Future of the Royal Navy
At the beginning of the 1990s the Royal Navy was a force designed for the Cold War. The main purpose of its fleet, based around three small aircraft carriers and a force of anti-submarine frigates and destroyers, was to search for, destroy if required, Soviet submarines in the North Atlantic; the 1982 Falklands War demonstrated a requirement for the Royal Navy to maintain a global reach and expeditionary capability. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Royal Navy has been used to meet a wider range of objectives around the world, while experiencing a gradual reduction in the size of its surface and submarine fleets. Fixed-wing carrier operations ceased in 2010 with the retirement of the last Harrier GR7/GR9 aircraft; this capability will not be restored until the F-35 Joint Combat Aircraft and the first Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carrier become operational around 2020. Cuts have seen the sale of three Type 23 frigates in 2005 and 2006, the early decommissioning of four Type 22 frigates in 2010 and 2011.
Over the course of the 1990s and the 2000s, the Navy began a series of projects to improve its fleet, with a view to providing enhanced capabilities, although many programmes were reduced in scale. This led to the replacement of smaller and more numerous units with larger, units; the main examples of this are the replacement of twelve Type 42 destroyers with six Type 45 destroyers and the replacement of the three 20,000-tonne Invincible-class aircraft carriers with two 65,000-tonne Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers. As of February 2019, there are seven ships and submarines under construction, with a further seventeen planned. Early design and preparation work has begun on a fleet of at least five of the upcoming Type 31 frigates; the Royal Fleet Auxiliary will receive the final Tide-class tanker, presently being fitted out, in spring 2019. The following is a list of vessels planned, under construction or undergoing sea trials within the United Kingdom, destined for the Royal Navy: Note: "TBC" means "to be confirmed" The following is a list of vessels under construction or undergoing sea trials and destined for the Royal Fleet Auxiliary: In the 1998 Strategic Defence Review a requirement was laid out for a replacement for the Royal Navy's three Invincible-class light aircraft carriers.
The Invincible-class were designed as "through-deck cruisers", with each carrying a squadron of ASW helicopters, tasked with patrolling the North Atlantic in search of Soviet submarines. With the end of the Cold War, as well as events in the Falklands and the Persian gulf, the Royal Navy changed in emphasis from an ASW force into an expeditionary force with a need for fleet carriers; as a result, in 2009 BAE Systems began construction on the Queen Elizabeth-class, two 65,000 ton STOVL configured supercarriers. The primary weapons system of these ships will be the F-35B Joint Combat Aircraft; the lead ship, Queen Elizabeth, entered the water in July 2014, with sea trials in 2017, flight-deck trials in 2018 and interim operating capability expected by 2020. In September 2014 David Cameron announced that the second ship, Prince of Wales, will enter service alongside her sister-ship, ending years of uncertainty about her future. According to Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015, one of the carriers will be adapted towards amphibious operations after the navy's dedicated helicopter landing ship HMS Ocean was decommissioned in 2018.
In the 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review a replacement programme was authorized for the Navy's fleet of thirteen Type 23 frigates. In 2012, BAE Systems Naval Ships was awarded a contract to design the replacement, known as the Type 26 Global Combat Ship, it was planned that two variants of the class would be built: five general purpose frigates and eight anti-submarine warfare frigates. According to the current timeline, construction will begin in 2016, with the first Type 26 frigate commissioning in 2021 and the last commissioning in the mid-2030s whilst the Type 23s are phased out. Eight Type 26 frigates will be built initially; the five remaining ships will be covered by a new class of lighter, flexible general purpose frigate, known as the Type 31e frigate or General Purpose Frigate. According to the Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015, the lower cost of these frigates could lead to the Royal Navy acquiring more than five of them, thus increasing its numbers of frigates and destroyers.
