Open-source software is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. Open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration. Open-source software development generates an more diverse scope of design perspective than any company is capable of developing and sustaining long term. A 2008 report by the Standish Group stated that adoption of open-source software models have resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year for consumers. In the early days of computing and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve the field of computing; the open-source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years 1970-1980. However, academics still developed software collaboratively. For example Donald Knuth in 1979 with the TeX typesetting system or Richard Stallman in 1983 with the GNU operating system.
In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free-software principles. The paper received significant attention in early 1998, was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software; this source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey, Mozilla Firefox and KompoZer. Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundation's free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry, they concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code. The new term they chose was "open source", soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, others; the Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles.
While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves threatened by the concept of distributed software and universal access to an application's source code. A Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that "open source is an intellectual property destroyer. I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business." However, while Free and open-source software has played a role outside of the mainstream of private software development, companies as large as Microsoft have begun to develop official open-source presences on the Internet. IBM, Oracle and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today's competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS; the free-software movement was launched in 1983. In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open-source software as an expression, less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world.
Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition; the most prominent and popular example is the GNU General Public License, which "allows free distribution under the condition that further developments and applications are put under the same licence", thus free. The open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, 1998 in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator. A group of individuals at the session included Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, Tom Paquin, Jamie Zawinski, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Sameer Parekh, Eric Allman, Greg Olson, Paul Vixie, John Ousterhout, Guido van Rossum, Philip Zimmermann, John Gilmore and Eric S. Raymond, they used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the word "free" in English.
Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, since 1969, started the open-source movement, while others do not distinguish between open-source and free software movements. The Free Software Foun
In computing, an avatar is the graphical representation of the user or the user's alter ego or character. An icon or figure representing a particular person in a video game, Internet forum, etc, it may take either a three-dimensional form, as in games or virtual worlds, or a two-dimensional form as an icon in Internet forums and other online communities. Avatar images have been referred to as "picons" in the past, though the usage of this term is uncommon now, it can refer to a text construct found on early systems such as MUDs. The term "avatar" can refer to the personality connected with the screen name, or handle, of an Internet user; the word avatar originates in Hinduism, where it stands for the "descent" of a deity in a terrestrial form. The earliest use of the word avatar in a computer game was the 1979 PLATO role-playing game Avatar; the use of the term avatar for the on-screen representation of the user was coined in 1985 by Richard Garriott for the computer game Ultima IV: Quest of the Avatar.
In this game, Garriott desired the player's character to be his earth self manifested into the virtual world. Garriott did this because he wanted the real player to be responsible for the character's in game actions due to the ethical parables he designed into the story. Only if you were playing "yourself" Garriott felt, could you be judged based on your character's actions; because of its ethically-nuanced, story-driven approach, he took the Hindu word associated with a deity's manifestation on earth in physical form, applied it to a player manifesting in the game world. The term avatar was used in 1986 by Chip Morningstar in Lucasfilm's online role-playing game Habitat. Another early use of the term was in the paper role-playing game Shadowrun. In Norman Spinrad's novel Songs from the Stars, the term avatar is used in a description of a computer generated virtual experience. In the story, humans receive messages from an alien galactic network that wishes to share knowledge and experience with other advanced civilizations through "songs".
The humans build a "galactic receiver" that describes itself: The galactic receiver is programmed to derive species specific full sensory input data from standard galactic meaning code equations. By controlling your sensorium input along species specific parameters galactic songs astral back-project you into approximation of total involvement in artistically recreated broadcast realities... From the last page of the chapter titled "The Galactic Way" in a description of an experience, being relayed via the galactic receiver to the main characters: You stand in a throng of multifleshed being, mind avatared in all its matter, on a broad avenue winding through a city of blue trees with bright red foliage and living buildings growing from the soil in a multitude of forms; the use of avatar to mean online virtual bodies was popularised by Neal Stephenson in his cyberpunk novel Snow Crash. In Snow Crash, the term avatar was used to describe the virtual simulation of the human form in the Metaverse, a fictional virtual-reality application on the Internet.
Social status within the Metaverse was based on the quality of a user's avatar, as a detailed avatar showed that the user was a skilled hacker and programmer while the less talented would buy off-the-shelf models in the same manner a beginner would today. Stephenson wrote in the "Acknowledgments" to Snow Crash: The idea of a "virtual reality" such as the Metaverse is by now widespread in the computer-graphics community and is being used in a number of different ways; the particular vision of the Metaverse as expressed in this novel originated from idle discussion between me and Jaime Taaffe... The words avatar and Metaverse are my inventions, which I came up with when I decided that existing words were too awkward to use... after the first publication of Snow Crash, I learned that the term avatar has been in use for a number of years as part of a virtual reality system called Habitat...in addition to avatars, Habitat includes many of the basic features of the Metaverse as described in this book.
