click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

MUD

A MUD is a multiplayer real-time virtual world text-based. MUDs combine elements of role-playing games and slash, player versus player, interactive fiction, online chat. Players can read or view descriptions of rooms, other players, non-player characters, actions performed in the virtual world. Players interact with each other and the world by typing commands that resemble a natural language. Traditional MUDs implement a role-playing video game set in a fantasy world populated by fictional races and monsters, with players choosing classes in order to gain specific skills or powers; the objective of this sort of game is to slay monsters, explore a fantasy world, complete quests, go on adventures, create a story by roleplaying, advance the created character. Many MUDs were fashioned around the dice-rolling rules of the Dragons series of games; such fantasy settings for MUDs are common, while many others have science fiction settings or are based on popular books, animations, periods of history, worlds populated by anthropomorphic animals, so on.

Not all MUDs are games. MUDs have attracted the interest of academic scholars from many fields, including communications, sociology and economics. At one time, there was interest from the United States military in using them for teleconferencing. Most MUDs are free to players. MUDs can be accessed via standard telnet clients, or specialized MUD clients which are designed to improve the user experience. Numerous games are listed at various web portals, such as The Mud Connector; the history of modern massively multiplayer online role-playing games like EverQuest and Ultima Online, related virtual world genres such as the social virtual worlds exemplified by Second Life, can be traced directly back to the MUD genre. Indeed, before the invention of the term MMORPG, games of this style were called graphical MUDs. A number of influential MMORPG designers began as MUD developers and/or players or were involved with early MUDs. Colossal Cave Adventure, created in 1975 by Will Crowther on a DEC PDP-10 computer, was the first used adventure game.

The game was expanded in 1976 by Don Woods. Called Adventure, it contained many D&D features and references, including a computer controlled dungeon master. Numerous dungeon crawlers were created on the PLATO system at the University of Illinois and other American universities that used PLATO, beginning in 1975. Among them were "pedit5", "oubliette", "moria", "avathar", "krozair", "dungeon", "dnd", "crypt", "drygulch". By 1978–79, these games were in use on various PLATO systems, exhibited a marked increase in sophistication in terms of 3D graphics, user involvement, team play, depth of objects and monsters in the dungeons. Inspired by Adventure, a group of students at MIT in the summer of 1977 wrote a game for the PDP-10 minicomputer. Zork was ported, under the filename DUNGEN, to FORTRAN by a programmer working at DEC in 1978. In 1978 Roy Trubshaw, a student at the University of Essex in the UK, started working on a multi-user adventure game in the MACRO-10 assembly language for a DEC PDP-10.

He named the game MUD, in tribute to the Dungeon variant of Zork, which Trubshaw had enjoyed playing. Trubshaw converted MUD to BCPL, before handing over development to Richard Bartle, a fellow student at the University of Essex, in 1980; the game revolved around gaining points till one achieved the Wizard rank, giving the character immortality and special powers over mortals. MUD, better known as Essex MUD and MUD1 in years, ran on the University of Essex network, became more accessible when a guest account was set up that allowed users on JANET to connect on weekends and between the hours of 2 AM and 8 AM on weekdays, it became the first Internet multiplayer online role-playing game in 1980, when the university connected its internal network to ARPANet. The original MUD game was closed down in late 1987 under pressure from CompuServe, to whom Richard Bartle had licensed the game; this left MIST, a derivative of MUD1 with similar gameplay, as the only remaining MUD running on the University of Essex network, becoming one of the first of its kind to attain broad popularity.

MIST ran until the machine that hosted it, a PDP-10, was superseded in early 1991.1985 saw the origin of a number of projects inspired by the original MUD. These included Gods by Ben Laurie, a MUD1 clone that included online creation in its endgame, which became a commercial MUD in 1988. Neil Newell, an avid MUD1 player, started programming his own MUD called SHADES during Christmas 1985, because MUD1 was closed down during the holidays. Starting out as a hobby, SHADES became accessible in the UK as a commercial MUD via British Telecom's Prestel and Micronet networks. A scandal on SHADES led to the closure of Micronet, as described in Indra Sinha's

