Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Caltrain is a California commuter rail line on the San Francisco Peninsula and in the Santa Clara Valley. The northern terminus of the line is in San Francisco at 4th, extra trains were often run for special events held in AT&T Park in San Francisco, Stanford Stadium in Palo Alto, and SAP Center in San Jose. Caltrain operates 92 weekday trains,6 of which are extended to Gilroy, weekday ridership in February 2016 averaged 62,416, up 83% since 2010. Caltrain is governed by the Peninsula Corridor Joint Powers Board which consists of agencies from the three counties served by Caltrain, San Francisco, San Mateo and Santa Clara, each member agency has three representatives on a nine-member Board of Directors. The member agencies are the City and County of San Francisco, SamTrans, Caltrain has 29 regular stops, one football-only stop, and two weekend-only stops. As of October 2012 Caltrain runs 92 weekday trains,36 Saturday, the original commuter railroad built in 1863 was the San Francisco and San Jose Rail Road, it was purchased by Southern Pacific in 1870.
Southern Pacific double-tracked the line in 1904 and rerouted it via Bayshore, after 1945, ridership declined with the rise in automobile use, in 1977 SP petitioned the state Public Utilities Commission to discontinue the commute operation because of ongoing losses. To preserve the service, in 1980 Caltrans contracted with SP. Caltrans purchased new locomotives and rolling stock, replacing SP equipment in 1985, Caltrans upgraded stations, added shuttle buses to nearby employers, and dubbed the operation CalTrain. The Peninsula Corridor Joint Powers Board was formed in 1987 to manage the line, San Mateo and Santa Clara Counties commissioned Earth Metrics, Inc. to prepare an Environmental Impact Report on right-of-way acquisition and expansion of operations. With state and local funding, the PCJPB bought the right of way between San Francisco and San Jose from SP in 1991. The following year, PCJPB took responsibility for CalTrain operations and selected Amtrak as the contract operator, PCJPB extended the CalTrain service from San Jose to Gilroy, connecting to VTA Light Rail at Tamien Station in San Jose.
In July 1995 CalTrain became accessible to passengers in wheelchairs, five months later, CalTrain increased the bicycle limit to 24 per train, making the service attractive to commuters in bicycle-friendly cities such as San Francisco and Palo Alto. In July 1997 the current logo was adopted, and the name became Caltrain. A year later, VTA extended its rail service from north Santa Clara to the Mountain View Caltrain station. In June 2003, a connection for the Bay Area Rapid Transit. In 2006, Caltrain announced that wireless internet access would be available on trains at no additional charge, Caltrain invested more than $1 million in researching and testing WiFi in 2006. Caltrain still hopes to offer the service eventually as part of a comprehensive communication package
Larkspur Landing, known as Larkspur Ferry Terminal, is the main Golden Gate Ferry terminal in Larkspur, Marin County, California. The terminal is a regional hub receiving heavy service throughout the North Bay for commuter ferries to downtown San Francisco. Among various San Francisco Bay Area properties owned by San Francisco-born civil engineer Alfred Finnila in the 1970s was the known as Larkspur Landing in Larkspur. In the mid-1970s, Finnila sold and rented parts of Larkspur Landing to the City of Larkspur and to various businesses and it is the main Golden Gate Ferry terminal in Larkspur, Marin County. Constructed in the mid-1970s, Larkspur Ferry Terminal rose from the ashes of the long demolished Hutchinsons Rock Quarry, the Ferry Terminal was built with an 18, 000-square-foot open air space frame, or tetrahedral-octahedral tesselation, a canopy designed by San-Francisco-based architect Jacques de Brer. The Ferry Terminal opened on December 11,1976, regular commute service started on December 13,1976.
