was met with overwhelming praise. It was a major financial success, is among the highest-grossing film series of all time; each film was critically acclaimed and awarded, winning 17 out of their 30 Academy Award nominations. The series's final film, The Return of the King, won all 11 of its Academy Award nominations including Best Picture, tying with Ben-Hur and Titanic for the record of most Academy Awards won by a single film; the series received wide praise for its innovative visual effects. Director Peter Jackson first came into contact with The Lord of the Rings when he saw Ralph Bakshi's 1978 animated film The Lord of the Rings. Jackson "enjoyed the film and wanted to know more."
Afterwards, he read a tie-in edition of the book during a twelve-hour train journey from Wellington to Auckland when he was seventeen. In 1995, Jackson was finishing The Frighteners and considered The Lord of the Rings as a new project, wondering "why nobody else seemed to be doing anything about it". With the new developments in computer-generated imagery following Jurassic Park, Jackson set about planning a fantasy film that would be serious and feel real. By October, he and his partner Fran Walsh teamed up with Miramax Films boss Harvey Weinstein to negotiate with Saul Zaentz who had held the rights to the book since the early 1970s, pitching an adaptation of The Hobbit and two films based on The Lord of the Rings. Negotiations stalled when Universal Studios offered Jackson a remake of King Kong. Weinstein was furious, further problems arose when it turned out Zaentz did not have distribution rights to The Hobbit. By April 1996, the rights question was still not resolved. Jackson decided to move ahead with King Kong before filming The Lord of the Rings, prompting Universal to enter a deal with Miramax to receive foreign earnings from The Lord of the Rings while Miramax received foreign earnings from King Kong.
It was revealed that Jackson wanted to finish King Kong before The Lord of the Rings began. But due to location problems, he decided to start with The Lord of the Rings franchise instead; when Universal cancelled King Kong in 1997, Jackson and Walsh received support from Weinstein and began a six-week process of sorting out the rights. Jackson and Walsh asked Costa Botes to write a synopsis of the book and they began to re-read the book. Two to three months they had written their treatment; the first film would have dealt with what would become The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, the beginning of The Return of the King, ending with Saruman's death, Gandalf and Pippin going to Minas Tirith. In this treatment and Gandalf visit Edoras after escaping Saruman, Gollum attacks Frodo when the Fellowship is still united, Farmer Maggot, Radagast and Elrohir are present. Bilbo attends the Council of Elrond, Sam looks into Galadriel's mirror, Saruman is redeemed before he dies and the Nazgûl just make it into Mount Doom before they fall.
They presented their treatment to Harvey and Bob Weinstein, the latter of whom they focused on impressing with their screenwriting as he had not read the book. They agreed upon a total budget of $75 million. During mid-1997, Jackson and Walsh began writing with Stephen Sinclair. Sinclair's partner, Philippa Boyens, was a major fan of the book and joined the writing team after reading their treatment, it took 13 -- 14 months to write the two film scripts, which were 144 pages respectively. Sinclair left the project due to theatrical obligations. Amongst their revisions, Sam is caught eavesdropping and forced to go along with Frodo, as occurs in the original novel. In the final treatment Sam and Pippin infer the existence of One Ring and voluntarily go along after confronting Frodo about it. Gandalf's account of his time at Orthanc was pulled out of flashback and Lothlórien was cut, with Galadriel doing what she does in the story at Rivendell. Denethor attends the Council with his son. Other changes included having Arwen rescue Frodo, the action sequence involving the cave troll.
The writers considered having Arw
Speed (1994 film)
Speed is a 1994 American action thriller film directed by Jan de Bont in his feature film directorial debut. The film stars Keanu Reeves, Dennis Hopper, Sandra Bullock, Joe Morton, Alan Ruck, Jeff Daniels; the film tells the story of an LAPD cop who tries to rescue civilians on a city bus rigged with a bomb programmed to explode if the bus slows down below 50 mph. It became a sleeper hit and commercially successful, grossing $350.4 million on a $30 million budget and winning two Academy Awards, for Best Sound Editing and Best Sound Mixing, at the 67th Academy Awards in 1995. A critically panned sequel, Speed 2: Cruise Control, was released on June 13, 1997. Los Angeles Police Department SWAT officers Jack Traven and Harry Temple thwart an attempt to hold an elevator full of people for a $3 million ransom by a bomber, revealed to be named Howard Payne; as they corner Payne, he grabs Harry. Jack shoots Harry in the leg. Payne turns away. Jack and Harry awarded medals for bravery; some time Jack witnesses a city bus explode.
