Tauranga is the most populous city in the Bay of Plenty Region of the North Island of New Zealand. It was settled by Māori late in the 13th century and by Europeans in the early 19th century and was constituted as a city in 1963, Tauranga City is the centre of the fifth largest urban area in New Zealand, with an urban population of 134,400. The city lies in the corner of the Bay of Plenty. Tauranga is one of New Zealands main centres for business, international trade, fashion, the Port of Tauranga is New Zealands largest port in terms of gross export tonnage and efficiency. This sudden population growth has made Tauranga New Zealands 5th largest city, the earliest known settlers were Māori who arrived at Tauranga in the Takitimu and the Mataatua waka in the 13th century. At 9 am on Friday 23 June 1826 the Herald was the first European ship to enter Tauranga Harbour, henry Williams conducted a Christian service at Otamataha Pā. In December 1826 and again on March 2007 the Herald travelled to Tauranga from the Bay of Islands to obtain supplies of potatoes, pigs, in 1835 a Church Missionary Society mission station was established at Tauranga by William Wade.
Rev. Alfred N. Brown arrived at the CMS mission station in 1838, john Morgan visited the mission in 1838. Europeans trading in flax were active in the Bay of Plenty during the 1830s, some were transient, others married local women and settled permanently. The first permanent non-Maori trader was James Farrow, who travelled to Tauranga in 1829, obtaining flax fibre for Australian merchants in exchange for muskets and gunpowder. Farrow acquired an area of 2,000 square metres on 10 January 1838 at Otumoetai Pā from the chiefs Tupaea, Tangimoana and Te Omanu. In 1840, a Catholic mission station was established, bishop Pompallier was given land within the palisades of Otumoetai Pā for a church and a presbytery. The mission station closed in 1863 due to wars in the Waikato district. The Tauranga Campaign took place in and around Tauranga from 21 January to 21 June 1864, the Battle of Gate Pa is the best known. The battle of Gate Pā was an attack on the well fortified Pā and its Māori defenders on 29 April 1864 by British forces made up of approximately 300 men of the 43rd Regiment and a naval brigade.
It was the single most devastating loss of life suffered by the British military in the whole of the Māori Wars, the British casualties were 31 dead including 10 officers and 80 wounded. The Māori defenders abandoned the Pā during the night with casualties estimated at 25 dead, under the Local Government Order 2003, Tauranga became legally a city for a second time, from 1 March 2004. In August 2011, Tauranga received Ultra-Fast Broadband as part of the New Zealand Governments rollout, Tauranga is located around a large harbour that extends along the western Bay of Plenty, and is protected by Matakana Island and the extinct volcano of Mauao
The Elbe is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Krkonoše Mountains of the northern Czech Republic before traversing much of Bohemia and its total length is 1,094 kilometres. The Elbes major tributaries include the rivers Vltava, Havel, Schwarze Elster, the Elbe river basin, comprising the Elbe and its tributaries, has a catchment area of 148,268 square kilometres, the fourth largest in Europe. The basin spans four countries, with its largest parts in Germany, much smaller parts lie in Austria and Poland. The basin is inhabited by 24.5 million people, the Elbe rises at an elevation of about 1,400 metres in the Krkonoše on the northwest borders of the Czech Republic near Labská bouda. Of the numerous small streams whose waters compose the infant river, here the Elbe enters the vast vale named Polabí, and continues on southwards through Hradec Králové and to Pardubice, where it turns sharply to the west. At Kolín some 43 kilometres further on, it bends gradually towards the north-west, at the village of Káraný, a little above Brandýs nad Labem, it picks up the Jizera.
At Mělník its stream is more than doubled in volume by the Vltava, or Moldau, upstream from the confluence the Vltava is in fact much longer, and has a greater discharge and a larger drainage basin. Some distance lower down, at Litoměřice, the waters of the Elbe are tinted by the reddish Ohře, in its northern section both banks of the Elbe are characterised by flat, very fertile marshlands, former flood plains of the Elbe now diked. At Magdeburg there is a viaduct, the Magdeburg Water Bridge, from the sluice of Geesthacht on downstream the Elbe is subject to the tides, the tidal Elbe section is called the Low Elbe. Within the city-state the Unterelbe has a number of streams, such as Dove Elbe, Gose Elbe, Köhlbrand, Northern Elbe, Reiherstieg. Some of which have been disconnected for vessels from the stream by dikes. In 1390 the Gose Elbe was separated from the stream by a dike connecting the two then-islands of Kirchwerder and Neuengamme. The Dove Elbe was diked off in 1437/38 at Gammer Ort and these hydraulic engineering works were carried out to protect marshlands from inundation, and to improve the water supply of the Port of Hamburg.