Despite the widespread use of avatars, it is unknown which Internet forums were the first to use them. Avatars on Internet forums serve the purpose of representing users and their actions, personalizing their contributions to the forum, may represent different parts of their persona, interests or social status in the forum; the traditional avatar system used on most Internet forums is a small square-shaped area close to the user's forum post, where the avatar is placed in order for other users to identify who has written the post without having to read their username. Some forums allow the user to upload an avatar image that may have been designed by the user or acquired from elsewhere. Other forums allow the user to select an avatar from a preset list or use an auto-discovery algorithm to extract one from the user's homepage; some avatars are animated. In such animated avatars, the number of images as well as the time in which they are replayed vary considerably. Other avatar systems exist, such as on Gaia Online, WeeWorld, Frenzoo or Meez, where a pixelized representation of a person or creature is used, which can be customized to the user's wishes.
There are avatar systems where a representation is created using a person's face with customi
Richard Allan Bartle FBCS FRSA is a British writer and game researcher. He is best known for being the co-creator of MUD1 and the author of the seminal Designing Virtual Worlds, he is one of the pioneers of the massively multiplayer online game industry. In 1988, Bartle received a PhD in artificial intelligence from the University of Essex, where as an undergraduate, he created MUD1 with Roy Trubshaw in 1978, he lectured at Essex until 1987, when he left to work full-time on MUD. He has returned to the university as a part-time professor and principal teaching fellow in the Department of Computing and Electronic Systems, supervising courses on computer game design as part of the department's degree course on computer game development, he is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts. In 2003, he wrote Designing Virtual Worlds, a book about the history, ethics and technology of massively multiplayer games. Bartle is a contributing editor to Terra Nova, a collaborative blog that deals with virtual world issues.
Bartle did research on player personality types in virtual worlds. In Bartle's analysis, players of virtual worlds can be divided into four types: achievers, explorers and killers; this idea has been adapted into an online test referred to as the Bartle Test, quite popular, with scores exchanged on massively multiplayer online games forums and networking sites. Circa 2003, Bartle was reported as living in a village near Colchester, with his wife Gail and their two children Jennifer and Madeleine. Bartle is an atheist and a patron of Humanists UK. International Game Developers Association "First Penguin Award", at the 2005 Game Developers Choice Awards, for his part in creating the first MUD. Game Developers Choice Online "The Online Game Legend Award", at the 2010 Game Developers Choice Awards Spellbinder, 1977, a pencil and paper game known as Waving Hands, first described in Bartle's fanzine Sauce of the Nile MUD1, 1978, with Roy Trubshaw MUD2, 1980, based on MUD1 Spunky Princess, 2015, based on wap Artificial Intelligence and Computer Games, Paperback, 256 pages, Century Communications, 25 July 1985, ISBN 978-0-7126-0661-5 Designing Virtual Worlds, Paperback, 768 pages, New Riders Pub. 25 July 2003 ISBN 978-0-13-101816-7 INsightflames, 1999, Online publication.
2 Paperbacks, NotByUs, "IN Sight", 422 pages, July 2007, ISBN 978-0-9556494-0-0 & "IN Flames", 416 pages, August 2007, ISBN 978-0-9556494-1-7 Lizzie Lott's Sovereign, NotByUs, June 2011, ASIN B0058CX7M8 MMOs from the Outside In: The Massively-Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games of Psychology, Law and Real Life, December 2015, ASIN B01FGP30K0 MMOs from the Inside Out: The History, Design and Art of Massively-multiplayer Online Role-playing Games, December 2015, ASIN B01FGP30K0 Richard Bartle's website Richard Bartle's blog MUD history page Terra Nova collaborative blog Sci-Tech Today, 4 January 2006, "Inside the Underground Economy of Computer Gaming" GameSpy interview, 27 October 2003 GameZombie.tv, Videotaped Discussion of Hero's Journey with Lee Sheldon INsightflames HTML and PDF versions of the book, link to the 2-volume print version at Cafe Press Interview with Dr. Richard Bartle at GDC Online 2010 Richard A. Bartle papers housed at Stanford University Libraries
A role-playing game is a game in which players assume the roles of characters in a fictional setting. Players take responsibility for acting out these roles within a narrative, either through literal acting, or through a process of structured decision-making regarding character development. Actions taken within many games succeed or fail according to a formal system of rules and guidelines. There are several forms of role-playing games; the original form, sometimes called the tabletop role-playing game, is conducted through discussion, whereas in live action role-playing, players physically perform their characters' actions. In both of these forms, an arranger called a game master decides on the rules and setting to be used, while acting as the referee. Several varieties of RPG exist in electronic media, such as multiplayer text-based Multi-User Dungeons and their graphics-based successors, massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Role-playing games include single-player role-playing video games in which players control a character, or team of characters, who undertake quests, may include player capabilities that advance using statistical mechanics.