In July 2016, BAE revealed namely the Avenger-class and the Cutlass-class. Work on the first Type 26 frigate, HMS Glasgow, began in July 2017. On 6 September 2017, the UK government committed to building a first batch of five Type 31e frigates. On 26 July 2018 the Government ‘paused’ the procurement citing the fact that neither of the submissions met the £250M price point, it stated. On 10 December 2018, three groups were selected for the competitive design phase: BAE Systems/Cammell Laird with their planned Leander design, Babcock/BMT/Thales with their Arrowhead 140 design and Atlas Elektronik UK/Thyssenkrup Marine Systems, to be based on the MEKO A-200 design. In November 2013 it was announced that to sustain the UK shipbuilding base, for defence-related reasons, three new offshore patrol vessels with Merlin-capable flight-decks are to be built. In August 2014, BAE Systems was awarded a £ 348 million contract to build the new class; the vessels will be larger than the River class and
Minnesota United FC
Minnesota United FC is an American professional soccer club based in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul area that plays in the Western Conference of Major League Soccer. The club began play in 2017 as the league's 22nd club, replaced the North American Soccer League franchise of the same name; the club played its home games at TCF Bank Stadium, on the campus of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, for its first two seasons in MLS play. The club began playing in Saint Paul, at Allianz Field in the Midway neighborhood starting in the spring of 2019. Minnesota United FC's ownership is led by Bill McGuire, former CEO of UnitedHealth Group, includes other Minnesota sports owners: the Pohlad family, owners of the Twins. On March 25, 2015, Major League Soccer commissioner Don Garber announced Minnesota United as the league's 23rd club and awarded the franchise to a group led by McGuire; the ownership group includes other Minneapolis-St. Paul sports owners, Twins owner Jim Pohlad, Timberwolves owner Glen Taylor, Wild investor Glen Nelson.
They beat out a competing bid by Zygi Wilf. Garber said Minnesota would begin play in 2017 or 2018 – if Los Angeles FC is not ready to play in 2017, Minnesota would take its place; the Minnesota Legislature had passed a bill in May 2012 for a new NFL stadium projected to open by fall 2016 and gave a provision allowing for the Vikings to pursue an MLS franchise, including a five-year exclusive window to host MLS games in the new stadium. The Wilfs' bid had the support of Minneapolis Mayor Betsy Hodges, Minnesota Senator Tom Bakk called Major League Soccer to inform them that the state legislature would not be providing financing for a soccer-specific stadium. However, Commissioner Garber said that whenever possible, the league preferred a stadium that would be an "outdoor, soccer-specific stadium, 20,000 seats, playing on grass" as opposed to larger, covered venues with artificial turf like U. S. Bank Stadium, McGuire had the support of Hennepin County Commissioner Mike Opat and at least three members of the Minneapolis City Council.
The team played their inaugural Major League Soccer match on March 3, 2017, a 5–1 away defeat to the Portland Timbers at Providence Park. The result represented the heaviest defeat by an expansion side making their debut. No MLS expansion team had lost by more than two goals in their first game. Christian Ramirez scored the team's first MLS goal; the following weekend they played their home opener against fellow expansion team Atlanta United FC in a snowstorm with an MLS record-low kickoff temperature of 19 °F. They lost the game 6–1, handing Minnesota more unwanted records including the record defeat of any expansion side and becoming the only team in MLS history to concede five or more in consecutive games. Following a 2–2 draw at the Colorado Rapids and a 5–2 loss at New England Revolution, United had conceded 18 goals in their first four games, an MLS record through the first six games of a season; the team got its first win in MLS with a 4–2 home victory over Real Salt Lake on April 1. As the season progressed, so had the team.
In the mid season, Minnesota had acquired native Ethan Finlay from Columbus and had made other signings to improve on the field. United at the end of the season had finished ninth in the conference. On December 7, 2018, Minnesota United announced a one-year affiliation agreement with USL League One club Forward Madison FC. McGuire stated a desire to build an 18,500-seat, outdoor soccer-specific stadium next to the Minneapolis Farmers Market in downtown Minneapolis. At the time of the club's launch, the league did not give any timeline for the stadium plan, but said it was working on finalizing a plan by July 1, 2015, the deadline set by the league. Minnesota Governor Mark Dayton said he would oppose a publicly financed stadium, but said he would not oppose ancillary support for infrastructure reinforcements. In a plan released in April 2015, the ownership showed a projected cost for the stadium of $250 million: $100 million for MLS expansion fee, $30 million for land acquisition, $120 million for construction.
