Greenpeace Arctic Sunrise ship case
After Greenpeace activists attempted to scale the Prirazlomnaya drilling platform on 18 September 2013, as part of a protest against Arctic oil production, Russian authorities seized the Greenpeace ship the Arctic Sunrise in international waters in the Russian Exclusive Economic Zone on 19 September 2013, arrested the crew at gunpoint, towed the ship to Murmansk, detained the crew of 28 activists and two freelance journalists. The Investigative Committee of Russia opened a criminal investigation, charging the activists with piracy and with hooliganism. Since the Arctic Sunrise was flying the Dutch flag, the Netherlands filed a case at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea which argued the release of the crew and ship until both parties can resolve the conflict. Russia ignored the ITLOS ruling, but released the crew as part of a general amnesty adopted by the State Duma after two months of detention; the Arctic Sunrise itself was released from Russian detainment in June 2014. On 11 August 2013, the Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise left the Norwegian port of Kirkenes to begin a month-long expedition in the Arctic to protest against oil exploration in Arctic waters.
The Arctic Sunrise sailed into the Barents Sea and was refused permission three times by the Russian authorities to enter the Northern Sea Route although the refusal is in violation of international law including the right to freedom of navigation. On 23 August, Greenpeace ignored Russia's ban to protest state oil company Rosneft's operations in the Arctic and entered the international waters of the Kara Sea. On 26 August, the Arctic Sunrise left the Northern Sea Route, after the Russian coastguard boarded the boat and threatened to use force if they would not leave the international waters of the Kara sea. On 18 September 2013, four RHIB inflatables were launched from the Arctic Sunrise from its position in the Pechora Sea; the RHIBs carried Greenpeace activists and crew members towards Gazprom's Prirazlomnaya drilling platform. At the time of the action, the Arctic Sunrise tweeted "We're going to try and stop the drilling.", although subsequently Greenpeace have stated that their aim was to hang banners on the oil rig to call for an end to Arctic drilling.
Two activists managed to attach themselves to the platform and attempted to climb, despite being blasted with water, while another activist tried unsuccessfully to become attached to the platform. The Russian coastguard fired warning shots from AK-74 rifles and four warning shots from a cannon on board the Ladoga coastal patrol vessel; the two activists were removed from the platform and held on board the coastguard vessel, although it was unclear whether or not they had been placed under arrest. On 19 September, the day after the Prirazlomnaya protest, the Russian authorities forcibly took control of the Arctic Sunrise, boarded from a helicopter by fifteen Federal Security Service officers in balaclavas, armed with guns and knives. At the time of the boarding, the Arctic Sunrise was in Russia's Exclusive Economic Zone but not within the safety zone around the oil rig, permission was not sought to board it from the Arctic Sunrise's flag state, the Netherlands; the captain was separated from the crew and brutally beaten, while other crew members and activists were held in the mess room.
It is alleged that crew members and activists were brutally beaten and kicked during the forced boarding. The Arctic Sunrise was towed to the port of Murmansk. All of the 30 people on board were taken to a detention facility where they were brutally beaten and interrogated. In early October, the Leninsky District Court in Murmansk issued a warrant to arrest all 30 people. 22 were put in custody for two months pending an investigation and the other eight were detained for three days pending a new hearing. They were under investigation for piracy, which in Russia carries a maximum jail sentence of 15 years. On 23 October the charge of piracy was dropped and replaced by a charge for aggravated hooliganism with a maximum sentence of seven years. After they were transferred to Saint Petersburg on 12 November, the Kalininsky and Primorsky district courts released most of the people on bail, the Murmansk Regional Court rejected an appeal against the arrests on 21 November. According to Phil Radford, Executive Director of Greenpeace in the U.