The ex-quarry-property spawned the Larkspur Landing Shopping Center, with adjacent apartments and it will serve as an intermodal station, where passengers can transfer to San-Francisco-bound ferries. Director Don Siegel filmed the scenes of the 1971 movie Dirty Harry on the area of Larkspur Landing. Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit Alfred Finnila Prime Rib and Boxcars, Whatever Happened to Victoria Station, Victoria Station is still working on its restructuring. March 19,1986 - Los Angeles Times, Larkspur Landing, CA « Dirty Harry Filming Locations. 20sep2002 Dirty Harry - filming locations
Sonoma County Transit
Sonoma County Transit is a public transportation system based in Sonoma County, California. SCT operates a number of routes as either local or inter-community routes, a place indicated in italics means that the area is not served by all trips of a route. Notes, Routes that have no lower supplemental text operate daily, commuter Services SCT fares vary according to the length of a patrons trip. The transit system is divided into zones, wherein the fare depends upon the number of zones traveled. Notes, Student fare is applied to anyone 18 years or younger or pursuing an education on a full-time basis, a valid I. D. current class schedule, or student activities card must be shown by the driver to pay student fare. Half-fare is applied to seniors over 60 years old or persons with disabilities, proofs of identity that may be shown to pay half-fare include any proof of age, Medicare Card, documentation for a DMV placard, or a Regional Transit Connection Discount Card*. SCT offers various passes that can be used for all services, Although the MonthlyPASS and the 31-DayPASS are valid for one month, there are certain differences between the two.
The MonthlyPASS is a pass good for the calendar month for which it is issued. The MonthlyPASS is nontransferable, and it is to be used only by the person for whom it was purchased. The 31-DayPASS is valid for 31 days from the date of first use, the 20-Ride CountywidePASS is a convenient 20-ride pass that eliminates the need to have the exact change for bus fare. The FastPASS is not discounted, however, it has the value as paying cash fare. There is no date for this PASS, and it is good on any Sonoma County Transit route for the number of zones purchased. During the summer, SCT offers a Cruisin Pass that allows unlimited rides to patrons 18 years old and younger for $23. SCT provides free transfers to passengers after paying a fare for the number of zones intended to travel. Prices for Additional Zones, Adults, $0.55 Students, $0.50 Half-fare, $0.25 Transferring from Santa Rosa CityBus, Petaluma Transit, valid transfers from all other systems are worth $0.25 of the total fare. Customers transferring from Sonoma County Transit to Golden Gate Transit will receive a $1.00 fare credit for adults for continuing travel on GGT, hand the SCT transfer to the bus operator to receive the appropriate credit.
SCT has agreements with Healdsburg Transit aside from the three transit agencies mentioned above. Sonoma County Paratransit is designed to serve the needs of individuals with disabilities within Sonoma County and it adheres to ADA standards to serve areas within 3/4 of a mile from any public fixed-route service
VINE Transit is a public transportation service in Napa County, United States, it is managed under the Napa Valley Transportation Authority and operated by Transdev. The system offers service throughout the County along with providing connections to other public transportation systems in adjacent counties. The Napa VINE provides services to the cities, towns. Most buses are painted white with the previous VINE logo printed on the side of the bus, the DE40LF buses offer artwork promoting VINEs environmentally friendly features, these buses were wrapped to promote Spare the Air. In addition, a number of Gillig Phantom buses exclusive to Route 21, are wrapped in advertising promoting that route, the livery was simply a green bordered red horizontal stripe with City of Napa written near the front in white letters. VINE Go and Calistoga Shuttle use Ford-based ElDorado National Aerolite cutaways, Yountville Trolley features a Hometown Trolley Mainstreet tourist trolley that is painted green on red.
VINE Transit in Napa operates a system of eight local. Unless noted, Sunday service is not provided, VINE manages and operates a number of deviated fixed-route or dial-a-ride bus services in other cities and towns using different brand names. American Canyon Transit is a deviated fixed-route service in American Canyon that operates two routes, one for service and another for normal service. ACT connects with SolTrans Route 1, and VINE Routes 11 and 29, Calistoga Shuttle is an on-demand dial-a-ride service that operates within Calistoga St. Helena VINE is a deviated fixed route service that operates a route within the city of St. Helena. It connects to VINE Routes 10 and 29, Yountville Trolley is a deviated fixed route service that operates a north-south route in the city of Yountville. It connects to VINE Routes 10 and 29, to board a VINE bus, a passenger must either present a pass, Clipper Card, transfer slip or pay a cash fare. VINE offers discount passes in 31-day and 20-ride formats, a 31-day pass offers unlimited rides for 31 consecutive days from the first day of use on regular routes, there are two separate types of 31-day passes for Route 29.