These electronic games sometimes share settings and rules with tabletop RPGs, but emphasize character advancement more than collaborative storytelling. This type of game is well-established, so some RPG-related game forms, such as trading/collectible card games and wargames, may not be included under the definition; some amount of role-playing activity may be present in such games. The term role-playing game is sometimes used to describe games involving roleplay simulation and exercises used in teaching and academic research. Both authors and major publishers of tabletop role-playing games consider them to be a form of interactive and collaborative storytelling. Events and narrative structure give a sense of a narrative experience, the game need not have a strongly-defined storyline. Interactivity is the crucial difference between traditional fiction. Whereas a viewer of a television show is a passive observer, a player in a role-playing game makes choices that affect the story; such role-playing games extend an older tradition of storytelling games where a small party of friends collaborate to create a story.
While simple forms of role-playing exist in traditional children's games of make believe, role-playing games add a level of sophistication and persistence to this basic idea with additions such as game facilitators and rules of interaction. Participants in a role-playing game will generate an ongoing plot. A consistent system of rules and a more or less realistic campaign setting in games aids suspension of disbelief; the level of realism in games ranges from just enough internal consistency to set up a believable story or credible challenge up to full-blown simulations of real-world processes. Role-playing games are played in a wide variety of formats ranging from discussing character interaction in tabletop form to physically acting out characters in LARP to playing characters in digital media. There is a great variety of systems of rules and game settings. Games that emphasize plot and character interaction over game mechanics and combat sometimes prefer the name storytelling game; these types of games tend to minimize or altogether eliminate the use of dice or other randomizing elements.
Some games are played with characters created before the game by the GM, rather than those created by the players. This type of game is played at gaming conventions, or in standalone games that do not form part of a campaign. Tabletop and pen-and-paper RPGs are conducted through discussion in a small social gathering; the GM describes its inhabitants. The other players describe the intended actions of their characters, the GM describes the outcomes; some outcomes are determined by the game system, some are chosen by the GM. This is the format; the first commercially available RPG, Dungeons & Dragons, was inspired by fantasy literature and the wargaming hobby and was published in 1974. The popularity of D&D led to the birth of the tabletop role-playing game industry, which publishes games with many different themes and styles of play; the popularity of tabletop games has decreased since the modern releases of online MMO RPGs. This format is referred to as a role-playing game. To distinguish this form of RPG from other formats, the retronyms tabletop role-playing game or pen and paper role-playing game are sometimes used, though neither a table nor pen and paper are necessary.
A LARP is played more like improvisational theatre. Participants act out their characters' actions instead of describing them, the real environment is used to represent the imaginary setting of the game world. Players are costumed as their characters and use appropriate props, the venue may be decorated to resemble the fictional setting; some live action role-playing games use rock-paper-scissors or comparison of attributes to resolve conflicts symbolically, while other LARPs use physical combat with simulated arms such as airsoft guns or foam weapons. LARPs vary in size from a handful of players to several thousand, in duration from a couple of hours to several days; because the number of players in a LARP is larger than in a tabletop role-playing game, the players may be interacting in separate physical spaces, there is less of an emphasis on maintaining a narrative or directly entertai
Joichi "Joi" Ito is a Japanese activist, venture capitalist, director of the MIT Media Lab. Ito is a professor of the practice of media arts and sciences at MIT and a visiting professor of law from practice at the Harvard Law School. Ito has received recognition for his role as an entrepreneur focused on Internet and technology companies and has founded, among other companies, PSINet Japan, Digital Garage and Infoseek Japan. Ito is the chairman of the board of PureTech Health. Ito is a strategic advisor to Sony Corporation, a board member of The New York Times Company, the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, General Partner of Neoteny Labs. Ito writes a monthly column in the Ideas section of Wired. Ito was born in Japan, his family moved to Canada and when Ito was about age 3 to a suburb of Detroit, Michigan, in the United States where his father became a research scientist and his mother a secretary for Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. now Ovonics.