S. at the time, the reaction of the Russian coast guard and courts were the "stiffest response that Greenpeace has encountered from a government since the bombing of the Rainbow Warrior in 1985." The detainees have been christened the "Arctic 30" by the press. They include: Crew by nationality: US: Captain Peter Henry Willcox Argentina: Second mate Miguel Hernán Pérez Orsi Australia: Radio operator Colin Russell Brazil: Deckhand Ana Paula Alminhana Maciel Canada: Bosun Alexandre Paul, first mate Paul D Ruzycki Denmark: Third mate Anne Mie Roer Jensen France: Deckhand Francesco Pisanu Italy: Deckhand Cristian D'Alessandro Netherlands: Chief engineer Mannes Ubels New Zealand: Boat mechanic Jonathan Beauchamp, electrician David John Haussmann Turkey: Volunteer assistant cook Gizem Akhan UK: Communications officer Alexandra Hazel Harris, 2nd engineer Iain Rogers Ukraine: Cook Ruslan Yakushev Activists by nationality: Argentina: Activist Camila Speziale Finland: Activist Sini Saarela Netherlands: Campaigner Faiza Oulahsen Poland: Activist Tomasz Dziemianczuk Russia: Spokesman Roman Dolgov, Dr Yekaterina Zaspa, press officer Andrei Allahverdov Sweden: Campaigner Dima Litvinov Switzerland: Activist Marco Weber UK: logistics co-ordinator Frank Hewetson, activist Anthony Perrett, activist Philip BallNon-activists and journalists by nationality: UK: Videographer and journalist Kieron Bryan Russia: Photographer Denis Sinyakov One of the jailed people
Rainbow Warrior (2011)
Rainbow Warrior is a purpose-built motor-assisted sailing yacht owned and operated by Greenpeace and intended for use in their activities such as environmental protests and scientific excursions. She was christened on October 14, 2011, has replaced Rainbow Warrior II after further upgrades and maintenance of the older ship had been shown to be impractical; the vessel is the first Rainbow Warrior, not converted from another vessel. Her Hull was constructed in Poland and she was built in Germany, to provide state of the art facilities for the group's use, including advanced telecommunication equipment, specialised scientific equipment and a helicopter landing pad; the ship is designed to be one of the "greenest" ships afloat, to showcase this quality, it runs using wind power, with a 55 m mast system which carries 1255 sq meters of sail and is backed up by a "state-of-the-art hybrid". On board the ship can store up to 59 cubic meters of greywater and blackwater, avoiding the need for disposal at sea.
All materials, from the paintwork to the insulation, have been chosen with a view to sustainability, each component has been supplied with transparent ethical sourcing. Construction of the ship began in the summer of 2010 in Gdansk before being transported to the Fassmer Shipyard near Bremen in Germany to be fitted out before being launched in October 2011; the ship was in part funded by a crowd funding project set up by Greenpeace. Supporters were encouraged to buy parts of the ship through a designed website. Supporters in turn received a certificate for their contribution and had their names etched onto a digital artwork on board the vessel; the website live-streamed names and messages, tying people directly to the part of the ship they contributed to. The multimedia site was accompanied by a webcam allowing people to follow the ship's construction up to its launch date; the project received over 100,000 donors from around the world. After its launch in Bremerhaven, the new Rainbow Warrior toured ports in Europe welcoming supporters on board the new ship and holding specific events such as onboard concerts.
The ship was visited by celebrity supporters such as Radiohead's Thom Yorke, part of the ship's maiden voyage. And 2 Michelin starred chef Diego Guerrero in Barcelona. In January 2012, the ship travelled to the East Coast of the USA, planning to dock at New York City, Southport, North Carolina, Fort Lauderdale and St. Petersburg, Florida. In March 2013, the ship travelled to Australia. Rainbow Warrior Rainbow Warrior MV Arctic Sunrise MV Esperanza MV Sirius Legend of the Rainbow Warriors Rainbow Warrior website Stories from the Rainbow Warrior YouTube Greenpeace orders technologically advanced Rainbow Warrior III We're gonna need a bigger boat! Virtual Tour of the Rainbow Warrior III in Cozumel
Whaling is the hunting of whales for their usable products such as meat and blubber, which can be turned into a type of oil which became important in the Industrial Revolution. It was practiced as an organized industry as early as 875 AD. By the 16th century, it had risen to be the principle industry in the coastal regions of Spain and France; the industry spread throughout the world, became profitable in terms of trade and resources. Some regions of the world's oceans, along the animals' migration routes, had a dense whale population, became the targets for large concentrations of whaling ships, the industry continued to grow well into the 20th century; the depletion of some whale species to near extinction led to the banning of whaling in many countries by 1969, to a worldwide cessation of whaling as an industry in the late 1980s. The earliest forms of whaling date to at least circa 3000 BC. Coastal communities around the world have long histories of subsistence use of cetaceans, by dolphin drive hunting and by harvesting drift whales.
