Royal Danish Navy
The Royal Danish Navy is the sea-based branch of the Danish Defence force. The RDN is mainly responsible for defence and maintaining the sovereignty of Danish, Greenlandic. Other tasks include surveillance and rescue, oil recovery and prevention as well as contributions to international tasks. During the period 1509–1814, when Denmark was in a union with Norway, despite this, the navy is now equipped with a number of large state-of-the-art vessels commissioned since the end of the Cold War. This can be explained by its location as the NATO member controlling access to the Baltic. Danish Navy ships carry the prefix KDM in Danish, but this is translated to HDMS in English, Denmark is one of several NATO member states whose navies do not deploy submarines. The geographic layout of Denmark has a coastline to land area ratio of 1,5.9, by comparison, the figure for the Netherlands is 1,92.1 and for the United States,1,493.2. Denmark therefore naturally has long-standing maritime traditions, dating back to the 9th century when the Vikings had small, with time, the defence pacts gave rise to larger, more offensive fleets which the Vikings used for plundering coastal areas.
In the period after the Vikings, and up to the 15th century, indeed, it is said that king Valdemar Sejr had more than 1,000 ships during the conquest of Estonia in 1219. Together they carried more than 30,000 soldiers with horses and supplies, records exist of a unified Danish navy from the late 14th century. Queen Margaret I, who had just founded the Kalmar Union ordered the building of a navy — mainly to defend the union against the Hanseatic League. Earlier the national fleet had consisted of vessels owned and operated by the nobility, the earlier monarchs therefore had to rely on conscription from the nobility, which was not always easy as the monarchy itself often had enemies within the nobility. Queen Margaret I gave instructions for a navy to be constituted and maintained under the control of the monarchy, the nobility still had to provide crews for these ships, though the core crew-members could be employed by the monarch. There were education officers, mainly levied from the nobility, in the 15th century, especially during the reign of King Hans, Danish trade expanded appreciably, increasing the need for the delivery of merchandise.
As shipping was the means of transport at the time. King Hans is credited with establishing a joint Dano-Norwegian fleet in 1509 and they were mainly petty criminals, who had to choose between working in the king’s navy or imprisonment. They received basic training in seamanship and carpentry, enabling them to sail the ships, responsibility for weaponry and combat was still in the hands of conscripted farmers. For these, the country was divided into a number of counties — known in Danish as skipæn and it was during this period that dedicated naval bases and shipyards were founded
A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a fortress, castle, or fortified center, the term is a diminutive of city and thus means little city, so called because it is a smaller part of the city of which it is the defensive core. It is positioned to be the last line of defense, should the enemy breach the other components of the fortification system, a citadel is a term of the third part of a medieval castle, with higher walls than the rest. It was to be the last line of defense before the keep itself, some of the oldest known structures which have served as citadels were built by the Indus Valley Civilization, where the citadel represented a centralised authority. The main citadel in Indus Valley was almost 12 meters tall, the purpose of these structures, remains debated. Though the structures found in the ruins of Mohenjo-daro were walled, they may have been built to divert flood waters. The most well-known is the Acropolis of Athens, but nearly every Greek city-state had one – the Acrocorinth famed as a strong fortress.
In a much period, when Greece was ruled by the Latin Empire, rebels who took power in the city but with the citadel still held by the former rulers could by no means regard their tenure of power as secure. One such incident played an important part in the history of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire, the Hellenistic garrison of Jerusalem and local supporters of the Seleucids held out for many years in the Acra citadel, making Maccabean rule in the rest of Jerusalem precarious. When finally gaining possession of the place, the Maccabeans pointedly destroyed and razed the Acra, a city where the citadel held out against an invading army was not considered conquered. In the Philippines The Ivatan people of the islands of Batanes often built fortifications to protect themselves during times of war. They built their so-called idjangs on hills and elevated areas. These fortifications were likened to European castles because of their purpose. Usually, the entrance to the castles would be via a rope ladder that would only be lowered for the villagers.