Company founder Stanford R. Ovshinsky was impressed with Ito, whom he thought of as his son. Ovshinsky helped Ito develop his interests in technology and social movements, at age 13 gave him work with scientists, saying, "He was not a child in the conventional sense."Ito and his sister Mizuko Ito, called Mimi, spent summers in Japan with their grandmother who taught them traditional Japanese culture. At 14, he returned to Japan when his mother was promoted to president of Energy Conversion Devices Japan, he studied at the Nishimachi International School and for high school, the American School in Japan in Tokyo. Ito learned "street language, street smarts, computers". One of few Japanese using modems before deregulation of networking reached Japan in 1985, Ito had found The Source and the original MUD by his teens. Ito returned to the United States to attend Tufts University as a computer science major, where he met, among others, Pierre Omidyar founder of eBay. Finding his course work too rigid and believing that learning computer science in school was "stupid", Ito dropped out of Tufts to work for Ovonics.
Ovshinsky encouraged him to return to school. He enrolled at the University of Chicago in physics but dropped out on discovering, in his opinion, the program at Chicago to be more oriented towards producing practical engineers than towards teaching an intuitive understanding of physics. In the Fall of 1985 he became the first student to register for a pioneering program of online courses offered by Connected Education, Inc. for undergraduate credit from The New School for Social Research. Ito received a PhD in Media and Governance from Keio University in 2018, his dissertation, The Practice of Change, is available online. Ito is one of Timothy Leary's godsons—a close non-traditional family-like relationship, an idea said to have been conceived by Leary for a few of his friends. Ito's sister is Mizuko Ito, a cultural anthropologist studying media technology use, the musician Cornelius is his second cousin. Ito lives in Cambridge, with his wife Mizuka Ito. Joi and Mizuka had a daughter, Kio on May 11, 2017.
Ito became a disk jockey working in nightclubs in Chicago such as The Limelight and The Smart Bar and to work with Metasystems Design Group to start a virtual community in Tokyo. Ito ran a nightclub in Roppongi, Japan called XY Relax with help from Joe Shanahan of Metro Chicago/Smart Bar, he helped bring industrial music from Chicago and the rave scene, managing a DJ team and visual artists, including importing Anarchic Adjustment to Japan. Ito was the Chairman of Creative Commons from December 2006 until 2012, he is on the board of Digital Garage, Culture Convenience Club, EPIC, is on the advisory boards of Creative Commons and WITNESS. He is the CEO of the venture capital firm Neoteny Co. Ltd.. In October 2004, he was named to the board of ICANN for a three-year term starting December 2004. In August 2005, he joined the board of the Mozilla Foundation and served until April 2016, he served on the board of the Open Source Initiative from March 2005 until April 2007. He serves as a Board Emeritus for OSI.
He was a founding board member of Expression College for Digital Arts as well as the Zero One Art and Technology Network. In 1999, he served as the Associate to Mr. Mount on the film The Indian Runner. Ito served as a Board Member of Energy Conversion Devices from 1995 to 2000. Ito is a venture capitalist and angel investor and was an early stage investor in Kickstarter, Six Apart, Flickr, SocialText, Last.fm, Kongregate, Diffbot, Formlabs, 3Dsolve and other Internet companies. A vocal advocate of emergent democracy and the sharing economy, Ito is a doctoral candidate in Business Administration focusing on the sharing economy at the Graduate School of International Corporate Strategy, Hitotsubashi University, he is the author of Emergent Democracy. Ito is Senior Visiting Researcher of Keio Research Institute at SFC. In May 2011, it was announced that Ito's company, Digital Garage, will provide PR, product marketing research and market research for Linkedin Japan. Ito is a PADI IDC Staff Instructor, an Emergency First Responder Instructor Trainer, a Divers Alert Network Instructor Trainer.
In recent years, Ito has become critical of. He stated in a 2011 interview that he thinks Japan needs to look internationally if it is to continue to be "relevant". Ito has written opinion editorials for the Asian Wall Street Journal and The New York Times and has published articles in nu
GodWars is a family of MUD engines derived from Merc, created in 1995 by Richard Woolcock known as "KaVir". GodWars' setting is influenced by White Wolf's World of Darkness. In 1996 the code was illegally advertised on a website for free download. After fighting extensively to stop the illegal use of his codebase, Woolcock released the code publicly; the original GodWars was renamed Dark City Last City, with added wilderness code. Since 2000, between 28 and 84 derivatives of the God Wars code have been active, including Vampire Wars, based on White Wolf's Vampire: The Masquerade and won the October 1998 Mud of the Month award at The Mud Connector. In 2002, Woolcock wrote a new MUD named God Wars II, a conceptual sequel to GodWars, with a more personal dark fantasy universe; the game relies on player versus player combat, like the original GodWars, features a deep and complex combat system where the player has to manipulate the limbs associated with the attacks, creating combos when the commands are stringed together.