Industrial whaling emerged with organized fleets of whaleships in the 17th century. By the late 1930s more than 50,000 whales were killed annually. In 1986, the International Whaling Commission banned commercial whaling because of the extreme depletion of most of the whale stocks. Contemporary whaling is subject to intense debate. Countries that support commercial whaling, notably Iceland and Norway, wish to lift the ban on certain whale stocks for hunting. Anti-whaling countries and environmental groups oppose lifting the ban. Under the terms of the IWC moratorium, aboriginal whaling is allowed to continue on a subsistence basis. Over the past few decades, whale watching has become a significant industry in many parts of the world; the live capture of cetaceans for display in aquaria continues. Whaling began in prehistoric times in coastal waters; the earliest depictions of whaling are the Neolithic Bangudae Petroglyphs in Korea, which may date back to 6000 BC. These images are the earliest evidence for whaling.
Although prehistoric hunting and gathering is considered to have had little ecological impact, early whaling in the Arctic may have altered freshwater ecology. Early whaling affected the development of disparate cultures – such as Norway and Japan, both of which continue to hunt in the 21st century; the Basques were the first to catch whales commercially, dominated the trade for five centuries, spreading to the far corners of the North Atlantic and reaching the South Atlantic. The development of modern whaling techniques was spurred in the 19th century by the increase in demand for whale oil, sometimes known as "train oil", in the 20th century by a demand for margarine and whale meat. Many countries which once had significant industries, such as the Netherlands and Argentina, ceased whaling long ago, so are not covered in this article; the primary species hunted are minke whales,belugas and pilot whales. Which are some of the smallest species of whales. There are smaller numbers killed of gray whales, sei whales, fin whales, bowhead whales, Bryde's whales, sperm whales and humpback whales.
Recent scientific surveys estimate a population of 103,000 minkes in the northeast Atlantic. With respect to the populations of Antarctic minke whales, as of January 2010, the IWC states that it is "unable to provide reliable estimates at the present time" and that a "major review is underway by the Scientific Committee."Whale oil is used little today and modern whaling is done for food: for pets, fur farms, sled dogs and humans, for making carvings of tusks and vertebrae. Both meat and blubber are eaten from narwhals and bowheads. From commercially hunted minkes, meat is eaten by humans or animals, blubber is rendered down to cheap industrial products such as animal feed or, in Iceland, as a fuel supplement for whaling ships. International cooperation on whaling regulation began in 1931 and culminated in the signing of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling in 1946, its aim is to: provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the orderly development of the whaling industry.
The International Whaling Commission was set up under the ICRW to decide hunting quotas and other relevant matters based on the findings of its Scientific Committee. Non-member countries conduct their own management programs, it regulates hunting of 13 species of great whales, has not reached consensus on whether it may regulate smaller species. The IWC voted on July 23, 1982, to establish a moratorium on commercial whaling of great whales beginning in the 1985–86 season. Since 1992, the IWC's Scientific Committee has requested that it be allowed to give quota proposals for some whale stocks, but this has so far been refused by the Plenary Committee. At the 2010 meeting of the International Whaling Commission in Morocco, representatives of the 88 member states discussed whether or not to lift the 24-year ban on commercial whaling. Japan and Iceland have urged the organisation to lift the ban. A coalition of anti-whaling nations has offered a compromise plan that would allow these countries to continue whaling, but with smaller catches and under close supervision.
Their plan would completely ban whaling in the Southern Ocean. More than 200 scientists and experts have
Rigid-hulled inflatable boat
A rigid-hulled inflatable boat or rigid-inflatable boat is a lightweight but high-performance and high-capacity unsinkable boat constructed with a rigid hull bottom joined to side-forming air tubes that are inflated with air to a high pressure so as to give the sides resilient rigidity along the boat’s topsides. The design is stable, light and seaworthy; the inflated collar acts like a life jacket in that the vessel keeps its buoyancy if much water comes aboard in heavy sea conditions, so is unsinkable. The RIB is an evolutionary development of the inflatable boat with a rubberized fabric bottom, stiffened with flat boards within the collar to form the deck or floor of the boat. Uses include work boats in trades that operate on the water, military craft, where they are used in patrol roles and to transport troops between vessels or ashore, lifeboats; the combination of rigid hull and large inflatable buoyancy tubes was conceived by a Royal National Lifeboat Institution team working under Inspector of Lifeboats Dag Pike in 1964 as a means of reducing the wear and tear of the fabric bottoms of the existing inflatable inshore lifeboats.