Payne, still alive, contacts Jack on a payphone, explaining that a similar bomb is rigged on another bus. The bomb will arm once the bus reaches 50 miles per hour and detonate when it drops below 50; the bomber demands a larger ransom of $3.7 million and threatens to detonate the bus if passengers are offloaded. Jack races through freeway traffic and boards the moving bus, over 50 mph, he explains the situation to the driver Sam, but a small-time criminal, fearing Jack is about to arrest him, fires his gun, accidentally wounding Sam. Another passenger, Annie Porter, takes the wheel. Jack examines the bomb under phones Harry, who uses clues to identify the bomber; the police clear a route for the bus to the unopened 105 freeway. Mac demands they offload the passengers onto a pacing flatbed truck, but Jack warns about Payne's instructions. Payne allows the officers to offload the injured Sam for medical attention, but detonates a smaller bomb which kills another passenger who attempts to escape; when Jack learns that part of the elevated freeway ahead is incomplete, he persuades Annie to accelerate the bus and jump the gap.
He directs her to the nearby Los Angeles International Airport to drive on the unobstructed runways. Meanwhile, Harry identifies Payne's name, his former role as a retired Atlanta bomb squad officer, his local Los Angeles address. Harry leads a SWAT team to Payne's home, but the house is rigged with explosives which go off, killing Harry and most of his team in the process. Jack rides under the bus on a towed sledge, but he cannot defuse the bomb, accidentally punctures the fuel tanks when the sledge breaks from its tow line. Once pulled back aboard by the passengers, Jack learns that Harry has died and that Payne has been watching the passengers on the bus with a hidden video camera. Mac has a local news crew record the transmission and rebroadcast it in a loop to fool Payne, while the passengers are offloaded onto an airport bus; the bus suffers a flat tire, forcing Annie to escape via a floor access panel. Out of fuel, the bus slows to 50 mph and explodes as it collides with an empty Boeing 707 cargo plane.
Jack and Mac head to Pershing Square to drop the ransom into a waste can. Realizing he has been fooled, Payne poses as the money. Jack follows them into the Metro Red Line subway, where Annie is wearing a vest covered with explosives rigged to a pressure-release detonator. Payne hijacks a subway train, handcuffs Annie to a pole, sets the train in motion while Jack pursues them. After killing the train driver, Payne attempts a bribe with the ransom money but is enraged when a dye pack in the money bag goes off, he and Jack fight on the roof of the train. Jack removes the vest from Annie. Realizing Payne killed the driver and shot the control panel at the same time, rendering the controls unusable, Jack accelerates the train, causing it to smash through an end-of-track construction site and burst onto Hollywood Boulevard before coming to a stop. Finished with the adventure and Annie share a kiss. Screenwriter Graham Yost was told by his father, Canadian television host Elwy Yost, about a film called Runaway Train starring Jon Voight, about a train that speeds out of control.
The film was based on an idea by Akira Kurosawa. Elwy mistakenly believed; such a theme had in fact been used in the 1975 Japanese film The Bullet Train. After seeing the Voight film, Graham decided that it would have been better if there had been a bomb on board a bus with the bus being forced to travel at 20 mph to prevent an actual explosion. A friend suggested; the film's end was inspired by the end of the 1976 film Silver Streak. Yost had named the film Minimum Speed reflecting on the plot element of the bus unable to drop below a speed, he realized that using "minimum" would apply a negative connotation to the title, renamed it to Speed. Yost's initial script would have the film occur with the bus. Upon finishing the script, Yost took his idea to Paramount Pictures, which expressed interest in green-lighting the film and chose John McTiernan due to his blockbuster films Predator, Die Hard, The Hunt for Red October. However, McTiernan decli
Mel Colmcille Gerard Gibson is an American actor and filmmaker. He is best known for his action hero roles, namely his breakout role as Max Rockatansky in the first three films in the Mad Max post-apocalyptic action series, as Martin Riggs in the Lethal Weapon buddy cop film series. Gibson was born in New York, he moved with his parents to Sydney, when he was 12 years old, studied acting at the National Institute of Dramatic Art, where he starred opposite Judy Davis in Romeo and Juliet. During the 1980s, he founded Icon Entertainment, a production company, which independent film director Atom Egoyan has called "an alternative to the studio system". Director Peter Weir cast him as one of the leads in the critically acclaimed World War I drama Gallipoli, which earned Gibson a Best Actor Award from the Australian Film Institute, as well as a reputation as a serious, versatile actor. Gibson produced and starred in the epic historical drama film Braveheart, for which he won the Golden Globe Award and Academy Award for Best Director, along with the Academy Award for Best Picture.
