The draft or draught of a ship's hull is the vertical distance between the waterline and the bottom of the hull, with the thickness of the hull included. Draft determines the minimum depth of water a boat can safely navigate; the draft can be used to determine the weight of the cargo on board by calculating the total displacement of water and using Archimedes' principle. A table made by the shipyard shows the water displacement for each draft; the density of the water and the content of the ship's bunkers has to be taken into account. The related term "trim" is defined as the difference between the forward and aft drafts; the draft aft is measured in the perpendicular of the stern. The draft forward is measured in the perpendicular of the bow; the mean draft is obtained by calculating from the averaging of the stern and bow drafts, with correction for water level variation and value of the position of F with respect to the average perpendicular. The trim of a ship is the difference between the aft draft.
When the aft draft is greater the vessel is deemed to have a negative trim, it has a positive trim when the forward draft is the greater. In such a case it is referred to as being down-by-the-head. In commercial ship operations, the ship will quote the mean draft as the vessel's draft; however in navigational situations, the maximum draft the aft draft, will be known on the bridge and will be shared with the pilot. The draft of a ship can be affected by multiple factors, not considering the rise and fall of the ship by displacement: Variation by trim Variation by list Variation by water level change Allowance of fresh water draft variation by passage from fresh to sea water or vice versa Heat variation in navigating shallow waters Variation as a result of a ship moving in shallow waters, or squat The drafts are measured with a "banded" scale, from bow and to stern, for some ships, the average perpendicular measurement is used; the scale may use metric units. If the English system is used, the bottom of each marking is the draft in feet and markings are 6 inches high.
In metric marking schemes, the bottom of each draft mark is the draft in decimeters and each mark is one decimeter high. Larger ships try to maintain an average water draft when they are light, in order to make a better sea crossing and reduce the effects of the wind. In order to achieve this they use sailing ballasts to stabilize the ship, following the unloading of cargo; the water draft of a large ship has little direct link with its stability because stability depends on the respective positions of the metacenter of the hull and the center of gravity. It is true, that a "light" ship has quite high stability which can lead to implying too much rolling of the ship. A laden ship can have either a strong or weak stability, depending upon the manner by which the ship is loaded; the draft of ships can be increased when the ship is in motion in shallow water, a phenomenon known as squat. Draft is a significant factor limiting navigable waterways for large vessels; this includes many shallow coastal waters and reefs, but some major shipping lanes.
Panamax class ships—the largest ships able to transit the Panama Canal—do have a draft limit but are limited by beam, or sometimes length overall, for fitting into locks. However, ships can be longer and higher in the Suez Canal, the limiting factor for Suezmax ships is draft; some supertankers are able to transit the Suez Canal when unladen or laden, but not when laden. Canals are not the only draft-limited shipping lanes. A Malaccamax ship, is the deepest draft able to transit the busy but shallow Strait of Malacca; the Strait only allows ships to have.4 m more draft than the Suez Canal. Capesize, Ultra Large Crude Carriers and a few Chinamax carriers, are some of the ships that have too deep a draft when laden, for either the Strait of Malacca or the Suez Canal. A small draft allows pleasure boats to navigate through shallower water; this makes it possible for these boats to access smaller ports, to travel along rivers and to'beach' the boat. A large draft ensures a good level of stability in strong wind.