Although working versions were built, the plywood rigid hulls were not strong enough and broke up in waves. Development was being undertaken by students and staff at Atlantic College in South Wales under the direction of retired RN Admiral Desmond Hoare who headed the school which started in 1962. A series of experimental and prototype solutions for combining a hard hull form with an inflated fabric sponson lasted for over a decade; the RIB craft developed at Atlantic College served as an effective seafront activities safety and rescue boat for the college's fleet of sailing dinghies on the challenging. Bristol Channel, the college went on to become an Inshore Lifeboat Station for the RNLI in 1963, carrying out countless rescues over the next 50 years; the Atlantic College Lifeboat Station was decommissioned by the RNLI in 2013. The video RIB History at UWC Atlantic College provides a visual historical summary; the first commercial RIB was introduced in 1967 by Tony and Edward Lee-Elliott of Flatacraft, patented by Admiral Desmond Hoare in 1969 after research and development at Atlantic College.
In 1964, Rear-Admiral Hoare and his students at Atlantic College replaced the torn bottom of their 12-foot-long sailing activity rescue inflatable boat with a plywood sheet glued to the inflatable tubes. This proved a successful modification but was rather uncomfortable at speed offshore, so the hull was rebuilt with a shallow-vee bow entry transitioning to a nearly flat section stern; this boat was named Atlanta and that year an Atlantic College RIB was displayed at the London Boat Show. By 1966 the students had built a further five rigid inflatable boats – Aphrodite, Triton and X1–X3. Aphrodite and Triton were for the College’s own use. X1 and X2 were launched in 1965 by Queen Elizabeth II and made under a development agreement with the Royal National Lifeboat Institution, they were taken by the RNLI for trials at Gorleston and Great Yarmouth from which they returned to Atlantic College in Spring 1967. X3 was an experimental vortex-lift hull funded by a private developer and was not successful.
By that time Hoare had concluded that for the conditions under which they operated a boat of around 18 feet long was optimum which led to X4, X5 and X6, X7 to X8. These boats were used to support the college's sailing activities and to fulfil the college's responsibility as an inshore lifeboat station for the RNLI – a responsibility it discharged up until 2013. At the same time, work started on a smaller series of beach-launchable boats to support lifeguards on local beaches. All the above boats’ hulls were built from plywood. In summer 1968, student Paul Jefferies designed and constructed a hull from fiberglass, not a success due to lack of strength; however that development led to the building of Psychedelic Surfer, a twin-engined 21 ft RIB, for John Caulcott, Graeme Dillon and Simon de’Ath to race in the 1969 Round Britain Powerboat Race, in which it was one of the few boats to finish. From that time, the RNLI transferred development to its research centre in Cowes, who took the Atlantic College designs and developed from them the 21 ft Atlantic 21 class of inshore lifeboats which entered service from 1970 through 2007.
Atlantic 21-class lifeboat provides a class history of this vessel. The first commercial RIB is believed to be the Avon Rubber Searider, launched at the January 1969 London Boat Show; the 108th Engineering Heritage Award by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers was presented to UWC Atlantic College on 30th July 2017 by Carolyn Griffiths, President of the IMeche for its development of the X Alpha Rigid Inflatable Boat || In the mid-1970s Avon tubes for two 21-foot RHIBs were ordered by the new sister school of Atlantic College, being established on the west coast of Canada, the Lester B. Pearson College of the Pacific, at Pedder Bay near Race Rocks, British Columbia on the Straight of Juan de Fuca. Three former Atlantic College students built the first hull during the summer of 1974. Three more graduates who were trained as RNLI inshore lifeboat coxswains worked at the school during its inaugural year and coached some Pacific College students to build and operate the two boats, which were referred to as X-27, propelled by twin outboard engines and X-28, propelled by inboard-outboard stern drive.
During summer, the college loaned their fast rescue craft to the Canadian Coast Guard on the west coast
The Southern Ocean known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica. As such, it is regarded as the fourth largest of the five principal oceanic divisions: smaller than the Pacific and Indian Oceans but larger than the Arctic Ocean; this ocean zone is where cold, northward flowing waters from the Antarctic mix with warmer subantarctic waters. By way of his voyages in the 1770s, Captain James Cook proved that waters encompassed the southern latitudes of the globe. Since geographers have disagreed on the Southern Ocean's northern boundary or existence, considering the waters as various parts of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, instead. However, according to Commodore John Leech of the International Hydrographic Organization, recent oceanographic research has discovered the importance of Southern Circulation, the term Southern Ocean has been used to define the body of water which lies south of the northern limit of that circulation.