In time of war the citadel in many cases afforded retreat to the living in the areas around the town. For example, during the Dutch Wars of 1664-67, King Charles II of England constructed a Royal Citadel at Plymouth, barcelona had a great citadel built in 1714 to intimidate the Catalans against repeating their mid-17th- and early-18th-century rebellions against the Spanish central government. A similar example is the Citadella in Budapest, the Citadelle of Québec still survives as the largest citadel still in official military operation in North America. It is home to the Royal 22nd Regiment of Canada, citadels since the mid 20th century, are commonly military command and control centres built to resist attack commonly aerial or nuclear bombardment. The Military citadels under London such as the underground complex beneath the Ministry of Defense called Pindar is one such example
Operation Ocean Shield
Operation Ocean Shield is NATOs contribution to Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa, an anti-piracy initiative in the Indian Ocean, following the earlier Operation Allied Protector. Naval operations began on 17 August 2009 after being approved by the North Atlantic Council, Operation Ocean Shield focuses on protecting the ships of Operation Allied Provider, which are transporting relief supplies as part of the World Food Programmes mission in the region. The initiative helps strengthen the navies and coast guards of regional states to assist in countering pirate attacks, additionally and South Korea have sent warships to participate in the activities. The US Navy has been the largest contributor of ships followed by the Indian Navy, the fleet of ships is on rotation and is led by a designated leadship. The role of leadship is rotated among the countries involved. Current leadship as of October 2015 is Turkish Frigate TCG GEDIZ, on 10 January 2010, Admiral Pereira da Cunha, of the Portuguese Navy held a meeting regarding piracy with the Puntland coast guard.
Pirates attacked the Panamanian flagged merchantman MV Almezaan on 25 March, one pirate was killed by Almezaans crew during the boarding and shortly afterwards the Spanish Navy frigate Navarra arrived and launched a helicopter. Warning shots were fired and the pirates surrendered without further conflict. Six pirates were taken prisoner for a time before being released in two skiffs and the mother ship was sunk by gunfire. The small Seychelles Coast Guard patrol boat Topaz engaged in battle with pirates five days on 30 March. While patrolling just off the coast of Somalia, Topaz encountered a captured dhow, after warning shots were fired, the dhow seemed to ignore the patrol boat and its occupants eventually opened up with rocket-propelled grenades and small arms fire. The Seychellois engaged and after shooting off 10,000 rounds of machine gun fire, twenty-seven members of the dhows crew were rescued and the Topaz was returning to base when she was attacked by a trawler and two skiffs. Again the Seychellois responded with counter battery and the trawler exploded, one of the skiffs was sunk as well.
Pirate casualties are unknown and one member of the crew was wounded. USS Nicholas was attacked by a skiff on 1 April, while in the waters between the Seychelles and Kenya, the Americans returned fire briefly and three pirates surrendered. Nicholas pursued a mother ship vessel for a while, a team was put on the ship. A little that day, USS Farragut was operating in the area and this was following the attempted seizure of the Sierra Leone flagged tanker MV Evita. The crew of the tanker defended their ship with flares and outmaneuvered the pirates, Operation Dawn of Gulf of Aden was launched by Republic of Korea Navy commandos with support from Oman and the United States in January 2011
Action of 1 April 2010
The frigate USS Nicholas was attacked by small arms from a pirate skiff while steaming off the coast of Kenya and the islands of Seychelles. Nicholas returned fire with a 50-caliber deck gun and disabled the vessel, commander Mark Kesselring ordered the skiff sunk and proceeded to attack the nearby pirate mother ship from which the skiff was operating. After a chase the mothership was captured and two pirates were taken into United States Navy custody. The pirate mothership was likely a small steam powered vessel fitted out as a trawler which are regularly used by Somali pirates. The ship was confiscated by the Americans according to reports and pirates were put in Nicholas brig. That same day, the destroyer USS Farragut, as flagship of Combined Task Force 151, was involved in an attack on a Sierra Leone flagged tanker. The incident occurred in waters north-west of the Seychelles, Evita was fired on by three skiffs but was able to escape and increase speed and due to her crew who shot flares at the rifle and RPG-armed pirates.