This combo system is inspired from the tabletop game Spellbinder, of which the complexity is comparable to chess and go. The combat system was prototyped in his earlier Gladiator Pits MUD, which won the maintainability award in a public coding competition, the 16K MUD competition, has been called "stunning". God Wars II is noted for its war mini-game and its helpful graphical MUSHclient interface; this interface includes a map that the user can click to travel mechanical shortcuts. The game has a large world, without rooms typical of MUDs but using coordinates, a process for advanced character customization. GodWars codebase download The God Wars II official website
A MUD is a multiplayer real-time virtual world text-based. MUDs combine elements of role-playing games and slash, player versus player, interactive fiction, online chat. Players can read or view descriptions of rooms, other players, non-player characters, actions performed in the virtual world. Players interact with each other and the world by typing commands that resemble a natural language. Traditional MUDs implement a role-playing video game set in a fantasy world populated by fictional races and monsters, with players choosing classes in order to gain specific skills or powers; the objective of this sort of game is to slay monsters, explore a fantasy world, complete quests, go on adventures, create a story by roleplaying, advance the created character. Many MUDs were fashioned around the dice-rolling rules of the Dragons series of games; such fantasy settings for MUDs are common, while many others have science fiction settings or are based on popular books, animations, periods of history, worlds populated by anthropomorphic animals, so on.
Not all MUDs are games. MUDs have attracted the interest of academic scholars from many fields, including communications, sociology and economics. At one time, there was interest from the United States military in using them for teleconferencing. Most MUDs are free to players. MUDs can be accessed via standard telnet clients, or specialized MUD clients which are designed to improve the user experience. Numerous games are listed at various web portals, such as The Mud Connector; the history of modern massively multiplayer online role-playing games like EverQuest and Ultima Online, related virtual world genres such as the social virtual worlds exemplified by Second Life, can be traced directly back to the MUD genre. Indeed, before the invention of the term MMORPG, games of this style were called graphical MUDs. A number of influential MMORPG designers began as MUD developers and/or players or were involved with early MUDs. Colossal Cave Adventure, created in 1975 by Will Crowther on a DEC PDP-10 computer, was the first used adventure game.
The game was expanded in 1976 by Don Woods. Called Adventure, it contained many D&D features and references, including a computer controlled dungeon master. Numerous dungeon crawlers were created on the PLATO system at the University of Illinois and other American universities that used PLATO, beginning in 1975. Among them were "pedit5", "oubliette", "moria", "avathar", "krozair", "dungeon", "dnd", "crypt", "drygulch". By 1978-79, these games were in use on various PLATO systems, exhibited a marked increase in sophistication in terms of 3D graphics, user involvement, team play, depth of objects and monsters in the dungeons. Inspired by Adventure, a group of students at MIT in the summer of 1977 wrote a game for the PDP-10 minicomputer. Zork was ported, under the filename DUNGEN, to FORTRAN by a programmer working at DEC in 1978. In 1978 Roy Trubshaw, a student at the University of Essex in the UK, started working on a multi-user adventure game in the MACRO-10 assembly language for a DEC PDP-10.
He named the game MUD, in tribute to the Dungeon variant of Zork, which Trubshaw had enjoyed playing. Trubshaw converted MUD to BCPL, before handing over development to Richard Bartle, a fellow student at the University of Essex, in 1980; the game revolved around gaining points till one achieved the Wizard rank, giving the character immortality and special powers over mortals. MUD, better known as Essex MUD and MUD1 in years, ran on the University of Essex network, became more accessible when a guest account was set up that allowed users on JANET to connect on weekends and between the hours of 2 AM and 8 AM on weekdays, it became the first Internet multiplayer online role-playing game in 1980, when the university connected its internal network to ARPANet. The original MUD game was closed down in late 1987 under pressure from CompuServe, to whom Richard Bartle had licensed the game; this left MIST, a derivative of MUD1 with similar gameplay, as the only remaining MUD running on the University of Essex network, becoming one of the first of its kind to attain broad popularity.
MIST ran until the machine that hosted it, a PDP-10, was superseded in early 1991.1985 saw the origin of a number of projects inspired by the original MUD. These included Gods by Ben Laurie, a MUD1 clone that included online creation in its endgame, which became a commercial MUD in 1988. Neil Newell, an avid MUD1 player, started programming his own MUD called SHADES during Christmas 1985, because MUD1 was closed down during the holidays. Starting out as a hobby, SHADES became accessible in the UK as a commercial MUD via British Telecom's Prestel and Micronet networks. A scandal on SHADES led to the closure of Micronet, as described in Indra Sinha'