For 20-ride passes, one use is used to board a regular bus, transfer slips are issued to passengers who pay cash fare or use punch passes. They are used to transfer from one route to another without the need to pay an additional fare or punch. They can be used on buses for an additional charge. Since 2014, Clipper Cards are accepted and various 31-day passes can be loaded onto the card, if nothing is presented, a cash fare must be paid. Below lists the fare and pass prices for routes 1 through 11, Route 25 fares are $1.60 for all fare types, however local passes can be used on the route
Marin Transit is a public bus agency in Marin County, California, in the United States. Originally formed in 1964 as Marin County Transit District, Marin Transit was re-branded on 30 July 2007 and now provides a variety of fixed-route and demand-response services using 4 contractors. Marin Transit was formed by a vote of the people of Marin County in 1964 and was given the responsibility for providing local service within Marin County. It has since played a key role in providing local service within the county through various funding sources. For a history of Marin Transit service in relation to Golden Gate Transit, Marin Transit serves all major cities and communities within Marin County except Muir Beach and Peacock Gap. Route information listed below is current as of 12 June 2016, see Golden Gate Transit for information on Regional and Commute bus routes serving Marin County, which have no affiliation with Marin Transit. Note, Italicized locations are served on select trips only, west Marin Stagecoach routes do not operate on Thanksgiving and New Years Day.
Supplemental routes operate on school days only, Marin Transit provides two services that do not operate on fixed routes. The Novato Dial-a-Ride provides curb-to-curb demand-response service within the City of Novato by reservation only, reservations for weekday service are allowed up to seven days in advance, with same-day service available as space permits. Only same-day reservations are permitted for weekend service, no service is provided on holidays. Complementary paratransit service mandated by the Americans with Disabilities Act is operated within Marin County using the Marin Access name, service is available to eligible passengers by advance reservation. All Marin Transit fares, except the 6-month and yearly passes, are valid on Golden Gate Transit bus routes within Marin County. The Muir Woods Shuttle has special fares, which are described below, Clipper is not available on the Muir Woods Shuttle. The fares and payment policy on the Muir Woods Shuttle differ from other Marin Transit routes, the adult round-trip fare is $5.00 and is collected at the Muir Woods Visitor Center in addition to the park entrance fee.
A receipt must be shown upon boarding the bus for the return trip, the Marin Access fare is $2.00 or $2.50, depending upon the origin and destination of the trip. Youth Passes are available to youths ages 5 through 18, the pass allows unlimited rides on any Marin Transit route. However, unlike other Marin Transit fare media, the passes are not valid on any Golden Gate Transit bus routes, Golden Gate Transit San Rafael Transit Center
Altamont Corridor Express
The Altamont Corridor Express is a commuter rail service in California, connecting Stockton and San Jose. ACE is named for the Altamont Pass, through which it runs, service is managed by the San Joaquin Regional Rail Commission, and operations are contracted to Herzog Transit Services, using AAR assigned reporting mark HTSX. The 86-mile route includes ten stops, with travel time about 2 hours and 10 minutes end-to-end, the tracks are owned by Union Pacific Railroad. ACE uses Bombardier BiLevel Coaches and MPI F40PH-3C locomotives, service began on October 19,1998, with two weekday round trips. A third round trip was added in May 2001, followed by a round trip in October 2012. As of 2016, average ridership is 4,900. Under the ACEforward program, a number of improvements to the service are being considered and these include a rerouted line through Tracy, an extension to Modesto and Merced, and connections to BART at Union City and Tri-Valley. In November 1990, San Joaquin County voters passed Measure K, the highest-priority project was the establishment of passenger rail service to San Jose.
In 1995, San Joaquin County and seven cities along the formed the San Joaquin Regional Rail Commission to oversee the creation of the service. In May 1997, the Altamont Commuter Express Joint Powers Authority was formed by the SJRRC, Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and that agreement formalized financial support, administrative processes, and governance for the rail service. The operation is funded by a variety of state and federal sources, cost sharing for capital projects, excluding stations, during the initial 36 months of service was determined by the JPA on a case-by-case basis and approved by each of the member agencies. The initial purchase of rolling stock, construction of stations, and other start-up costs, Station improvements are the responsibility of the county in which the station is located. ACE pays the owner of the right of way, Union Pacific Railroad, about $1.5 million per year, service began on October 19,1998, which two daily round trips running to San Jose in the morning and Stockton in the evening.