For example: Ballasts placed low in the keel of a boat such as a dragon boat with a draft of 1.20 m for a length of 8.90 m. A boat like a catamaran can mitigate the problem by retrieving good stability in a small draft, but the width of the boat increases. For submarines, which can submerge to different depths at sea, a term called keel depth is used, specifying the current distance from the water surface to the bottom of the submarine's keel, it is used in navigation to avoid underwater obstacles and hitting the ocean floor, as a standard point on the submarine for depth measurements. Submarines also have a specified draft used while operating on the surface, for navigating in harbors and at docks. Air draft Hull Naval architecture Waterline Hayler, William B.. American Merchant Seaman's Manual. Cornell Maritime Prress. ISBN 0-87033-549-9. Turpin, Edward A.. Merchant Marine Officers' Handbook. Centreville, MD: Cornell Maritime Press. ISBN 0-87033-056-X
Papenburg is a city in the district of Emsland in Lower Saxony, situated at the river Ems. It is known for the Meyer-Werft, which specializes in building cruise liners. Papenburg is subdivided into 6 urban districts, Papenburg-Untenende, Papenburg-Obenende, Tunxdorf-Nenndorf and Bokel. In the Chronicle of the Frisians, written in the 16th century by the East-Frisian council Eggerik Benninga, the Papenburg is mentioned for the first time. In 1458, Hayo von Haren, called "von der Papenburch", confessed to be leaned with the Papenburg; the contract, made because of this is the earliest verifiably documented mention of Papenburg. On 2 December 1630, the district administrator Dietrich von Velen purchased the manor for 1500 Reichsthaler from Friedrich von Schwarzenberg in order to found a settlement in the fen-surrounded region. On 4 April 1631, Bishop Ferdinand von Münster leased the castle and manor Papenburg to Dietrich von Velen; this is considered to be the foundation of the city of Papenburg.
Matthias von Velen and his wife Margartha Anna, born von Galen, endowed the oldest church in Papenburg on 7 December 1680, dedicated to Anthony the Great, making him its patron saint. From 1933 to 1945 a series of 15 moorland labor, punitive and POWs-camps were active in the districts of Emsland and Bentheim; the central administration was set in Papenburg where now a memorial of these camps, the Dokumentations- und Informationszentrum Emslandlager, is located. 1998 - 33,671 1999 - 33,731 2000 - 34,096 2001 - 34,266 2002 - 34,403 2003 - 34,245 2004 - 34,440 2005 - 34,905 2006 - 34,797 2007 - 35,431 2012 - 37,532 Official website Short introduction to Papenburg
The Canary Islands is a Spanish archipelago and the southernmost autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, 100 kilometres west of Morocco at the closest point. The Canary Islands, which are known informally as the Canaries, are among the outermost regions of the European Union proper, it is one of the eight regions with special consideration of historical nationality recognized as such by the Spanish Government. The Canary Islands belong to the African Plate like the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla, the two on the African mainland; the seven main islands are Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro. The archipelago includes much smaller islands and islets: La Graciosa, Isla de Lobos, Montaña Clara, Roque del Oeste and Roque del Este, it includes a series of adjacent roques. In ancient times, the island chain was referred to as "the Fortunate Isles"; the Canary Islands are the most southerly region of Spain and the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region.
The Canary Islands have been considered a bridge between four continents: Africa, North America, South America and Europe. The archipelago's beaches and important natural attractions Maspalomas in Gran Canaria and Teide National Park and Mount Teide in Tenerife, make it a major tourist destination with over 12 million visitors per year Tenerife, Gran Canaria and Lanzarote; the islands have a subtropical climate, with moderately warm winters. The precipitation levels and the level of maritime moderation vary depending on location and elevation. Green areas as well as desert exist on the archipelago. Due to their location above the temperature inversion layer, the high mountains of these islands are ideal for astronomical observation. For this reason, two professional observatories, Teide Observatory on the island of Tenerife and Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, have been built on the islands. In 1927, the Province of Canary Islands was split into two provinces; the autonomous community of the Canary Islands was established in 1982.
Its capital is shared by the cities of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, which in turn are the capitals of the provinces of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria has been the largest city in the Canaries since 1768, except for a brief period in the 1910s. Between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands. In 1927 a decree ordered; the third largest city of the Canary Islands is San Cristóbal de La Laguna on Tenerife. This city is home to the Consejo Consultivo de Canarias, the supreme consultative body of the Canary Islands. During the time of the Spanish Empire, the Canaries were the main stopover for Spanish galleons on their way to the Americas, which came south to catch the prevailing northeasterly trade winds; the name Islas Canarias is derived from the Latin name Canariae Insulae, meaning "Islands of the Dogs", a name, applied only to Gran Canaria. According to the historian Pliny the Elder, the Mauretanian king Juba II named the island Canaria because it contained "vast multitudes of dogs of large size".