The attack was reported to the nearby USS Farragut who arrived in the battle area, the vessels were boarded by American personnel and a SH-60B Seahawk covered the mission from the air. The pirate mother skiff was on by gunfire or explosives and after the pirates were stripped of their means to commit piracy. Eleven pirates were captured in total, several fuel drums and grappling hooks were found aboard the boats. The pirate weapons and other equipment such as ladders were thrown overboard by the Americans before the pirates were captured. Nobody is believed to have been injured during the engagements, the captured pirates from the first incident were detained by the United States Navy until it was determined that they would be transferred to the United States to stand trial for piracy. After capture, the pirates were identified as Mohammed Modin Hasan, Gabul Abdullahi Ali, Abdi Wali Dire, Abdi Mohammed Gurewardher, the five pirates, were put in the custody of the United States Marshal Service and charged with a variety of piracy and weapons related charges.
The pirates were charged and tried in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia in Norfolk, Virginia where they were convicted and sentenced to serve in prison for life
April 2009 raid off Somalia
It occurred during Operation Atalanta, a European Union mission in Somali waters. The pirates had attempted to extract a ransom by holding the yachts occupants hostage, tanit, a privately owned French yacht named after the Phoenician lunar goddess, with its five crew and passengers was sailing to Zanzibar when it was boarded by pirates on 4 April. Among the hostages were a family of three including a boy, and two friends of the family who joined them in Aden. The ships owners, the Lemaçons, started from Vannes in July 2008 and this was a family trip “to escape consumer society”. They planned to visit Kenya and Zanzibar, even after meeting with a couple whose yacht, Carré dAs IV, had been captured by pirates, and rescued by French commandos, they continued on their journey. The pirates headed the vessel for the coast but were two days by a French frigate. French forces attempted to negotiate with the pirates offering them money and offering to exchange the mother, they were overheard discussing using explosives to blow up the yacht.
Fifty commandos were sent from France to a French base at Djibouti on 9 April, the French attempted to negotiate with the pirates, and even offered to exchange one of the hostages for an officer. The pirates refused to cooperate, stating that they could get better terms once they reached the coast, seeing the pirates were uncooperative a sniper on-board one of the vessels managed to shoot down the sails and to damage the mast and the yacht. This the French believed would put them in a better negotiating position, after threats to execute the hostages were heard, the French Navy decided the next day to board the boat and free the hostages. French commandos attacked the vessel from different directions in two speedboats. The pirates opened fire and the special forces fired back. French naval commandos boarded the vessel and rescued the hostages. However, Florent Lemaçon, the captain and father of the three-year-old boy, was being held hostage in his cabin. When French commandos entered, they engaged in a shootout with the pirates, after the fighting ended the four freed hostages were taken in one of the frigates, to Djibouti, and from there transported back to France.
Three pirates were taken to Rennes for questioning
MV Moscow University hijacking
On 5–6 May 2010 Somali Pirates hijacked the MV Moscow University, a Liberian-flagged Russian tanker, in the Gulf of Aden. Her crew was freed by the Russian Navy destroyer Marshal Shaposhnikov the following day, the Russian tanker MV Moscow University was attacked on 5 May 2010 by Somali pirates 500 nautical miles off the coast of Somalia. The pirates would hold the ship for 20 hours, communications were established between the ships captain and the Australian Orion aircraft which relayed communications to the Russian Udaloy-class destroyer Marshal Shaposhnikov. The Marshal Shaposhnikov came to the aid of the Moscow University and it took the destroyer half a day to reach the Moscow University. The pirates fired at the helicopter, and the helicopter returned fire. The captain confirmed to the Russian forces by radio that the crew were safe, two warning shots were fired at the pirates, who claimed that they had hostages. The Marshal Shaposhnikov opened fire on the Moscow University, under the cover of this fire, speedboats carrying Naval Infantry approached the ship, and the troops climbed on board.