The original service used two trainsets, each with 4 bilevel coach cars, for a seated capacity of 1120 passengers in each direction daily. In September 1999, the service reached 1000 daily riders per direction, the trip was added after ACE funded $3 million in track improvements to reduce conflicts with Union Pacific freight trains and Amtrak Capitol Corridor trains. By early 2001, ACE regularly carried more than 700 daily standees, although the third train added 560 seats in each direction, it brought an immediate increase in 380 daily riders. ACE planned to add a fourth round trip in the year, however, by late 2001, the deepening dot-com recession was severely hurting ridership, and expansion plans were put on hold. On June 30,2003, the ACE JPA was dissolved in favor of a Cooperative Services Agreement between the three member agencies, on January 6,2003, ACE introduced the Stockton Solution Shuttle, allowing Stockton passengers to use the ACE trip which terminated at Lathrop/Manteca
F Market & Wharves
The F Market & Wharves line is one of several light rail lines in San Francisco, California. Despite its heritage status, the F Market & Wharves line is an part of Munis intermodal urban transport network, operating at frequent intervals for 20 hours a day. It carries local commuters and tourists alike, linking residential, unlike the San Francisco cable car system, standard Muni fares are levied. The streetcar line was discontinued in 1951 and was replaced by the 30-Stockton route, the F-line designation was therefore available for use by the current line, although that service is over a completely different route from the F-line of 1915 to 1951. Market Street is a major artery for the city of San Francisco. In the 1960s construction began on the Market Street Subway, which would carry BARTs trains on its lower level, all streetcar lines currently operating in the subway previously ran on the surface of Market Street, and were eventually diverted into the upper level of the tunnel. This diversion, together with the provision of new rail cars.
The diversion of the Market Street streetcar lines into tunnel and the replacement of the existing streetcars with new rail cars was completed by November 1982. However, the trackage on Market Street was retained. In 1982, San Franciscos cable car lines were shut down for almost two years to allow for a major rebuild, to provide an alternative tourist attraction during this period, the San Francisco Historic Trolley Festivals began in 1983. These summertime operations of vintage streetcars on Market Street were a joint project of the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce, the trolley festival route went from the Transbay Terminal at First and Mission Streets to Market, up the retained Market Street tracks to Duboce Avenue. From there, it followed a temporary streetcar detour built in the 1970s to bypass subway construction under Market, Church Street, the Trolley Festival proved so successful it was repeated every year until 1987. In that year, preparation began for the introduction of a permanent F line, after that year’s festival finished, Muni replaced the old Market Street tracks with new ones, restoring tracks to upper Market Street and recreating a line to Castro.
Different types of streetcars were evaluated to provide the backbone of the F-line fleet, resulting in the decision to use the PCC car. Fourteen such cars were acquired second-hand from Philadelphia to add to three of Muni’s own retired double-ended PCCs, at that point in history, this was a rare instance in which a streetcar replaced a bus line in operation, rather than the other way around. Ridership exceeded expectation, and the need for extra cars resulted in the acquisition of ten Peter Witt style cars just being retired in the city of Milan, Italy. These cars were built in the 1920s to a once common in North American cities. The Embarcadero is the eastern waterfront roadway of San Francisco, along San Francisco Bay, at one time busy with port and ferry related traffic, it fell into decline as freight transferred to the container terminals of Oakland and the Bay Bridge replaced the ferries
Transportation in the San Francisco Bay Area
Transportation in the San Francisco Bay Area is reliant on a complex multimodal infrastructure consisting of roads, highways, tunnels and bike and pedestrian paths. A2011 Brookings Institution study ranked the San Francisco MSA and the San Jose MSA sixteenth and second, another nationwide study, conducted by the University of Minnesota in 2014, ranked the San Francisco MSA second and San Jose MSA tenth. Despite this, the San Francisco Bay Area remains the second most traffic-congested region in the country with a declining per capita use of public transit, the following airports are served by commercial airlines. In addition there are general aviation airports in the region. San Francisco International Airport The busiest in the region, and an international hub airport in California second only to LAX. Hub to United Airlines and Virgin America, Oakland International Airport The second-busiest airport in the region and a major base airport for Southwest Airlines. Oakland International Airport is the oldest of the Bay Areas civilian airports still in use, the site was chosen due to its superior weather conditions for aircraft operations.