This remains the current official policy of the IHO, since a 2000 revision of its definitions including the Southern Ocean as the waters south of the 60th parallel has not yet been adopted. Others regard the seasonally-fluctuating Antarctic Convergence as the natural boundary; the maximum depth of the Southern Ocean, using the definition that it lies south of 60th parallel, was surveyed by the Five Deeps Expedition in early February 2019. The expedition's multibeam sonar team identified the deepest point at 60° 28' 46"S, 025° 32' 32"W, with a depth of 7,434 meters; the expedition leader and chief submersible pilot Victor Vescovo, has proposed naming this deepest point in the Southern Ocean the "Factorian Deep," based on the name of the manned submersible DSV Limiting Factor, in which he visited the bottom for the first time on February 3, 2019. Borders and names for oceans and seas were internationally agreed when the International Hydrographic Bureau, the precursor to the IHO, convened the First International Conference on 24 July 1919.
The IHO published these in its Limits of Oceans and Seas, the first edition being 1928. Since the first edition, the limits of the Southern Ocean have moved progressively southwards; the IHO included the ocean and its definition as the waters south of 60°S in its year 2000 revisions, but this has not been formally adopted, due to continuing impasses over other areas of the text, such as the naming dispute over the Sea of Japan. The 2000 IHO definition, was circulated in a draft edition in 2002 and is used by some within the IHO and by some other organizations such as the US Central Intelligence Agency and Merriam-Webster. Australian authorities regard the Southern Ocean as lying south of Australia; the National Geographic Society does not recognize the ocean, depicting it in a typeface different from the other world oceans. Map publishers using the term Southern Ocean on their maps include Hema GeoNova. "Southern Ocean" is an obsolete name for the Pacific Ocean or South Pacific, coined by Vasco Núñez de Balboa, the first European to discover it, who approached it from the north.
The "South Seas" is a less archaic synonym. A 1745 British Act of Parliament established a prize for discovering a Northwest Passage to "the Western and Southern Ocean of America". Authors using "Southern Ocean" to name the waters encircling the unknown southern polar regions used varying limits. James Cook's account of his second voyage implies. Peacock's 1795 Geographical Dictionary said it lay "to the southward of America and Africa"; the Family Magazine in 1835 divided the "Great Southern Ocean" into the "Southern Ocean" and the "Antarctick Ocean" along the Antarctic Circle, with the northern limit of the Southern Ocean being lines joining Cape Horn, the Cape of Good Hope, Van Diemen's Land and the south of New Zealand. The United Kingdom's South Australia Act 1834 described the waters forming the southern limit of the new colony of South Australia as "the Southern Ocean"; the Colony of Victoria's Legislative Council Act of 1881 delimited part of the division of Bairnsdale as "along the New South Wales boundary to the Southern ocean".
In the 1928 first edition of Limits of Oceans and Seas, the Southern Ocean was delineated by land-based limits: Antarctica to the south, South America, Africa and Broughton Island, New Zealand to the north. The detailed land-limits used were from Cape Horn in Chile eastwards to Cape Agulhas in Africa further eastwards to the southern coast of mainland Australia to Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia. From Cape Leeuwin, the limit followed eastwards along the coast of mainland Australia to Cape Otway, Victoria southwards across Bass Strait to Cape Wickham, King Island, along the west coast of King Island the remainder of the way south across Bass Strait to Cape Grim, Tasmania; the limit followed the west coast of Tasmania southwards to the South East Cape and went eastwards to Broughton Island, New Zealand, before returning to Cape Horn. The northern limits of the Southern Ocean were moved southwards in the IHO's 1937 second edition of the Limits of Oceans and Seas. From this edition, much of the ocean's northern limit ceased to abut land masses.
In the second edition, the Southern Ocean extended from Antarctica northwards to latitude 40°S between Cape Agulhas
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea
The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea is an intergovernmental organization created by the mandate of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea. It was established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, signed at Montego Bay, Jamaica, on December 10, 1982; the Convention entered into force on November 16, 1994, established an international framework for law over "all ocean space, its uses and resources". The tribunal is based in Germany; the Convention established the International Seabed Authority, with responsibility for the regulation of seabed mining beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, beyond the limits of the territorial sea, the contiguous zone and the continental shelf. There are 167 signatories, 166 states plus the European Union. According to its founding statute, the Tribunal has a set of 21 serving judges from a variety of states parties. At the request of Chile and the European Union, the Tribunal set up a special chamber composed of 5 judges to deal with the Case concerning the Conservation and Sustainable Exploitation of Swordfish Stocks in the South-Eastern Pacific Ocean.