After a brief shootout, the pirates were detained and all 23 members of the crew were rescued unharmed. According to the Russian Ministry of Defence, they did not reach the coast, in Summer 2012, a Russian Action film was produced under the name 22 Minutes. The movie was released on May 2,2013 and is based on real events
Action of 18 March 2006
The Action of 18 March 2006 occurred when two United States naval vessels were attacked by pirates. The U. S. ships were part of Combined Task Force 150, by 2006 the lack of any government-controlled naval authority along the Somali coast was taking its toll. Pirate gangs controlled by local warlords started to capture passing merchant ships in an attempt to gain funding by ransoming the ships, as the raids became successful, the pirates became bolder. They began seizing UN aid ships, and even attacked a cruise liner attempting to capture it for ransom, the U. S. and Coalition vessels from Combined Task Force 150 began actively pursuing pirate vessels in an attempt to deter the attacks. On 18 March the destroyer USS Gonzalez intercepted a suspicious ship, USS Gonzalez first noticed the common pirate profile of a diesel boat towing smaller skiffs and, with USS Cape St. George closing from 40 miles away, trailed the suspects until dawn. Shortly before sunrise, the two American ships each sent a pair of rigid-hulled inflatable boats with specially trained boarding teams to investigate, the boats boarding attempt was aborted when the pirates opened fire on them from extremely short range, and they returned fire and withdrew.
The pirates chased the team, opened fire upon the Navy ships with RPGs. Too close for major systems, the two American ships returned fire with small caliber guns. The larger pirate skiff was soon set on fire by a.50 Caliber tracer round fired from the USS Gonzalez hitting and setting ablaze a 55-gallon fuel drum, and burned to the waterline. The two small skiffs were engaged and surrendered to USS Cape St. George upon seeing the larger skiff with all their fuel in flames, by the time the action was over at least one pirate was killed, and 12 pirates were captured. A spokesman for the Somali pirate militia in Hardhere claimed there were 27 pirates that had gone to sea to act as coastguardsmen for the largely lawless state, Cape St. George received minor superficial damage but no US forces were injured. After the action was over, a Dutch fast-combat support ship, HNLMS Amsterdam, provided assistance to the wounded
Action of 11 November 2008
The Action of 11 November 2008 was a naval engagement fought off Somalia between pirates and British forces. Russia has stated that its forces fought off the pirates also, the incident took place 60 nautical miles south of the Yemeni coast, in the Gulf of Aden, and the engagement is a part of Operation Enduring Freedom - Horn of Africa. When the Royal Navy ship HMS Cumberland attempted to board a Somali pirate dhow with twelve pirates on board, after a brief shoot-out with the Royal Marines, two pirates were killed and the dhow was captured by Cumberland. The Times has described the incident as the first time the Royal Navy had been engaged in a fatal shoot-out on the seas in living memory. Russia Today has reported that the incident was the first time Russian forces have moved against Somali pirates, as of 11 November 2008,32 ships had been hijacked in the Gulf of Aden by pirates. The Gulf of Aden has been described as a stretch for ships. To protect commercial vessels off the coast of Somalia, a task force was deployed to the area.