List of Quality Comics characters

Quality Comics was a comic book company from the Golden Age of Comic Books that sold many anthology comic books that starred superheroes, many of which were adopted by DC Comics when they purchased Quality Comics, others were not, entering the public domain. # 711 was published by Quality Comics. # 711 first lasted until # 15, when he was killed. Daniel Dyce was a District Attorney, an exact twin of his friend, Jacob Horn. Jacob was in prison, but wanted to see his wife give birth, so Daniel agreed to become a prisoner while Jacob was with his wife. However, Jacob is killed in a car crash on the way to the hospital, so Daniel was stuck in jail. Daniel was able to tunnel himself free; each night he uses his tunnel to go outside and fight crime returns before the morning. Dyce adopts a reference to his prisoner number. After two years of adventures Daniel Dyce was killed by the mobster Oscar Jones; the hero Destiny sees this take place, starts his crime fighting career when #711 died, replacing his feature in Police Comics.

Like many early comic book heroes, #711 did not wear a traditional costume but rather was modeled after the traditional pulp magazine heroes. He wore a green cape, a brown business suit, a wide-brimmed fedora which cast his eyes in shadow. #711's trademark was a calling card made of a mirror with bars painted over it. Following the Golden Age, many of the Quality Comics characters were purchased by DC Comics, while others lapsed into the public domain. DC has used #711 only once in their publications, a Millennium Edition reprint of his first appearance, she was an unnamed female criminal who first appeared in Modern Comics #101 and was an adversary of the Blackhawks. Black X or Black Ace is an espionage spy that first appeared in Feature Funnies #13, he starred in Smash Comics. Blue Tracer first appeared in Military Comics #1, it is the name of his super-vehicle, which can become a tank, airplane, or submarine. Blue Tracer first appeared in issues 1 through 16 of Military Comics; the character was acquired by DC, along with the rest of Quality Comics' properties in the 1950s.

However, the character had lapsed into public domain before that. The Blue Tracer has not been used by any company since his original publication, nor have his original adventures been reprinted, other than a Millennium Edition of his first appearance. Blue Tracer's origin story is told in his first appearance, in Military Comics #1. William "Wild Bill" Dunn is an American engineer working with the army in a secluded section of Ethiopia. While working, his team is attacked by a group of supernatural beings named the M'bujies; the M'bujies kill his teammates. Dunn is rescued by "Boomerang" Jones, an Australian soldier, given up for death and is now fighting his own private war against the Nazis. After Dunn regains his strength, the two men create a super-vehicle out of captured Nazi equipment that they name the Blue Tracer, it can become airplane, or submarine. They use it to destroy the M'bujies and escape the jungle; the two travel the world and fight the Axis forces during the rest of the war, with Dunn at the head and Jones as his sidekick.

The last appearance of the Blue Tracer was in Military Comics #16, according to the Grand Comics Database Neither Dunn nor Jones have any superpowers, but Dunn is a good fighter and skilled engineer. The Blue Tracer allows Dunn and Jones to travel on land, under the sea, in the air, it has many weapons, can deflect small arms fire easily. Magno appeared in Quality Comics from 1940 to 1956; the character was created by Paul Gustavson. His first appearance was in Smash Comics #13, he was one of the characters. However, the copyright on these comics expired before that. Aside from a brief appearance in All-Star Squadron, he hasn't been utilized in any significant way by DC Comics since. Tom Dalton was a lineman for an electric company until he was shocked and killed by 10,000 D. C. volts of electricity. He was brought back to life by a coworker, who used 10,000 A. C. volts. Tom Dalton became Magno, he was powered by the electricity that saved his life, he used it to fight crime with his magnetic and electrical abilities.

He sometimes had to recharge himself by touching exposed wires. He was featured in Smash Comics #13-21. In his fourth story, Magno was joined by a sidekick -- Davey, a young man with the powers of magnetic attraction and repulsion. Magno and Davey became partners, worked for the government on secret missions. Magno was contacted by Uncle Sam hours before the attack on Pearl Harbor to join the Freedom Fighters and defend the base. Magno accepted, died while fighting the Japanese, along with the other members of the Freedom Fighters. While most of the other members were revealed to have survived, Magno was not. Marmaduke was a funny animal character created by Ernie Hart in 1944 and was Quality Comics' third longest-running title behind Blackhawk and Plastic Man, he first appeared in Hit Comics #35 where he was a minor character for several issues receiving his own series in 1946 which ran for 65 issues, until December 1956. According to the Encyclopedia of Comic Books and Graphic Novels, the series "was, in the beginning, were solidly drawn and reasonably funny, but lacked a convincing sense of action and character."