The ownership group met with Governor Dayton and other state political leaders to share the plan. The group asked the politicians for a sales tax exemption of up to $3 million on construction materials, as well as breaks or caps on city and county property taxes for the stadium site; the tax relief could add up to around $50 million. The day after the meeting, Mayor Hodges said she opposed the sales tax and property tax exemption because unlike other stadiums in Minneapolis that have received similar breaks, Minnesota United's stadium would be owned; the following week, the Minnesota Senate voted 61–4 to prevent any state funds or tax expenditures from being used for the stadium, although the vote was termed "largely symbolic" as McGuire had not asked for state funds and the bill would not prevent the team from seeking city or county funds. McGuire said that he would be open to signing the property over to Minneapolis, Hennepin County, or another public entity if that would make property tax exemption possible.
Although the July 1 deadline passed without a stadium deal, the plan for a Downtown Minneapolis stadium was the primary reason for choosing McGuire's group, league deputy commissioner Mark Abbott said Minnesota was still considered an expansion site because of interest from the neighboring St. Paul; that month, St. Paul mayor Chris Coleman spoke to Abbott proposed building on a city-owned vaca
Maidenhead United F.C.
Maidenhead United Football Club is a semi-professional football club based in Maidenhead, England. They are members of the National League, the fifth tier of English football, have played at York Road since 1871, making it the'oldest senior football ground continuously used by the same club'. Maidenhead Football Club was established in October 1870, with the club's first match played on 17 December 1870 against Windsor Home Park at Bond's Meadow, they were one of the fifteen clubs to play in the inaugural FA Cup competition in 1871–72, beating Marlow 2–0 in the first round before losing 3–0 at Crystal Palace. The club reached the quarter finals the following season losing 4–0 to Oxford University; the club were quarter-finalists again in 1873–74 – losing 7–0 at Royal Engineers – and 1874–75, when they were beaten 1–0 at Old Etonians. Maidenhead Temperance and Boyne Hill both merged into the club in 1891. Maidenhead were founder members of the Southern League in 1894, joining Division Two, they finished bottom of the division in its inaugural season and again in 1898–99 and 1899–1900, before leaving the league in 1902.
The club subsequently dropped into the Berks and Bucks League. They won the West Berkshire League at the first attempt and were runners-up in 1903–04, before joining the new Great Western Suburban League alongside Maidenhead Norfolkians in 1904. Following a meeting in April 1919 Maidenhead Norfolkians merged into the club, after which the club colours were changed from black and red stripes to black and white, they won the Great Western Suburban League in 1919–20, after which the club was renamed Maidenhead United. The club were runners-up in the Great Western Suburban League in 1920–21, before joining Division One of the Spartan League in 1922, they won the Division One title in 1926–27, before being placed in Division One West in 1928 amidst league reorganisation. The club were Division One West runners-up in 1928–29 before being placed in the Premier Division the following season. Maidenhead were Premier Division runners-up in 1930–31 and went on to win the league the following season. Although the club finished in the bottom half of the table in 1932–33, they won the Premier Division title for a second time in 1933–34.
In 1935 -- 36 they reached the semi-finals of the FA Amateur Cup. After the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the club joined the Great Western Combination, finishing as runners-up in 1944–45, they joined the newly formed Corinthian League. The club were league champions the following season. In 1960–61 they reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time since the formation of the Football League, losing 5–0 at Colchester United. After winning the league again in 1960–61, they won the league and Memorial Shield double in 1961–62. Another FA Cup first round appearance followed in 1962–63, ending with a 3–0 defeat at home to Wycombe Wanderers. In 1963 the Corinthian League merged into the Athenian League, with Maidenhead becoming members of the Premier Division. In their first season in the new league the club reached the first round of the FA Cup again, losing 2–0 at home to Bath City. A fourth FA Cup first round appearance in 1971–72 saw them lose 2–0 at Enfield. In 1973 the club joined Division Two of the Isthmian League, renamed Division One in 1977.