By agreement of the parties Ghana and Ivory Coast, the Tribunal formed a special chamber composed of 5 judges to deal with the Dispute Concerning Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary between Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire in the Atlantic Ocean. Official ITLOS Site International Foundation for the Law of the Sea Privileges and Immunities, Berlin, 14 December 2004
Maschinenbau Kiel GmbH designed and marketed marine diesel engines, diesel locomotives and tracked vehicles under the MaK brand name. The three primary operating divisions of Maschinenbau Kiel GmbH were sold to different companies in the 1990s. Rheinmetall acquired the military vehicles division in 1990. Siemens acquired the locomotive manufacturing division in 1992. Siemens sold the locomotive division to the current owner, Vossloh, in 1998. Caterpillar Inc. acquired the marine diesel engine division in 1997. Both Vossloh and the marine diesels division of Caterpillar are still based in Kiel, Caterpillar continues to use MaK brand name on their products; the companies are major employers in Kiel. The companies origins can be traced back at least as far as 1918. With the Treaty of Versailles limiting arms production in Germany, the defence based industries in Kiel sought other markets. Kiel Deutsche Werke AG was founded. During the second world war Deutsche work produced U-boats, as well as locomotives for the Wehrmacht.
The end of the second world war brought not only destruction of many of the facilities in Kiel, but the end of the company. The company Maschinenbau Kiel was founded on the 25 May 1948 as a limited liability company, it included several factories of the former Deutsche Werke AG. In 1954 after a lengthy legal dispute with MAN the name was changed from MAK to MaK. In 1959 a crisis led to the company's purchase by Bremer Atlas GmbH and its conversion into a GmbH. In 1964 MaK became part of the Krupp group due to the take over of its parent company. By 1990 the production of the Leopard 2 had ended and the prospect of future orders was uncertain; the locomotive production arm of the company was sold in 1992 to Siemens. In 1997 the marine engines part of the business was sold to Caterpillar Inc; the marine diesel engines division became Caterpillar Motoren Co.. KG in 1997 and is now a 100% subsidiary of Caterpillar Inc; the engines still carry the MaK logo. One example of the success of this organisation is the use of four engines of the type MaK 9 M 43 C in the cruise ship AIDAdiva.
The MaK product line as of August 2015 consists of six medium-speed four-stroke diesel and dual fuel engine models. They range in power from 1,020 to 16,800 kW. Current models apply flexible camshaft technology to reduce or eliminate visible smoke at partial load. FCT said to improve performance and load pick-up. In the 1950s and 1960s diesel locomotives of the'connecting rod' with jackshaft drive type were built and sold to numerous private companies to replace steam locomotives. During the 1950s the plant produced locomotives for the Deutsche Bundesbahn, including the DB Class V 60, DB Class V 65, DB Class V 80In 1965 native locomotive production began to use cardan shafts as part of the transmission system. During the 1960s further locomotive models were produced for the Deutsche Bundesbahn including the Class V 90's, DB Class V 100, DB Class V 200 and DB Class V 160A third program of locomotive building began in 1979 - based on the standards produced by the Federal Association of Railways which required the use of standard interchangeable components.
In the exterior design right angles and flat steel predominate - for cost reasons, internally a switch to faster running engines was made, with engines from MTU being used. The G 1206 BB. In the harsh economic climate of that time the company tried to expand its range - and its customer base. Using electrical components from the Swiss-German company BBC MaK started production of diesel-electric locomotives - some were successful, notably the EN 6400 of which 120 were bought by Nederlandse Spoorwegen. In 1992 the name of the company was changed to Krupp Verkehrstechnik GmbH. 1994 became part of Siemens rail technology. On 1 October 1998 the factory in Kiel along with a branch plant in Moers was sold to Vossloh AG. Vossloh Rail Vehicle Engineering or "VSFT" was the new name. Under Vosslohs management the locomotives produced. On 23 April 2004 the company was renamed "Vossloh Locomotives GmbH" The construction equipment manufacturing company is now known as ATLAS TEREX GmbH. In 1983 "MaK DATA SYSTEM" emerged as a profit center for the Krupp MaK external information technology service.
Since 1995 it has been an independent company: MaK DATA SYSTEM Kiel GmbH. In 2006, the foundry of the Caterpillar engine works and the former MaK foundry was sold to SHW Casting Technologies GmbH, a foundry group, now trades under the name Gießerei Kiel GmbH or "GK" Leopard tank produced by Krauss–Maffei MaK locomotives and Vossloh locomotives "Maschinenbau Kiel MaK". Www.werkbahn.de. History of Locomotive building in Kiel from Loks-aus-kiel.de Vossloh Locomotives Manufacturer of locomotives