The Northern Elbe passes the Elbe Philharmonic Hall and is crossed under by the old Elbe Tunnel, a bit more downstream the Low Elbes two main anabranches Northern Elbe and the Köhlbrand reunite south of Altona-Altstadt, a locality of Hamburg. Right after both anabranches reunited the Low Elbe is passed under by the New Elbe Tunnel, the last structural road link crossing the river before the North Sea. At the bay Mühlenberger Loch in Hamburg at kilometre 634, the Northern Elbe and the Southern Elbe used to reunite, leaving the city-state the Lower Elbe passes between Holstein and the Elbe-Weser Triangle with Stade until it flows into the North Sea at Cuxhaven. Near its mouth it passes the entrance to the Kiel Canal at Brunsbüttel before it debouches into the North Sea, the Elbe has been navigable by commercial vessels since 1842, and provides important trade links as far inland as Prague
Charles W. Morgan (ship)
Charles W. Morgan is an American whaling ship built in 1841 whose active service period was during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Ships of this type were used to harvest the blubber of whales for whale oil. The ship has served as a ship since the 1940s. She is the worlds oldest surviving merchant vessel, and the surviving wooden whaling ship from the 19th century American merchant fleet. She was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966, Charles Waln Morgan chose Jethro and Zachariah Hillmans shipyard in New Bedford, Massachusetts to construct a new ship. Charles W. Morgans live oak keel was laid down in February 1841, the bow and stern pieces of live oak were secured to the keel by an apron piece. The sturdy stern post was strengthened with hemlock root and white oak, yellow pine shipped from North Carolina was used for the ships beams and hemlock or hackmatack was used for the hanging knees. Construction of Charles W. Morgan proceeded until April 19,1841, the strike gathered support until it encompassed the shipyard, the oil refineries, and the cooper shops, Morgan was appointed chairman of the employers and given the task of resolving the strike.
Morgan opposed their demands, and a meeting with four master mechanics ended in failure, on May 6, an agreement was reached when the workers accepted a ten-and-a-half-hour workday. Work resumed on the ship without incident and she was launched on July 21,1841, the ship was registered as a caravel of 106 1⁄2 feet in length,27 feet 2 1⁄2 inches inches in breadth, and 13 feet 7 1⁄4 inches in depth. The ship was outfitted at Rotchs Wharf for the two months while preparations were made for its first voyage. The eponymous name, Charles W. Morgan, was rejected by her namesake builder before being used. Captain Thomas Norton sailed Charles W. Morgan into the Atlantic alongside Adeline Gibbs, a stop was made at Porto Pim on Faial Island to gather supplies before crossing the Atlantic. The ship passed Cape Horn, charted a course to the north, on December 13, the men launched in their whaling boats and took their first whale and killing it with the thrust of a lance under the side fin. Charles W. Morgan entered the port of Callau in early February, in 1844, the ship sailed to the Kodiak Grounds before sailing for home on August 18.
Charles W. Morgan returned to her port in New Bedford on January 2,1845.56. In her 80 years of service from her port of New Bedford, Massachusetts. Charles W. Morgan, in total, brought home 54,483 barrels of sperm and she sailed in the Indian and South Atlantic Oceans, surviving ice and snow storms
A surfboat is an oar-driven boat designed to enter the ocean from the beach in heavy surf or severe waves. It is often used in lifesaving or rescue missions where the most expedient access to victims is directly from the beach, a broad stern presented to steep and breaking waves when approaching shore can result in broaching and swamping or capsizing of the boat. Therefore, surf boats have a stern and usually a fairly marked sheer. The best-known exception to this nature of surf boats, is the coble of north-eastern England. Here, the problem was resolved by beaching stern first. The run was broad and straight so that once the boat had beached, beaching the boat was a special skill which involved unshipping the rudder at the right moment. Because they do not fit the usual double-ended pattern, cobles are not normally called surf boats, until the 1950s, the most widely known surfboats were those of Accra, Ghana. Until a port was built, commercial cargoes were landed through the surf by very skillful boatmen with strong arms, in Tristan da Cunha and Pitcairn Island the surf boats are known as longboats.