They were relegated to Division Two South at the end of the 1986–87 season, where they remained until finishing as runners-up in 1990–91, earning promotion back to Division One. In 1996–97 the club won the league's Full Members Cup. A third-place finish in Division One in 1999–2000 saw Maidenhead promoted to the Premier Division. In 2003–04 they finished twelfth in the Premier Division, earning a place in the new Conference South. However, after finishing bottom of the division in 2005–06, the club were relegated to the Premier Division of the Southern League; the following season saw them reach the FA Cup first round for the first time since the 1970s, losing 2–0 at Stafford Rangers in a replay. Another FA Cup first round appearance in 2007–08 ended with a 4–1 defeat at Horsham, they reached the first round again in 2011–12 and 2015–16. In 2016–17 Maidenhead won the renamed National League South, earning promotion to the National League, they earned 98 points, 2 more than professional Ebbsfleet United.
In their first season in the division, another FA Cup first round appearance saw them lose 2–0 at Coventry City. The club played their first home match at Bond's Meadow, before moving to York Road in 1871, with the first match at the new ground played on 16 February 1871 against Marlow. York Road had been a cricket ground from the late eighteenth century, is acknowledged as the "oldest senior football ground continuously used by the same club"; the freehold of the ground was bought in 1920. The club's record attendance of 7,920 was set for an FA Amateur Cup quarter-final against Southall on 7 March 1936, with Maidenhead winning 1–0; as of 12 March 2019. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. National League National League South champions 2016–17 Isthmian Le
Maidstone United F.C.
Maidstone United Football Club is a professional English football club based in Maidstone, Kent. They compete in the National League, the fifth tier of English football; the current club filled the void left by the old Maidstone United, a member of The Football League between 1989 and 1992. That club was forced out of the league through bankruptcy but the nucleus of a new club was built around the youth squad. Maidstone Invicta were a youth team but made the step up to adult football in 1992 being elected to the Kent County League Fourth Division in 1993 and subsequently progressed through the non-league pyramid, they changed their name to Maidstone United in 1995. They played in the Isthmian League Premier Division from 2013 having been promoted from the Isthmian League Division One South and won the league in the 2014–15 season to gain promotion to the National League South for the 2015–16 season. Maidstone gained a second successive promotion to the National League in 2016, bringing fifth-tier football back to the town for the first time since the old club was promoted to the Football League in 1989.
Maidstone were without a stadium of their own from their creation until 2012 when the Gallagher Stadium, located near Maidstone town centre, was opened at the start of the 2012–13 season. Maidstone Invicta were a youth club and were'taken over' within days of the Football League side folding. However, the lack of a suitable ground meant the club was relegated seven divisions to the basement of the footballing pyramid and joined the Fourth Division of the Kent County League for the 1993–94 season; the club's home games took place on the original Maidstone's reserve and training pitch, next to the original London Road Stadium. Jim Thompson ran the club, but was banned from football for his part in the demise of Maidstone and Dartford and Paul Bowden-Brown took over as Chairman – a position he retained until 2010; the newly created Kent County League side was formed with the nucleus of the original club's youth team – and comfortably won the Fourth Division of the County League under the stewardship of Jack Whitely and Bill Tucker in the 1993–94 season.
They managed to win the West Kent Challenge Shield and the Tunbridge Wells Charity Cup. During the close season of 1994 the club managed to gain promotion to Division 2 of the league after restructuring; the club went on picking up the Kent Junior Cup on the way. However, the Stones, who had returned to their original guise of Maidstone United in 1997, took four years and six managers before winning promotion to the Kent County League Premier Division with former Stones player turned manager Jason Lillis leading the club to the Division One title; the 1999–2000 season saw Maidstone's début season in the Premier Division, with the team finishing in a respectable third place. The next season saw the club, now managed by another former Maidstonian in Matt Toms apply to become a senior club and finish second in the league; these factors now left. The club's application was accepted and the Stones started the 2001–2002 season in the Kent League. However, the club's ground in Maidstone was nowhere near Kent League standards so the Stones agreed to share Sittingbourne's Central Park stadium while trying to overcome various legal obstacles in the way of a move to a new ground in the town at James Whatman Way.