He directed and produced the financially successful, controversial, biblical drama film The Passion of the Christ. He received further critical notice for his directorial work of the action-adventure film Apocalypto, set in Mesoamerica during the early 16th century. After several legal issues and controversial statements leaked to the public, Gibson's public image plummeted, affecting his acting and directorial career, his career began seeing resurgence with his critically acclaimed performance in Jodie Foster's The Beaver, his directorial comeback after an absence of 10 years. Gibson was born in Peekskill, New York, the sixth of eleven children, the second son of Hutton Gibson, a writer, Irish-born Anne Patricia. Gibson's paternal grandmother was opera contralto Eva Mylott, born in Australia, to Irish parents, while his paternal grandfather, John Hutton Gibson, was a millionaire tobacco businessman from the American South. One of Gibson's younger brothers, Donal, is an actor. Gibson's first name is derived from Saint Mel, fifth-century Irish saint, founder of Gibson's mother's native diocese, while his second name, Colmcille, is shared by an Irish saint and is the name of the Aughnacliffe parish in County Longford where Gibson's mother was born and raised.
Because of his mother, Gibson retains dual American citizenship. Gibson is an Australian permanent resident. Gibson's father was awarded US$145,000 in a work-related-injury lawsuit against the New York Central Railroad on February 14, 1968, soon afterwards relocated his family to West Pymble, Australia. Mel was twelve years old at the time; the move to his grandmother's native Australia was for economic reasons, his father's expectation that the Australian Defence Forces would reject his eldest son for the draft during the Vietnam War. Gibson was educated by members of the Congregation of Christian Brothers at St Leo's Catholic College in Wahroonga, New South Wales, during his high school years. Gibson gained favorable notices from film critics when he first entered the cinematic scene, as well as comparisons to several classic movie stars. In 1982, Vincent Canby wrote that "Mr. Gibson recalls the young Steve McQueen... I can't define'star quality,' but whatever it is, Mr. Gibson has it." Gibson has been likened to "a combination Clark Gable and Humphrey Bogart."
Gibson's roles in the Mad Max series of films, Peter Weir's Gallipoli, the Lethal Weapon series of films earned him the label of "action hero". Gibson expanded into a variety of acting projects including human dramas such as Hamlet, comedic roles such as those in Maverick and What Women Want, he expanded beyond acting into directing and producing, with: The Man Without a Face, in 1993. Jess Cagle of Time compared Gibson with Cary Grant, Sean Connery, Robert Redford. Connery once suggested Gibson should play the next James Bond to Connery's M. Gibson turned down the role because he feared being typecast. Gibson studied at the National Institute of Dramatic Art in Sydney; the students at NIDA were classically trained in the British-theater tradition rather than in preparation for screen acting. As students and actress Judy Davis played the leads in Romeo and Juliet, Gibson played the role of Queen Titania in an experimental production of A Midsummer Night's Dream. After graduation in 1977, Gibson began work on the filming of Mad Max, but continued to work as a stage actor, joined the State Theatre Company of South Australia in Adelaide.