Mineta San Jose International Airport The third-busiest and fastest-growing airport in the Bay Area, another minor airport is Charles M. Schulz - Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa. It is served by two airlines, Horizon Air and Allegiant Air. In addition to rail and bus systems, there are public and private ferry services, such as Golden Gate Ferry. Most of the larger agencies accept the Clipper Card, a contactless smart card. An extensive rail infrastructure that provides a mix of services exists within the nine Bay Area counties, an expansion that is currently under construction will build an additional station in Alameda County and bring BART south into Santa Clara County by 2016. The Millbrae Intermodal Terminal provides transfers between Caltrain and BART, the Altamont Commuter Express, commonly known as ACE, provides commuter rail service, but from the Central Valley into Silicon Valley, terminating in the San Jose Diridon Station. In addition, Amtrak has a presence throughout the Bay Area, stations in Martinez and Emeryville feature Coast Starlight and California Zephyr service.
The Capitol Corridor connects Bay Area cities to Sacramento, and features BART transfer stations at Richmond, a series of overlapping bus agencies provide additional public transit coverage to Bay Area regions both served and not served by rail transit. All of these provide limited night bus service, which are intended to shadow the rail routes that are closed during the nighttime hours for maintenance. The ferry, along all the major train and bus operators. In addition, Bay Area residents may rent bicycles from the Bay Area Bike Share in certain parts of San Francisco, San Mateo, until 1971 the Southern Pacific Railroad operated from its Third and Townsend Depot commuter trains to San Jose and long distance trains to Los Angeles
Larkspur is a city in Marin County, United States. Larkspur is located 3 miles south of San Rafael, at an elevation of 43 feet, as of the 2010 Census, the citys population was 11,926. Larkspur is located north of San Francisco near Mount Tamalpais, Larkspurs Police Department is shared with that of the neighboring Corte Madera and town of San Anselmo as the Central Marin Police Authority. Intersecting Larkspurs downtown is Madrone Canyon, a residential area amidst a redwood grove. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 3.24 sq mi.3.03 sq mi of it is land and 0.22 sq mi of it is water. Charles W. Wright laid out the town in 1887, the first post office opened in 1891. Larkspurs Downtown Historic District, known as Old Downtown Larkspur, is a district that was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. The restored Art Deco Lark Theater is part of this downtown district, scenes in the 1949 film noir Impact featured several areas around Larkspur, including the home and gas station of the Probert family, in the location now occupied by The Tavern at Lark Creek.
The final scenes of Clint Eastwoods 1971 movie Dirty Harry were filmed in Larkspur at the old Hutchison Gravel Quarry, buddy Biancalana, former shortstop for the Kansas City Royals Matt Doyle, Broadway actor. Leonard Gardner, author of the novel Fat City, lives in Larkspur, janis Joplins last known residence was located in Larkspur at 380 West Baltimore Avenue. Ki Longfellow grew up in Larkspurs Madrone Canyon, leon Uris wrote his acclaimed first novel, Battle Cry, in Larkspur. In the United States House of Representatives, Larkspur is in Californias 2nd congressional district, from 2008 to 2012, Huffman represented Marin County in the California State Assembly. In the California State Legislature, Larkspur is in, the 10th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Marc Levine the 2nd Senate District, the 2010 United States Census reported that Larkspur had a population of 11,926. The population density was 3,677.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Larkspur was 10,311 White,186 African American,26 Native American,563 Asian,13 Pacific Islander,343 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 918 persons.
The Census reported that 11,803 people lived in households,42 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 329 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 74 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,502 households were made up of individuals and 1,009 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.00. There were 2,896 families, the family size was 2.77