Alternatively, it is said that the original inhabitants of the island, used to worship dogs, mummified them and treated dogs as holy animals. The ancient Greeks knew about a people, living far to the west, who are the "dog-headed ones", who worshipped dogs on an island; some hypothesize that the Canary Islands dog-worship and the ancient Egyptian cult of the dog-headed god, Anubis are connected but there is no explanation given as to which one was first. Other theories speculate that the name comes from the Nukkari Berber tribe living in the Moroccan Atlas, named in Roman sources as Canarii, though Pliny again mentions the relation of this term with dogs; the connection to dogs is retained in their depiction on the islands' coat-of-arms. It is considered that the aborigines of Gran Canaria called themselves "Canarios", it is possible that after being conquered, this name was used in plural in Spanish, i.e. as to refer to all of the islands as the Canarii-as. What is certain is that the name of the islands does not derive from the canary bird.
Tenerife is the largest and most populous island of the archipelago. Gran Canaria, with 865,070 inhabitants, is both the Canary Islands' second most populous island, the third most populous one in Spain after Majorca; the island of Fuerteventura is the second largest in the archipelago and located 100 km from the African coast. The islands form the Macaronesia ecoregion with the Azores, Cape Verde and the Savage Isles; the Canary Islands is the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region. The archipelago consists of seven large and several smaller islands, all of which are volcanic in origin. According to the position of the islands with respect to the north-east trade winds, the climate can be mild and wet or dry. Several native species form laurisilva forests; as a consequence, the individual islands in the Canary archipelago tend to have distinct microclimates. Those islands such as El Hierro, La Palma and La Gomera lying to the west of the archipelago have a climate, influenced by the m
MAN SE MAN AG, is a German mechanical engineering company and parent company of the MAN Group. It is a subsidiary of automaker Volkswagen AG. MAN SE is based in Munich, its primary output is for the automotive industry heavy trucks. Further activities include the production of diesel engines for various applications, like marine propulsion, turbomachinery. MAN supplies trucks, diesel engines and turbomachinery. In 2016, its 53,824 employees generated annual sales of around €13.6 billion. MAN SE is owned in majority by Volkswagen AG, it is a producer of Commercial Vehicles, through its MAN Truck & Bus and MAN Latin America divisions, participation in the manufacturer Sinotruk. MAN traces its origins back to 1758, when the "St. Antony" ironworks commenced operation in Oberhausen, as the first heavy-industry enterprise in the Ruhr region. In 1808, the three ironworks "St. Antony", "Gute Hoffnung", "Neue Essen" merged, to form the Hüttengewerkschaft und Handlung Jacobi, renamed Gute Hoffnungshütte. In 1840, the German engineer Ludwig Sander founded in Augsburg the first predecessing enterprise of MAN in Southern Germany: the "Sander'sche Maschinenfabrik."
It firstly became the "C. Reichenbach'sche Maschinenfabrik", named after the pioneer of printing machines Carl August Reichenbach, on the "Maschinenfabrik Augsburg"; the branch Süddeutsche Brückenbau A. G. was founded when the company in 1859 was awarded the contract for the construction of the railway bridge over the Rhine at Mainz. In 1898, the companies Maschinenbau-AG Nürnberg and Maschinenfabrik Augsburg AG merged to form Vereinigte Maschinenfabrik Augsburg und Maschinenbaugesellschaft Nürnberg A. G. Augsburg. In 1908, the company was renamed Maschinenfabrik Augsburg Nürnberg AG, or in short, M·A·N. While the focus remained on ore mining and iron production in the Ruhr region, mechanical engineering became the dominating branch of business in Augsburg and Nuremberg. Under the direction of Heinrich von Buz, Maschinenfabrik Augsburg grew from a medium-sized business of 400 employees into a major enterprise with a workforce of 12,000 by the year 1913. Locomotion and steel building were the big topics of this phase.