Mouthpiece first appeared in Police Comics #1, along with the heroes Plast

Outline of commercial law

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to commercial law: Commercial law – body of law that governs business and commercial transactions. It is considered to be a branch of civil law and deals with issues of both private law and public law, it is called business law. Commercial law can be described as all of the following: Branch of law – law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. Companies law Corporate law Corporate governance Competition law Consumer protection Contract law Environmental law Intellectual property law Copyright law Patent law Trademark law International trade law Labour law European company law French company law German company law United Kingdom company law Unfair prejudice in United Kingdom company law Corporate law in Vietnam United States corporate law Legal aspects of computing Ecommerce Law Privacy law Property law Tax law Corporate lawyer History of companies History of company law in the United Kingdom Lex mercatoria Types of business entity Juristic person Company Corporate law Corporation Incorporation Delaware corporation Limited liability company Fiduciary Partnership Agency Escrow Trustee of a trust or executor of an estate.

Barak Eilam

Barak Eilam is the Chief Executive Officer of NICE Ltd. He became the CEO in 2014, after spending over 15 years with the company. Eilam played an influential part in evolving the strategic direction of the company, leading its transition into an enterprise software company; this was done through the sale of a number of subsidiaries to create a cloud and analytics focus. This was achieved through organic developments as well as acquisitions of a number of businesses based in the United States. Eilam's acquisition strategy has led the share price of NICE Ltd. to rise between 2014 and the present day. While CEO of NICE Ltd. Eilam has won multiple awards for his achievements including some in his country of Israel. Eilam studied at the Tel Aviv University, where he received a B. Sc. in Electrical Engineering. He attended INSEAD Management in France. Early in Eilam's career, he joined NICE Ltd. and became Vice President of the Interaction Analytics Group, an extension of NICE. He moved to the United States and became Head of Sales and the General Manager for the company's Enterprise Group in the Americas.

He served as President of NICE Americas, where he focused on expanding the customer base and regional reach of the company throughout the Americas. Eilam was announced as the CEO in 2014, he replaced Zeevi Bregman. Following the announcement, David Kustman as Chairman of the Board stated, "Barak has proven success in establishing business units and achieving results, has made a significant contribution to NICE's growth and success. During his career he has demonstrated a high ability to lead organizations, including product and sales teams, to introduce new technologies and foster innovation, his appointment points to the depth of the managerial avenue at NICE. I am confident that he is the right person to motivate NICE to realize the many opportunities in the market and to lead the company to continued growth in the coming years." When Eilam was announced as the CEO, many Israeli newspapers stated that NICE Ltd. was one of the largest Israeli companies to be floated on the NASDAQ. Eilam underwent a restructuring operation of the company, which led to selling various services and making a number of new acquisitions.

In 2015, the company sold a number of intelligence related services for $158 million to the firm Elbit Systems. Along with physical security division for $100 million; this led the company to acquire a number of companies based in the United States. This included inContact, based in Utah; the acquisition was the largest in the history of NICE Ltd. and repositioned the company. According to Fortune it allowed the company to focus more on mid-market, but on large financial companies to integrate their existing product range; the acquisition was for a total of $940 million. They acquired analytics firm Nexidia for $135 million during a similar period; this was seen by many in the media as Eilam further repositioning the company into the customer interaction analytics market. In late 2017, the company announced the acquisition of workforce analytical software provider, WorkFlex. Previous acquisitions such as Causata enabled NICE Ltd. to have a diversified portfolio of analytical products. The ongoing acquisitions and strategic realignment meant the stock price of the company grew by 27% between 2017 and 2018.

In 2018, it was rumored that Eilam and NICE Ltd. were considering an acquisition offer for Mattersight Corporation. The deal was completed that year for a total of $90 million; the company, a SaaS-based enterprise behavioral analytics software provider, became a subsidiary product offering of NICE Ltd. following the acquisition. During the same year, NICE Ltd. and Eilam posted a number of positive results regarding company growth. These results were focused on two products, CXone and X-Sight. Following the launch of CXone, the cloud business arm of the company grew its revenues by 29% during Q4 of 2018. During an earnings call, Eilam explained how X-Sight was growing in stature within the financial crime market. During this year, Eilam oversaw the integration of IFM-X into X-Sight, which would give clients an integrated fraud management suite, using machine learning to reduce the cost of operating a fraud management system. Since becoming the CEO of NICE Ltd. the company has posted strong financial results.