On 11 November pirates on board a dhow attacked MV Powerful, Russian involvement in preventing the pirates from capturing the Powerful has been disputed by the Royal Navy. Later that day, Cumberland detected the dhow, which was towing a skiff, the Royal Marines unit on board Cumberland was dispatched in Rigid Raider craft towards the dhow. The Marines proceeded to circle the dhow, which had on board 12 men armed with rocket launchers and machine guns, the pirates opened fire on them, but no casualties were sustained by the Marines. Returning fire, the Marines killed two Somalis, the pirates subsequently surrendered, and the Marines boarded the dhow. The Royal Navy described the boarding itself as compliant, on board the dhow was a Yemeni male who, despite receiving emergency treatment, died from his injuries. The British Ministry of Defence reported that it was unclear as to whether the injuries were the result of the gunfight. The incident, according to The Times, signalled a new policy of maximum robustness for the Royal Navy on the high seas, the remaining eight men who had been captured on board the dhow were handed over by Cumberland to Kenyan authorities on November 18
The term skiff is used for a number of essentially unrelated styles of small boat. Traditionally these are coastal or river craft used for leisure or fishing and have a one-person or small crew, sailing skiffs have developed into high performance competitive classes. Ship comes from the Old English scip, which has the same Germanic predecessor, an even older root may be found in the Greek σκάφος. The term has been used for a number of styles of craft round the United Kingdom, often small river and they varied from double ended rowing boats to small sailing boats. There are references to skiffs on the River Thames as early as 1812 and 1824 at Oxford. In August 1815, the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley was taken on an expedition by skiff from Old Windsor to Lechlade by Charles Clairmont and he subsequently settled at Marlow where he regularly rowed his skiff through the locks. Shelley drowned sailing in a skiff off the coast of Italy and it was used in the Lady of the Lake by Sir Walter Scott. The Thames skiff became formalised as a design in the early part of the 19th century.
It is a round-bottom clinker-built rowing boat that is very common on the River Thames. Although general usage has declined, skiffs are still used for leisure, during the year, skiffing regattas are held in various riverside towns in England—the major event being the Skiff Championships Regatta at Henley. Akin to the skiff is the Yoal or Yole which is a clinker built boat used for fishing in the Orkney, the boat itself is a version of the Norwegian Oselvar which is similar to a skiff in appearance, while the word is cognate with Yawl. The French Yole is a craft similar to the Thames Skiff and is translated as Skiff. In Dutch and German, Skiff means a single scull, in American usage, the term is used to apply to small sea-going fishing boats. It is referred to historically in literature in Moby-Dick by Herman Melville and The Old Man, the skiff could be powered by sails as well as oars. Originally designed to be powered by rowing, their form has evolved so that they are powered by outboard motors.
The design is still in use today for both work and pleasure craft. They can be made of wood or other materials, There is a similar style of craft in Central America and Mexico, generally called a panga. The term skiff has been applied to motorized boats of small size, the skiff with a sail has developed into specific sailing boats bearing the name skiff. In Sydney, the term was used for a number of racing classes and these were originally heavily crewed and canvassed boats that were relatively short for the canvas and crew carried and were developed from working boats of the time
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay and Islamic nations occurred, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.
Negritos were among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos
Action of 3 June 2007
The Action of 3 June 2007 occurred after a United States Navy dock landing ship attacked pirates hijacking a freighter. The rise of the Islamic Courts Union in Somalia had stopped the spread of piracy in the region with its following of strict Islamic law punishing pirates harshly. When the Ethiopian and Somali government forces overran the ICU, a lack of strict enforcement allowed the pirates to rebound, USS Carter Hall responded to a distress call after the capture of the Danish ship Danica White by pirates. Three pirate skiffs had boarded and seized the vessel, Carter Hall ordered the pirates to cease and desist but was ignored. She began to fire warning shots with small arms across the bow of Danica White to no avail, the pirates merely continued on their course and ignored the US Naval vessel. Carter Hall opened fire upon the pirate skiffs using her 25 mm cannon as well as smaller caliber guns, after much negotiation the pirates finally released the ship and crew to the French vessels Commandant Blaison and La Motte-Picquet on 22 August 2007.
The pirates had demanded 1.5 million dollars ransom in exchange for the release, the crew returned home safely to Denmark on the twenty-eighth after 83 days of captivity. Navy, U. S. ship fired at pirates off Somalia, U. S. warship cant stop pirates off Somalia. Coalition Forces Provide Assistance to M/V Danica White, Danish crew of ship hijacked in Somalia returns home