In its first Kent League season since reformation, Maidstone won the Kent League and Cup double under the management of Jim Ward. However, the club could not gain promotion to the Southern League Eastern Division because of problems with the lease on Central Park; the lease problems were not solved and during the 2002 close season both Sittingbourne and Maidstone moved out of Central Park to a new ground, named Bourne Park, built on the same complex using the old training pitch. The 2002–03 season saw Maidstone enter the FA Cup for the first time since reformation, the club was featured on BBC Sport's'Road to Cardiff'; the club reached the 2nd qualifying round of the cup, with the highlight of the run coming in the form of a 3–2 win against old foes Tonbridge Angels, with Steve Butler bagging a hat-trick against the Southern League East outfit. In the league, the Stones looked destined to win a second successive title but after a poor run-in, coupled with the withdrawal from the league of Faversham Town, the club bizarrely lost the championship by 0.14 of a point.
The Stones did pick up some silverware that season, winning both the Kent Senior Trophy and the Kent Charity Cup, but this was overshadowed by continuing lease problems, which meant another attempt to gain promotion to the Southern League was knocked back. The years 2003 till 2005 contained two indifferent seasons on the pitch at least. Both campaigns saw the club finish 4th in the league, although this disappointment was offset somewhat by reaching the third qualifying round of the FA Cup in successive years. Off the pitch, the club took a huge step forward when in November 2004 it applied for planning permission to build a new stadium at James Whatman Way. However, construction of the stadium could not begin until a lease for the site was agreed
Muangthong United F.C.
Muangthong United Football Club is a Thai professional football club based in Muang Thong Thani, Nonthaburi Province. The club plays in the Thai League 1. Muangthong United has participated in the Thai Premier League since 2009 after having won the Thai Division 1 League title in 2008. Muangthong United is one of the richest football clubs in Thailand; the club is known as The Kirins or The Twin Qilins. The club was founded in 1989; the first name registered with Football Association of Thailand was "Norgjorg Pittayanusorn Football Club". The club was founded by Worawi Makudi, the club race from Ngor Royal Cup, the smallest cup. In Thailand Football League Division 1 season 2002–2003, The club was renamed to "FC Norgjorg Black Pearl" by the former politician Veera Musikapong to make the team, but the team had just one season and was unsuccessful so he stopped by leaving the team and the club still remained in the League Division; the next season of the Thailand League Division 1 in 2003–2004 the team was renamed once again as a group, done the team as FC Globlex Norgjorg by Somsak Chenchaowanich who signed as the new team manager.
That year, the team performed poorly. It must be relegated to play in Ngor Royal Cup in season 2004–2005 by returning to its original name but it was not as successful as it should; the Football Association wants to raise the level of league competition in Thailand so they established Thailand Division 2 League with a team led by Kho Royal Cup and Khor Royal Cup are mixed together to compete in the league this season which Norgjorg Pittayanusorn Football Club eligible entrants. In 2007 Siam Sport Syndicate by Rawi Lohtong the president of Siam Sport Syndicate bought the club and changed the name to Muangthong United F. C. and moved to a new ground at Muang Thong Thani called Thunderdome Stadium. The club's first success was winning the first place in the 2007 Season of the Thailand Division 2 League. From here, they were promoted to the Thai Division 1 League; the team was promoted to the Thai League 1 in the 2009 season so everyone praised Muangthong United in that season as "3 Years 3 Champs".
The club was promoted to play in the Thai Premier League in 2009, after it won the title for the Division one. In the 2009 season, the club had many notable players in the country. Despite a successful start to the season, they pledged in April 2009 with Attaphol Buspakom a new coach. For the summer break, the association is, as expected by all experts, among the top five of the table and plays for the championship. One factor contributing to the club's success is its close relationship with Belgian club Lierse, the acquisition of Thai star player Teeratep Winothai and Ronnachai Rangsiyo, the striker from PEA FC. Together with Teerasil Dangda, the club now has some of the most talented strikers in the country in its ranks. In 2010, Attaphol Buspakom was sacked following a string of unsuccessful results, was replaced by Belgian René Desaeyere, who managed Muangthong for two seasons. Under his leadership, Muangthong qualified for the 2010 AFC Champions League, they beat SHB Đà Nẵng from Vietnam 0–3 but lost out to Singapore Armed Forces on penalties after the game ended in a 1–1 draw.