Surf boat rowing is very popular in Australia and New Zealand, usually associated with Surf Life Saving clubs, surf boat crews are trained in life saving skills as well as boat handling technique
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990. During this Cold War era, NATO-aligned West Germany and Warsaw Pact-aligned East Germany were divided by the Inner German border, after 1961 West Berlin was physically separated from East Berlin as well as from East Germany by the Berlin Wall. This situation ended when East Germany was dissolved and its five states joined the ten states of the Federal Republic of Germany along with the reunified city-state of Berlin. With the reunification of West and East Germany, the Federal Republic of Germany, enlarged now to sixteen states and this period is referred to as the Bonn Republic by historians, alluding to the interwar Weimar Republic and the post-reunification Berlin Republic. The Federal Republic of Germany was established from eleven states formed in the three Allied Zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France, US and British forces remained in the country throughout the Cold War.
Its population grew from roughly 51 million in 1950 to more than 63 million in 1990, the city of Bonn was its de facto capital city. The fourth Allied occupation zone was held by the Soviet Union, as a result, West Germany had a territory about half the size of the interbellum democratic Weimar Republic. At the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided among the Western and Eastern blocs, Germany was de facto divided into two countries and two special territories, the Saarland and divided Berlin. The Federal Republic of Germany claimed a mandate for all of Germany. It took the line that the GDR was an illegally constituted puppet state, though the GDR did hold regular elections, these were not free and fair. For all practical purposes the GDR was a Soviet puppet state, from the West German perspective the GDR was therefore illegitimate. Three southwestern states of West Germany merged to form Baden-Württemberg in 1952, in addition to the resulting ten states, West Berlin was considered an unofficial de facto 11th state.
It recognised the GDR as a de facto government within a single German nation that in turn was represented de jure by the West German state alone. From 1973 onward, East Germany recognised the existence of two German countries de jure, and the West as both de facto and de jure foreign country, the Federal Republic and the GDR agreed that neither of them could speak in the name of the other. The first chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who remained in office until 1963, had worked for an alignment with NATO rather than neutrality. He not only secured a membership in NATO but was a proponent of agreements that developed into the present-day European Union, when the G6 was established in 1975, there was no question whether the Federal Republic of Germany would be a member as well. With the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989, symbolised by the opening of the Berlin Wall, East Germany voted to dissolve itself and accede to the Federal Republic in 1990. Its five post-war states were reconstituted along with the reunited Berlin and they formally joined the Federal Republic on 3 October 1990, raising the number of states from 10 to 16, ending the division of Germany
It is composed of 118 geographically dispersed islands and atolls stretching over an expanse of more than 2,000 kilometres in the South Pacific Ocean. Its total land area is 4,167 square kilometres, among its 118 islands and atolls,67 are inhabited. Tahiti, which is located within the Society Islands, is the most populous island and it has more than 68% of the population of the islands in 2012. Although not a part of its territory, Clipperton Island was administered from French Polynesia until 2007. Following the Great Polynesian Migration, European explorers visited the islands of French Polynesia on several occasions and whaling ships visited. In 1842, the French took over the islands and established a French protectorate they called Etablissements des français en Océanie, in 1946, the EFOs became an overseas territory under the constitution of the French Fourth Republic, and Polynesians were granted the right to vote through citizenship. In 1957, the EFOs were renamed French Polynesia, French Polynesia as we know it today was one of the last places on Earth to be settled by humans.
Scientists believe the Great Polynesian Migration happened around 1500 BC as Austronesian people went on a journey using celestial navigation to find islands in the South Pacific Ocean, the first islands of French Polynesia to be settled were the Marquesas Islands in about 200 BC. The Polynesians ventured southwest and discovered the Society Islands around AD300, European encounters began in 1521 when Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, sailing at the service of the Spanish Crown, sighted Puka-Puka in the Tuāmotu-Gambier Archipelago. Over a century later, British explorer Samuel Wallis visited Tahiti in 1767, French explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville visited Tahiti in 1768, while British explorer James Cook arrived in 1769. A short-lived Spanish settlement was created in 1774, and for a time some maps bore the name Isla de Amat after Viceroy Amat, in 1772, Dutchman Jakob Roggeveen came across Bora Bora in the Society Islands. Christian missions began with Spanish priests who stayed in Tahiti for a year, protestants from the London Missionary Society settled permanently in Polynesia in 1797.