The early predecessors of MAN were responsible for numerous technological innovations. The success of the early MAN entrepreneurs and engineers like Heinrich Gottfried Gerber, was based on a great openness towards new technologies, they constructed the Wuppertal monorail and the first spectacular steel bridges like the Großhesseloher Brücke in Munich in 1857 and the Müngsten railway bridge between 1893 and 1897. The invention of the rotary printing press allowed the copious printing of books and newspapers and since 1893, Rudolf Diesel puzzled for four years with future MAN engineers in a laboratory in Augsburg until his first Diesel engine was completed and functional. During 1921, the majority of M. A. N. was taken over by Sterkrade. Through well-directed equities and acquisitions of processing industries, e.g. Deutsche Werft, Deggendorfer Werft und Eisenbau, MAN advanced to a nationwide operating enterprise, with a workforce of 52,000 by 1921. MAN produced tractors by the name MAN Ackerdiesel between.
The decision for tractors production was made due to increasing demand from eastern Germany. At the same time the GHH's economic situation worsened; the causes for this were, among others, the reparations after World War I, the occupation of the Ruhr region and the world economic crisis. In only two years the number of MAN employees sank from 14,000 in the year 1929/30 to 7,400 in 1931/32. While the civil business was collapsing, the military business increased with the armament under the National Socialist regime. GHH/MAN enterprises supplied diesel engines for submarines, cylinders for projectiles and artillery of every description. MAN produced gun parts, including Mauser Karabiner 98k rifle bolts, their Waffenamt code was WaA53, ordnance code was "coc". The MAN works in Augsburg, which produced diesel engines for U-boats, the MAN works in Nuremberg, which built 40 percent of Germany's Panther tanks, were the target of massive Allied bombing attacks during World War II. After the end of World War II the allies split up the GHH group.
A vertical integration in which mining and steel production are consolidated was not allowed any more. The "Gutehoffnungshütte", together with the MAN firms of Southern Germany, therefore concentrated on engineering, plant construction, commercial vehicles and printing machines; this process has been supported by strategic dispositions. In 1982/83 the "Gutehoffnungshütte" plunged into a deep corporate crisis; the enterprise suffered from the late effects of a bad economic situation. This was displayed by the dramatic downturn of the commercial vehicles sales figures. Besides e
Anne, Princess Royal
Anne, Princess Royal, is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession to the British throne, behind her mother – Princess Elizabeth – and elder brother, Charles, she rose to second after her mother's accession, but is thirteenth in line. Anne is known for her charitable work, is a patron of over 200 organisations, she is known for equestrian talents. Princess Anne is its seventh holder. Anne was married to Captain Mark Phillips in 1973, they have four grandchildren. In 1992, within months of her divorce, Anne married Commander Sir Timothy Laurence, whom she had met while he served as her mother's equerry between 1986 and 1989. Anne was born in the reign of her maternal grandfather George VI at Clarence House on 15 August 1950 at 11:50 am, as the second child and only daughter of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. A 21-gun salute signalled the birth in Hyde Park.
Anne was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 21 October 1950, by Archbishop of York, Cyril Garbett. A governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed to look after Anne and was responsible for her early education at Buckingham Palace. After the death of George VI, Anne's mother ascended the throne as Queen Elizabeth II. Given her young age at the time, she did not attend the coronation. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company to include the Holy Trinity Brompton Brownie pack, was re-formed in May 1959 so that, as her mother and aunt had done as children, Anne could socialise with girls her own age; the Company was active until 1963. Anne enrolled at Benenden School in 1963. In 1968, she left school with six GCE O-Levels and two A-Levels. In the next couple of years, Anne started dating. In 1970, her first boyfriend was Andrew Parker Bowles, who became the first husband of Camilla Shand. Anne first met her future husband Mark Phillips at a party for horse enthusiasts in 1968.