They were eligible to play for the 2010 AFC Cup. They reached the semi-final round but lost to Al-Ittihad from Syria 2–1. In the 2010 Thai Premier League, they lost just three games out of 30, with seven draws, good enough to capture the league title for the second time. Dagno Siaka was the club's top scorer for in 2010 with 15 goals. At the start of the season Muangthong United signed former Liverpool player Robbie Fowler to a one-year contract. Muangthong United participated in the 2011 AFC Champions League play off rounds, they lost on penalties after the game ended in a 2 -- 2 draw. They were eligible to play for the 2011 AFC Cup, coming first in the group stage of the tournament. In their first match of the round of 16 they beat Al Ahed from Lebanon 4–0 but went on to lose to Kuwait SC in the quarter-finals round 1–0. After their tournament exit Henrique Calisto, the clubs manager, was sacked and Fowler took over as player/coach of Muangthong United. In 2011 Thai Premier League Muangthong United finished the season in third place in Thai league.
For the 2010–11 season and Teerasil Dangda is top score for club in 2011 season by 13 goals. After Fowler's contract expired, Muangthong United signed a contract with Serbia coach Slaviša Jokanović. During the pre-season, Muangthong United signed on many famous players such as Mario Gjurovski, Ri Kwang-Chon, Adnan Barakat, Mongkol Namnuad, the young player that crowned as best younger of Thailand etc. In this season, the club did not play in AFC Cup. Therefore, it tried to do the best in 2012 Thai League Cup, but they lost to TOT 3–4 and 2012 Thai FA Cup they lost to Army United 3–2, but they can win the 2012 Thai Premier League is a third of the club and Muangthong United became the first team in Thai Premier League to go the season unbeaten in the current 34-game format. In 2012, thumb Muangthong engaged an unbeaten run which lasted the whole season, Teerasil scored four goals in a single match, an 8–1 routing over BBCU on 18 October. Ten days he scored in a 2–2 draw against BEC Tero, a goal which granted the title, took his tally to 24 goals and broke the previous record of Ronnachai Sayomchai in 1998.
After his impressive goal tally in the season, Teerasil was invited by La Liga sides Atlético Madrid and Getafe for a trial, but as the former was a Muangthong partner, he headed to Atlético Madrid in January 2013. Not having won any trophies for three seasons in a row, the club started a campaign called "The Dream Te
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela known as Winnie Mandela, was a South African anti-apartheid activist and politician, the ex-wife of Nelson Mandela. She served as a Member of Parliament from 1994 to 2003, from 2009 until her death, was a deputy minister of arts and culture from 1994 to 1996. A member of the African National Congress political party, she served on the ANC's National Executive Committee and headed its Women's League. Madikizela-Mandela was known to her supporters as the "Mother of the Nation". Born to a Mpondo family in Bizana, a qualified social worker, she married anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela in Johannesburg in 1958. In 1963, after Mandela was imprisoned following the Rivonia Trial. During that period, she rose to prominence within the domestic anti-apartheid movement, she was detained by apartheid state security services on various occasions, subjected to banning orders, banished to a rural town, spent several months in solitary confinement. In the mid-1980s Madikizela-Mandela exerted a "reign of terror", was "at the centre of an orgy of violence" in Soweto, which led to condemnation by the anti-apartheid movement in South Africa, a rebuke by the ANC in exile.