King Pōmare II of Tahiti was forced to flee to Moorea in 1803, he, French Catholic missionaries arrived on Tahiti in 1834, their expulsion in 1836 caused France to send a gunboat in 1838. In 1842, Tahiti and Tahuata were declared a French protectorate, the capital of Papeetē was founded in 1843. In 1880, France annexed Tahiti, changing the status from that of a protectorate to that of a colony, the island groups were not officially united until the establishment of the French protectorate in 1889. In the 1880s, France claimed the Tuamotu Archipelago, which belonged to the Pōmare Dynasty. Having declared a protectorate over Tahuata in 1842, the French regarded the entire Marquesas Islands as French, in 1885, France appointed a governor and established a general council, thus giving it the proper administration for a colony. The islands of Rimatara and Rūrutu unsuccessfully lobbied for British protection in 1888, postage stamps were first issued in the colony in 1892
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
SS Great Britain
SS Great Britain is a museum ship and former passenger steamship, which was advanced for her time. She was the longest passenger ship in the world from 1845 to 1854 and she was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel for the Great Western Steamship Companys transatlantic service between Bristol and New York. While other ships had been built of iron or equipped with a screw propeller and she was the first iron steamer to cross the Atlantic, which she did in 1845, in the time of 14 days. The ship is 322 ft in length and has a 3 and she was powered by two inclined 2 cylinder engines of the direct-acting type, with twin 88 in bore, 6-foot stroke cylinders. She was provided with secondary sail power, the four decks provided accommodation for a crew of 120, plus 360 passengers who were provided with cabins and promenade saloons. When launched in 1843, Great Britain was by far the largest vessel afloat, in 1852 she was sold for salvage and repaired. Great Britain carried thousands of immigrants to Australia from 1852 until converted to sail in 1881, three years later, she was retired to the Falkland Islands where she was used as a warehouse, quarantine ship and coal hulk until scuttled in 1937.
In 1970, following a donation by Sir Jack Hayward that paid for the vessel to be towed back to the UK. Now listed as part of the National Historic Fleet, she is a visitor attraction and museum ship in Bristol Harbour. After the initial success of its first liner, SS Great Western of 1838, the same engineering team that had collaborated so successfully on Great Western—Isambard Brunel, Thomas Guppy, Christopher Claxton and William Patterson—was again assembled. This time however, whose reputation was at its height, construction was carried out in a specially adapted dry dock in Bristol, England. Two chance encounters were to affect the design of Great Britain. In late 1838, John Lairds 213-foot English Channel packet ship Rainbow—the largest iron-hulled ship in service—made a stop at Bristol, Brunel despatched his associates Christopher Claxton and William Patterson to make a return voyage to Antwerp on Rainbow to assess the utility of the new building material. Both men returned as converts to iron-hulled technology, and Brunel scrapped his plans to build a wooden ship, Great Britains builders recognised a number of advantages of iron over the traditional wooden hull.
Wood was becoming more expensive, while iron was getting cheaper, Iron hulls were not subject to dry rot or woodworm, and they were lighter in weight and less bulky. The chief advantage of the hull was its much greater structural strength. The practical limit on the length of a ship is about 300 feet. Iron hulls are far less subject to hogging, so that the size of an iron-hulled ship is much greater
Cutty Sark is a British clipper ship. She continued as a ship until purchased in 1922 by retired sea captain Wilfred Dowman. After his death, Cutty Sark was transferred to the Thames Nautical Training College, by 1954, she had ceased to be useful as a cadet ship and was transferred to permanent dry dock at Greenwich, for public display. Cutty Sark is listed by National Historic Ships as part of the National Historic Fleet, the ship has been damaged by fire twice in recent years, first on 21 May 2007 while undergoing conservation. She was restored and was reopened to the public on 25 April 2012, on 19 October 2014 she was damaged in a smaller fire. Cutty Sark was ordered by shipping magnate John Willis, who operated a company founded by his father. The company had a fleet of clippers and regularly took part in the tea trade from China to Britain. In 1868 the brand new Aberdeen built clipper Thermopylae set a time of 61 days port to port on her maiden voyage from London to Melbourne. It is uncertain how the shape for Cutty Sark was chosen.
Willis chose Hercules Linton to design and build the ship but Willis already possessed another ship, The Tweed, which he considered to have exceptional performance. The Tweed was a designed by Oliver Lang based on the lines of an old French frigate. She and a ship were purchased by Willis, who promptly sold the second ship plus engines from The Tweed for more than he paid for both. The Tweed was lengthened and operated as a fast sailing vessel, Willis commissioned two all-iron clippers with designs based upon The Tweed and Blackadder. Linton was taken to view The Tweed in dry dock, Willis considered that The Tweeds bow shape was responsible for its notable performance, and this form seems to have been adopted for Cutty Sark. Linton, felt that the stern was too barrel shaped, the broader stern increased the buoyancy of the ships stern, making it lift more in heavy seas so it was less likely that waves would break over the stern, and over the helmsman at the wheel. The square bilge was carried forward through the centre of the ship, in the matter of masts Cutty Sark followed the design of The Tweed, with similar good rake and with the foremast on both ships being placed further aft than was usual.