Their engagement was announced on 29 May 1973. On 14 November 1973, Princess Anne married Mark Phillips, a lieutenant in the 1st Queen's Dragoon Guards, at Westminster Abbey in a ceremony, televised around the world, with an estimated audience of 100 million. Following the wedding and her husband lived at Gatcombe Park, he was made acting captain by the start of 1974 when he was appointed a personal aide-de-camp to Queen Elizabeth II. As was customary for untitled men marrying into the royal family, Phillips was offered an earldom, he declined this offer leading to their children being born without courtesy titles. The couple would have two children and Zara Phillips. On 31 August 1989, Princess Anne and Mark Phillips announced their intention to separate, as the marriage had been under strain for a number of years; the couple had been seen in the public together, both were romantically linked with other people. They continued to share the custody of their children, announced that "there were no plans for divorce."
They divorced on 23 April 1992. Anne and Phillips have four grandchildren; as Princess Anne and Mark Phillips were returning to Buckingham Palace on 20 March 1974, from a charity event on Pall Mall, their Princess IV car was forced to stop on the Mall by a Ford Escort. The driver of the Escort, Ian Ball, began firing a pistol. Inspector James Beaton, Anne's personal police officer, responded by getting out of the car in order to shield her and to attempt to disarm Ball. Beaton's firearm, a Walther PPK, he was shot by the assailant, as was Anne's chauffeur, Alex Callender, when he tried to disarm Ball. Brian McConnell, a nearby tabloid journalist intervened, was shot in the chest. Ball approached Anne's car and told her of his kidnapping plan, to hold her for ransom, the sum given by varying sources as £2 million or £3 million, which he claimed he intended to give to the National Health Service. Ball directed Anne to get out of the car, to which she replied: "Not bloody likely!", briefly considered hitting Ball.
She exited the other side of the limousine as had her lady-in-waiting, Rowena Brassey. A passing pedestrian, a former boxer named Ron Russell, punched Ball in the back of the head and led Anne away from the scene. At that point, Police Constable Michael Hills happened upon the situation. Detective Constable Peter Edmonds, nearby and gave chase arresting Ball. Beaton, Callender and McConnell were hospitalised, all recovered from their wounds. For his defence of Princess Anne, Beaton was awarded the George Cross by the Queen, visiting Indonesia when the incident occurred. Anne visited Beaton in hospital and thanked him for his assistance. Ball plead
Madeira the Autonomous Region of Madeira, is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal. It is an archipelago situated in southwest of Portugal, its total population was estimated in 2011 at 267,785. The capital of Madeira is Funchal, located on the main island's south coast; the archipelago is just under 400 kilometres north of Canary Islands. Bermuda and Madeira, a few time zones apart, are the only land in the Atlantic on the 32nd parallel north, it includes the islands of Madeira, Porto Santo, the Desertas, administered together with the separate archipelago of the Savage Islands. The region has political and administrative autonomy through the Administrative Political Statue of the Autonomous Region of Madeira provided for in the Portuguese Constitution; the autonomous region is an integral part of the European Union as an outermost region. Madeira was claimed by Portuguese sailors in the service of Prince Henry the Navigator in 1419 and settled after 1420; the archipelago is considered to be the first territorial discovery of the exploratory period of the Age of Discovery.
Today, it is a popular year-round resort, being visited every year by about 1.4 million tourists five times its population. The region is noted for its Madeira wine, gastronomy and cultural value and fauna, landscapes that are classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, embroidery artisans; the main harbour in Funchal has long been the leading Portuguese port in cruise liner dockings, receiving more than half a million tourists through its main port in 2017, being an important stopover for commercial and trans-Atlantic passenger cruises between Europe, the Caribbean and North Africa. In addition, the International Business Centre of Madeira known as the Madeira Free Trade Zone, was created formally in the 1980s as a tool of regional economic policy, it consists of a set of incentives tax-related, granted with the objective of attracting foreign direct investment based on international services into Madeira. Plutarch in his Parallel Lives referring to the military commander Quintus Sertorius, relates that after his return to Cádiz, he met sailors who spoke of idyllic Atlantic islands: "The islands are said to be two in number separated by a narrow strait and lie 10,000 furlongs from Africa.