During this period, her home was burned down by residents of Soweto. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission established by Nelson Mandela's government to investigate human rights abuses found Madikizela-Mandela to have been "politically and morally accountable for the gross violations of human rights committed by the "Mandela United Football Club", her security detail. Madikizela-Mandela was accused of endorsing the necklacing of alleged police informers and apartheid government collaborators, her security detail carried out kidnapping and murder, most notoriously the killing of 14-year-old Stompie Sepei whose kidnapping she was convicted of. Nelson Mandela was released from prison on 11 February 1990, the couple separated in 1992, she visited him during his final illness. As a senior ANC figure, she took part in the post-apartheid ANC government, although she was dismissed from her post amid allegations of corruption. In 2003, she was convicted of fraud, she temporarily withdrew from active politics before returning several years later.
Madikizela-Mandela's Xhosa name was Nomzamo. She was born in the village of Mbongweni,Bizana, Pondoland, in what is now the Eastern Cape province, she was the fifth of seven sisters and a brother. Her parents and Gertrude, who had a white father and Xhosa mother, were both teachers. Columbus was a history teacher and a headmaster, Gertrude was a domestic science teacher. Gertrude died when Winnie was nine years old, resulting in the break-up of her family when the siblings were sent to live with different relatives. Madikizela-Mandela went on to become the head girl at her high school in Bizana. Upon leaving school, she went to Johannesburg to study social work at the Jan Hofmeyr School of Social Work, she earned a degree in social work in 1956, several years earned a bachelor's degree in international relations from the University of the Witwatersrand. She held a number of jobs in various parts of what was the Bantustan of Transkei, her first job was as a social worker at Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto.
She met the lawyer and anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela in 1957, when he was still married to Evelyn Mase. She was 22 years old and standing at a bus stop in Soweto when Mandela first saw her and charmed her, securing a lunch date the following week; the couple married in 1958 and had two daughters and Zindziwa. Mandela was arrested and jailed in 1963, was not released until 1990; the couple separated in 1992. They finalised their divorce in March 1996 with an unspecified out-of-court settlement. During the divorce hearing, Nelson Mandela rejected Madikizela-Mandela's assertion that arbitration could salvage the marriage, cited her infidelity as a cause of the divorce, saying "... I am determined to get rid of the marriage", her attempt to obtain a settlement up to US$5million — half of what she claimed her ex-husband was worth — was dismissed when she failed to appear in court for a settlement hearing. When asked in a 1994 interview about the possibility of reconciliation, she said: "I am not fighting to be the country's First Lady.
In fact, I am not the sort of person to carry beautiful flowers and be an ornament to everyone."Madikizela-Mandela was involved in a lawsuit at the time of her death, claiming that she was entitled to Mandela's homestead in Qunu, through customary law, despite her divorce from Nelson Mandela in 1996. Her case was dismissed by the Mthatha High Court in 2016, she was preparing to appeal to the Constitutional Court at the time of her death, after failing at the Supreme Court of Appeal in January 2018. Winnie Mandela emerged as a leading opponent of apartheid during the latter part of her husband's imprisonment. Due to her political activities, she was detained by the National Party government, she was subjected to house arrest, kept under surveillance and banished to the remote town of Brandfort. Her longest jailing was for 491 days, beginning on May 12, 1969, at Pretoria Central Prison, where she spent months in solitary confinement, was tortured and beaten. By her own account, Winnie Mandela's
Urawa Red Diamonds
Urawa Red Diamonds, colloquially Urawa Reds, are a professional association football club playing in Japan's football league, J1 League. The name Red Diamonds alludes to the club's pre-professional era parent company Mitsubishi; the corporation's logo consists of three red diamonds, one of which remains within the current club badge. Its hometown is the city of Saitama in Saitama Prefecture, but its name comes from the former city of Urawa, now a part of Saitama City. Shin-Mitsubishi Heavy Industries established a football club in 1950 in Kobe and moved the club to Tokyo in 1958. In 1965 it formed the Japan Soccer League along with today's Sanfrecce Hiroshima, JEF United Ichihara Chiba, Kashiwa Reysol, Cerezo Osaka and three other clubs who have since been relegated to regional leagues. Mitsubishi first won the JSL championship as a break in Mazda/Sanfrecce's dominance. In 1990 they were promoted as JSL 2 champions, thus were ready when the J-League implementation began in earnest. Mitsubishi were the first Japanese club to complete a domestic treble, when in 1978 they won the title, the Emperor's Cup and the Japan Soccer League Cup.