A contract for Cutty Sarks construction was signed on 1 February 1869 with the firm of Scott & Linton and their shipyard was at Dumbarton on the River Leven on a site previously occupied by shipbuilders William Denny & Brothers. The contract required the ship to be completed six months at a contracted price of £17 per ton
Edwin Fox is the worlds second oldest surviving merchant sailing ship and the only surviving ship that transported convicts to Australia. She is unique in that she is the only intact hull of a wooden sailing ship built to British specifications surviving in the world outside the Falkland Islands. Edwin Fox carried settlers to both Australia and New Zealand and carried troops in the Crimean War, the ship is dry-docked at The Edwin Fox Maritime Centre at Picton in New Zealand. She was built of teak in Calcutta in 1853 and her voyage was to London via the Cape of Good Hope. She went into service in the Crimean War as a troop ship, on 14 February 1856 she began her first voyage to Melbourne, carrying passengers, moved to trading between Chinese ports. In 1858 she was chartered by the British Government as a ship bound for Fremantle. Conditions on board for the four to six-month voyage were harsh and luggage strictly limited, on arrival they often found conditions much harsher than expected, and were faced with being cut off from family and friends in distant Europe, sometimes for life.
Edwin Fox was overtaken by the age of steam, and in the 1880s she was refitted as a floating freezer hulk for the sheep industry in New Zealand. She was towed to Picton in the South Island on 12 January 1897 where she continued as a freezer ship. By this time she had long since lost her rigging and masts, and suffered holes cut in her sides, the ship was in use until 1950, abandoned to rot at her moorings. In 1965 she was bought by the Edwin Fox Society for the sum of one shilling. In 1967 she was towed to Shakespeare Bay where she remained for the next 20 years, after much further fundraising the ship was refloated and towed to her final home, a dry dock on the Picton waterfront. She floated in and the dock was drained to begin restoration, initially it was planned to restore the ship completely, replacing rigging and refurbishing the interior. It has since decided that this is not practical, not only for reasons of finance. She is thus preserved as a hull with an adjacent informative museum, the trust are looking for sponsors to continue their work on this unique vessel.
She has been given a category I registration from Heritage New Zealand, the Edwin Fox, New Zealand from H2G2
Hamburg, officially Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, is the second largest city in Germany and the eighth largest city in the European Union. It is the second smallest German state by area and its population is over 1.7 million people, and the wider Hamburg Metropolitan Region covers more than 5.1 million inhabitants. The city is situated on the river Elbe, the official long name reflects Hamburgs history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state, and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a sovereign state. Prior to the changes in 1919, the civic republic was ruled by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Though repeatedly destroyed by the Great Fire of Hamburg, the floods and military conflicts including WW2 bombing raids, the city managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. On the river Elbe, Hamburg is a port and a global service, media and industrial hub, with headquarters and facilities of Airbus, Blohm + Voss, Beiersdorf.
The radio and television broadcaster NDR, Europes largest printing and publishing firm Gruner + Jahr, Hamburg has been an important financial centre for centuries, and is the seat of Germanys oldest stock exchange and the worlds second oldest bank, Berenberg Bank. The city is a fast expanding tourist destination for domestic and international visitors. It ranked 16th in the world for livability in 2015, the ensemble Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel was declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science and education hub with several universities and institutes and its creative industries and major cultural venues include the renowned Elbphilharmonie and Laeisz concert halls, various art venues, music producers and artists. It is regarded as a haven for artists, gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule. Hamburg is known for theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Paulis Reeperbahn is among the best known European entertainment districts, Hamburg is on the southern point of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the north-east.
It is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Alster, the city centre is around the Binnenalster and Außenalster, both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes. The island of Neuwerk and two neighbouring islands Scharhörn and Nigehörn, in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are part of Hamburg. The neighbourhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land region, neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburgs highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at 116.2 metres AMSL. Hamburg has a climate, influenced by its proximity to the coast
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup détat, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation, since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces.
South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since 1961 the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since 1994 the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa.
South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area is a UNESCO World Heritage site and has termed the Cradle of Humankind