They are called the Isles of the Blest."Archeological evidence suggests that the islands may have been visited by the Vikings sometime between 900 and 1030. During the reign of King Edward III of England, lovers Robert Machim and Anna d'Arfet were said to have fled from England to France in 1346. Driven off course by a violent storm, their ship ran aground along the coast of an island that may have been Madeira; this legend was the basis of the naming of the city of Machico on the island, in memory of the young lovers. Knowledge of some Atlantic islands, such as Madeira, existed before their formal discovery and settlement, as the islands were shown on maps as early as 1339. In 1418, two captains under service to Prince Henry the Navigator, João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira, were driven off course by a storm to an island they named Porto Santo in gratitude for divine deliverance from a shipwreck; the following year, an organised expedition, under the captaincy of Zarco, Vaz Teixeira, Bartolomeu Perestrello, traveled to the island to claim it on behalf of the Portuguese Crown.
Subsequently, the new settlers observed "a heavy black cloud suspended to the southwest." Their investigation revealed it to be the larger island. The first Portuguese settlers began colonizing the islands around 1420 or 1425. Grain production began to fall and the ensuing crisis forced Henry the Navigator to order other commercial crops to be planted so that the islands could be profitable; these specialised plants, their associated industrial technology, created one of the major revolutions on the islands and fuelled Portuguese industry. Following the introduction of the first water-driven sugar mill on Madeira, sugar production increased to over 6,000 arrobas by 1455, using advisers from Sicily and financed by Genoese capital; the accessibility of Madeira attracted Genoese and Flemish traders, who were keen to bypass Venetian monopolies. "By 1480 Antwerp had some seventy ships engaged in the Madeira sugar trade, with the refining and distribution concentrated in Antwerp. By the 1490s Madeira had overtaken Cyprus as a producer of sugar."
Sugarcane production was the primary engine of the island's economy, increasing the demand for labour. African slaves were used during portions of the island's history to cultivate sugar cane, the proportion of imported slaves reached 10% of the total population of Madeira by the 16th century. Barbary corsairs from North Africa, who enslaved Europeans from ships and coastal communities throughout the Mediterranean region, captured 1,200 people in Porto Santo in 1617. After the 17th century, as Portuguese sugar production was shifted to Brazil, São Tomé and Príncipe and elsewhere, Madeira's most important commodity product became its wine; the British first amicably occupied the island in 1801 whereafter Colonel William Henry Clinton became governor. A detachment of the 85th Regiment of Foot under Lieutenant-colonel James Willoughby Gordon garrisoned the island. After the Peace of Amiens, British troops withdrew in 1802, only to reoccupy Madeira in 1807 until the end of the Peninsular War in 1814.
On 31 December 1916, during the Great War, a Ge
Gibraltar Cruise Terminal
The Gibraltar Cruise Terminal is located at the northern end of the Western Arm of the North Mole at Gibraltar Harbour. Construction of the facility in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar was completed in 1997. In the fifteen years since its opening, the terminal handled three million cruise passengers. In May 2011, the explosion of a sullage tank on the Western Arm, while a cruise ship was berthed nearby resulted in the loss of life of a dock worker. In October 2011, the Government of Gibraltar announced plans for expansion and renovation of the cruise terminal. In 1995, the Government of Gibraltar solicited bids for the design and construction of a new cruise terminal in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. Eleven companies submitted bids for the project. Gibraltarian architect Dennis Mosquera was selected to design the terminal, the company Profield Contractors was chosen to build it; the architect and builders worked within a limited budget of £600,000. The cruise terminal building was a warehouse on the Western Arm of the North Mole of Gibraltar Harbour.