The club has enjoyed mixed fortunes since the J-League advent. The club finished bottom of the league for the first two seasons of the J-League with an average crowd of under 15,000. In 1999 they suffered relegation to the second tier of Japanese football yet again; the team has since improved in form in recent years, starting with a 2003 victory in the Nabisco Cup. In 2006 Urawa clinched their first professional league title by defeating runners-up Gamba Osaka 3–2 on December 2 before 63,000 supporters; this came after two close calls in the previous two years. In 2005, they finished one point behind champions Gamba Osaka. In 2004, they won the second stage. Having qualified for the two-match J. League Championship decider, they lost on penalty kicks to Yokohama F. Marinos. Urawa were back to back Emperor's Cup winners in 2005 and 2006. Winning the title for the first time since establishment as a professional team, they defeated Shimizu S-Pulse 2–1 on January 1, 2006, retained the title in 2007 with a 1–0 win over Gamba Osaka.
This win completed a league-cup double. In the 2007 tournament they were defeated at the first hurdle by J2 outfit Ehime FC. In 2007, despite a unassailable lead of seven points with four games remaining, Urawa picked up only two points from their final four games; this run included losing at home to Kashima Antlers. League title. Following their capitulation in the fourth round of the Emperor's Cup to J2 outfit Ehime FC, Urawa had to be content with their 2007 Asian Champions League title. Urawa recorded their first international title after overcoming Iranian team Sepahan F. C. 3–1 on aggregate. The victory made them the first Japanese side to win the title since the competition was reorganised from the Asian Champions Cup in 2003. In the Club World Cup of the same year, Urawa became the first AFC team to finish in third place, beating Tunisian Étoile Sportive du Sahel side on penalty kicks in the third / fourth place play off. In 2008, Urawa attempted to win their second consecutive Asian Champions League title and progressed to the semi finals where they were defeated by fellow J-League rivals, eventual Champions League winners, Gamba Osaka 3–1 on aggregate.
On March 8, 2014, a banner which read "JAPANESE ONLY" was hung at one of the entrances to the stands. As punishment for this racist behavior, the March 23rd match was played in an empty stadium; the club is notable in that former Feyenoord midfielder Shinji Ono began his professional career playing for Urawa. Ono returned for the 2006 season for a second stint with the club. Urawa is affiliated with German club FC Bayern Munich, whose nickname is "The Reds". Karl-Heinz Rummenigge, the chairman of the FC Bayern Munich, announced that "We have been looking for clubs which have potential ability, management stability and cordial confidence. We could fulfill the desire to affiliate with this great club, Urawa Reds." Some other foreign clubs, such as Arsenal F. C. Club Atlético Independiente, Clube de Regatas do Flamengo, VfB Stuttgart, Manchester United F. C. Feyenoord, Hamburger SV and Perth Glory FC, visited Japan and played friendly games at the Saitama Stadium. In August 2004, Urawa appeared in a pre-season four-team friendly tournament, the Vodafone Cup, at Old Trafford, the home of Manchester United.
The Japanese club, missing key players, lost their first game 5–2 against the Argentinian side Boca Juniors. The second fixture against the hosts, Manchester United, was called off due to a massive electric storm; some 800 Urawa fans had travelled to the game and were compensated. The club's supporters have an unofficial relationship with Shanghai Shenhua; the clubs' supporters will support each other in continental competition. For example, Shenhua fans will support Urawa when Urawa plays in Shanghai against Shanghai SIPG. Since the establishment of J. League in 1992, the team had used tracked Urawa Komaba Stadium as its home stadium. Due to the increasing popularity of the matches, Saitama City, owner of the stadium, expanded the seat capacity some times; the team used Ōmiya Park Soccer Stadium. In spite of the poor performance of the team, the stadium was filled with faithful supporters, drawing an average audience of twenty thousand people. In October 2001, Saitama Prefecture built new football-specific Saitam