In the third quarter of 2018, it was announced that the financials were better than expected for the quarter. Cash held by the company reduced following the acquisition of Mattersight, but reached a market cap of $6.6 billion by the end of 2018, following a 25.5% rise in share price over the previous twelve months. This coincided with overall growth in revenue of 9% over the entire year. Towards the end of 2018, Eilam was interviewed on CNBC, speaking about the success of NICE Ltd. and the growth it has experienced over recent years. Eilam stated that since he had become CEO, the company had experienced a fivefold growth in a little over four years at the helm of the company. Eilam outlined a strategy on, he believed that by increasing the quality of analytics across all sectors of the business, for both internal and customer requirements, it would create more efficient software. He expected NICE Ltd. to reach a turnover of $2 billion in a short timeframe, with an operating margin of 30%. Globes - People of the Year, 22nd People & Computers magazine - CEO of the Year

Meigs' syndrome

Not to be confused with Meige syndrome or Meige diseaseIn medicine, Meigs' syndrome Meigs syndrome or Demons-Meigs syndrome, is the triad of ascites, pleural effusion, benign ovarian tumor. Meigs' syndrome resolves after the resection of the tumor; because the transdiaphragmatic lymphatic channels are larger in diameter on the right, the pleural effusion is classically on the right side. The causes of the ascites and pleural effusion are poorly understood. Atypical Meigs' syndrome, characterized by a benign pelvic mass with right-sided pleural effusion but without ascites, can occur; as in typical Meigs syndrome, pleural effusion resolves after removal of the pelvic mass. Meigs syndrome may mimic other conditions, since it is tumor arising from ovaries, pathology of any organs present in the abdomen may show a similar set of symptoms; these include various gynecological disorders of the uterus such as endometrial tumor, leiomyoma. Meigs syndrome is characterized by the presence of a benign solid ovarian tumor associated with ascites and right hydrothorax that disappear after tumor removal.

Non-gynecological manifestations include: ascites, portal vein obstruction, inferior vena cava obstruction, thoracic duct obstruction, amyloidosis, ovarian hyperstimulation, exudate pleural effusion, congestive heart failure, metastatic tumors to the peritoneal surfaces, collagen-vascular disease, cirrhosis of the liver. These entities must be clinically excluded. Clinical condition characterized by ovarian mass and right-sided pleural effusion. Ovarian malignancy and the other causes of pelvic mass and pleural effusion to be considered, History of early satiety, weight loss with increased abdominal girth, intermittent abdominal pain, nonproductive cough may help in differentiating potential local factor causing such symptoms. Treatment of Meigs' syndrome consists of thoracentesis and paracentesis to drain off the excess fluid, unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy or wedge resection to correct the underlying cause. Meigs' Syndrome is named for Joe Vincent Meigs

Bleien Radio Observatory

Bleien Radio Observatory is a radio astronomy observatory located halfway between Zurich and Bern in Switzerland. Its focus is on large bandwidth radio spectroscopy; the observatory is near the village of Bleien, 5 km south of Gränichen in the Canton of Aargau. The place is in a shallow valley, well protected against terrestrial interference; the observatory was built in 1979 by the Institute for Astronomy at ETH Zurich under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Arnold O. Benz. Since that time it consists of two parabolic antennae of 7 m and 5 m diameter separated by 100 m and a lab building containing the spectrometers and other electronics. For the first time, a digitized and remotely controlled receiver was used. Frequency-agile spectrometers were applied initially. Now digital filter banks and FFT spectrometers are in operation; the initial frequency range of 100 - 1000 MHz was enlarged to 10 MHz - 5 GHz. This range is the largest for solar radio observations since 2005. Starting in 2014, the observatory is being converted to observe preferentially non-solar radiation of extragalactic and cosmological origin.

The primary goal was the observation of radio emissions of solar flares. The most significant contribution was the classification at decimeter wavelength; the data are crucial for investigating the acceleration of energetic electrons in solar flares. The broad bandwidth was used to study non-solar radio emissions of gamma-ray bursts and to search for fast radio bursts, transients of extragalactic origin; the solar data since 1979 and the instrument descriptions are stored at the Institute of 4D Technologies at Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz FHNW in Windisch and are public. The Bleien Radio Observatory was the starting point of the international e-CALLISTO network that surveys solar activity and space weather 24 hours per day in radio waves