Gibson's theatrical credits include the character Estragon in Waiting for Godot, the role of Biff Loman in a 1982 production of Death of a Salesman in Sydney. Gibson's most recent theatrical performance, opposite Sissy Spacek, was the 1993 production of Love Letters by A. R. Gurney, in Telluride, Colorado. While a student at NIDA, Gibson made his film debut in the 1977 film Summer City, for which he was paid $400. Gibson played the title character in the film Mad Max, he was paid $15,000 for this role. Shortly after making the film he did a season with the South Australian Theatre Company. During this period he shared a $30 a week apartment in Adelaide with his future wife Robyn. After Mad Max, Gibson played a mentally slow youth in the film Tim. During this perio
Pulp Fiction is a 1994 American crime film written and directed by Quentin Tarantino. Starring John Travolta, Samuel L. Jackson, Bruce Willis, Tim Roth, Ving Rhames, Uma Thurman, it tells several stories of criminal Los Angeles; the film's title refers to the pulp magazines and hardboiled crime novels popular during the mid-20th century, known for their graphic violence and punchy dialogue. Tarantino wrote Pulp Fiction in 1992 and 1993, incorporating scenes that Avary wrote for True Romance, its plot occurs out of chronological order. The film is self-referential from its opening moments, beginning with a title card that gives two dictionary definitions of "pulp". Considerable screen time is devoted to monologues and casual conversations with eclectic dialogue revealing each character's perspectives on several subjects, the film features an ironic combination of humor and strong violence. TriStar Pictures turned down the script as "too demented". Miramax co-chairman Harvey Weinstein was enthralled and the film became the first that Miramax financed.
Pulp Fiction won the Palme d'Or at the 1994 Cannes Film Festival, was a major critical and commercial success. It was nominated for seven Oscars, including Best Picture, won Best Original Screenplay, its development, marketing and profitability had a sweeping effect on independent cinema. Pulp Fiction has been regarded as Tarantino's masterpiece, with particular praise for its screenwriting; the self-reflexivity, unconventional structure, extensive homage and pastiche have led critics to describe it as a touchstone of postmodern film. It is considered a cultural watershed, influencing movies and other media that adopted elements of its style. In 2008, Entertainment Weekly named it the best film since 1983 and it has appeared on many critics' lists of the greatest films made. In 2013, Pulp Fiction was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as "culturally or aesthetically significant". Pulp Fiction's narrative is told out of chronological order, follows three main interrelated stories: Mob contract killer Vincent Vega is the protagonist of the first story, prizefighter Butch Coolidge is the protagonist of the second, Vincent's partner Jules Winnfield is the protagonist of the third.
The film begins with a diner hold-up staged by a couple moves to the stories of Vincent and Butch. It returns to where it began, in the diner. There are a total of seven narrative sequences. Sequences 1 and 7 overlap and are presented from different points of view, as do sequences 2 and 6. According to Philip Parker, the structural form is "an episodic narrative with circular events adding a beginning and end and allowing references to elements of each separate episode to be made throughout the narrative". Other analysts describe the structure as a "circular narrative". Hitmen Jules Winnfield and Vincent Vega arrive at an apartment to retrieve a briefcase for their boss, gangster Marsellus Wallace, from an associate, Brett. After Vincent checks the contents of the briefcase, Jules shoots one of Brett's associates declaims a passage from the Bible before he and Vincent kill Brett for trying to double-cross Marsellus, they take the briefcase to Marsellus, but have to wait while he bribes champion boxer Butch Coolidge to take a dive in his upcoming match.
The next day, Vincent purchases heroin from his drug dealer, Lance. He shoots up drives to meet Marsellus's wife Mia, whom he had agreed to escort while Marsellus was out of town, they eat at a 1950s-themed restaurant and participate in a twist contest return home with the trophy. While Vincent is in the bathroom, Mia finds his heroin, mistakes it for cocaine, snorts it, overdoses. Vincent rushes her to Lance's house. Butch double-crosses wins the bout, accidentally killing his opponent. At the motel where he and his girlfriend Fabienne are lying low and preparing to flee, Butch discovers she has forgotten to pack his father's gold watch, a beloved heirloom, flies into a rage. Returning to his apartment to retrieve the watch, he notices a gun on the kitchen counter and hears the toilet flush. Vincent exits Butch shoots him dead; as Butch waits at a traffic light in his car, Marsellus spots him by chance and chases him into a pawnshop. The owner, captures them at gunpoint and ties them up in the basement.
Maynard is joined by a security guard. Butch knocks out the gimp, he decides to save Marsellus, returning with a katana from the pawnshop. He kills Maynard. Marsellus informs Butch that they are as long as he tells no one about the rape and departs Los Angeles forever. Butch picks up Fabienne on Zed's chopper. Earlier, after Vincent and Jules have executed Brett in his apartment, another man bursts out of the bathroom and shoots at them wildly, missing every time. Jules professe