While unused, the walls of the former warehouse were deemed to be structurally sound. The building was gutted, given a new floor and insulated roof. Walls of white, chipped stone were installed; the overall effect was one of a neoclassical appearance. The colour scheme utilised shades of yellow, sunny Mediterranean colours; the terminal was further decorated with plants, art with a nautical motif, lighting. The public and restricted areas of the cruise terminal are separated by a security barrier; the public sections of the terminal have telephone and fax equipment, as well as counters for car rentals and tourist information. This area of the terminal has general seating, an arts and crafts store, a cafeteria/bar; the lounge in the restricted zone features a fountain, the walls of that area are complemented by the works of Gibraltar artists. Access to the restricted section of the cruise terminal is similar to that of an airport. There are metal detectors, as well as Gibraltar Customs and other officials.
The measures employed were based on recommendations made by Scotland Yard personnel. Security is not limited to the terminal. In addition to security on the land side of the harbour, the waters are patrolled by a combination of Gibraltar Port Authority, Royal Gibraltar Police, Ministry of Defence vessels; the Gibraltar Cruise Terminal opened on 17 July 1997. Cruise ships berth along both sides of the terminal at the northern end of the Western Arm of the North Mole. 940 metres of quay length are available on the North Mole for cruise ships, permitting a total of two large or four medium-sized ships to dock along both sides of the Western Arm. If necessary, more berths can be made available for vessels at other locations in the harbour. On 15 June 2005, the terminal celebrated its one millionth passenger, Sandra Young of the United Kingdom; the Gibraltar Tourist Board made it an event, with a band, honour guard, VIP tour, luncheon. In addition, the passenger from the Sea Princess, accompanied by her husband, received numerous gifts from a variety of Gibraltar companies and organisations.
The cruise terminal has been acknowledged with awards, including two by Dream World Cruise Destinations in 2003 and 2008. Following a severe storm that battered the building in October 2008, the terminal was renovated in time for the 2009 cruise season; the terminal handled three million cruise ship passengers in the fifteen years since the opening in 1997. Passenger traffic doubled over that period. Gibraltar ranks fourth in cruise ports on the Iberian Peninsula, after Spain. On 31 May 2011, a dozen passengers aboard the MS Independence of the Seas received injuries, most minor, after the explosion of a sullage tank that contained water and used oil; the Royal Caribbean International cruise ship had been docked at the cruise terminal on the North Mole, the blast was believed to have occurred as the result of a spark from welding operations on the tank, positioned on the Western Arm of the North Mole. Following the explosion, the vessel moved away from the breakwater. There was no substantial damage to the cruise ship.
Spanish dock workers, welding the tank, a policeman, were injured, one of them seriously. The explosion resulted in a fire that spread to an adjacent tank. Thick, black smoke from the blaze necessitated suspension of flights at Gibraltar International Airport. One of the dock workers, 40-year-old Pedro Zambrano Lopez from La Línea de la Concepción, sustained extensive burns, he was stabilised at St Bernard's Hospital, was transferred to the Virgen del Rocío Hospital in Seville, Spain. He died on 3 August 2011 due to complications of the injuries he suffered; the incident on the North Mole led to multiple investigations of procedures at Nature Port Reception Facilities Ltd, at whose plant the explosion occurred. The investigations were conducted on behalf of Capita Symonds, a consultancy company based in the United Kingdom, whose study of the explosion was commissioned by the Government of Gibraltar. Nature Port, on the other hand, pointed out that the Capita Symonds investigations were private and incomplete, failed to address the inadequate emergency response at the time of the explosion and fire, hired its own investigators.
The company demanded "an independent public inquiry into all aspects of the incident." Nature Port commissioned its own investigation of the emergency response, which found "serious failings on the part of the po