The New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong, alongside Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula. It makes up 86.2% of Hong Kong's territory, contains around half of the population of Hong Kong. It is the region described in the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory. According to that treaty, the territories comprise the mainland area north of the Boundary Street of Kowloon Peninsula and south of the Sham Chun River, as well as over 200 outlying islands, including Lantau Island, Lamma Island, Cheung Chau, Peng Chau in the territory of Hong Kong. After New Kowloon was defined from the area between the Boundary Street and the Kowloon Ranges spanned from Lai Chi Kok to Lei Yue Mun, the extension of the urban areas of Kowloon, New Kowloon was urbanised and absorbed into Kowloon; the New Territories now comprises only the mainland north of the Kowloon Ranges and south of the Sham Chun River, as well as the Outlying Islands. It comprises an area of 952 km2. New Kowloon has remained statutorily part of the New Territories instead of Kowloon.
The New Territories were leased from Qing China to the United Kingdom in 1898 for 99 years in the Second Convention of Peking. Upon the expiry of the lease, sovereignty was transferred to the People's Republic of China in 1997, together with the Qing-ceded territories of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula. In 2011, the population of the New Territories was recorded at 3,691,093. With a population density of 3,801 per square kilometer. Hong Kong Island was ceded to Britain in 1842 and Kowloon south of Boundary Street and Stonecutters Island in 1860; the colony of Hong Kong attracted a large number of Chinese and Westerners to seek their fortune in the city. Its population increased and the city became overcrowded; the outbreak of bubonic plague in 1894 became a concern to the Hong Kong Government. There was a need to expand the colony to accommodate its growing population; the Qing Dynasty's defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War had shown that it was incapable of defending itself. Victoria City and Victoria Harbour were vulnerable to any hostile forces launching attacks from the hills of Kowloon.
Alarmed by the encroachment of other European powers in China, Britain feared for the security of Hong Kong. Using the most favoured nation clause that it had negotiated with Peking, the United Kingdom demanded the extension of Kowloon to counter the influence of France in southern China in June 1898. In July, it secured Weihaiwei in Shandong in the north as a base for operations against the Germans in Qingdao and the Russians in Port Arthur. Chinese officials stayed in the walled cities of Kowloon Weihaiwei; the extension of Kowloon was called the New Territories. The additional land was estimated to be 365 square miles or 12 times the size of the existing Colonial Hong Kong at the time. Although the Convention was signed on the 9 June 1898 and became effective on 1 July, the British did not take over the New Territories immediately. During this period, there was no Hong Kong Wilsone Black acted as administrator. James Stewart Lockhart, the Colonial Secretary of Hong Kong, was sent back from England to make a survey of New Territories before formal transfer.
The survey found that the new frontier at Sham Chun River suggested by Wilsone Black was far from ideal. It excluded the town of Shenzhen, the boundary would divide the town. There was no mountain range as a natural border. Lockhard suggested moving the frontier to the line of hills north of Shenzhen; this suggestion was not received favourably and the Chinese official suggested the frontier be moved to the hill much further south of the Sham Chun River. It was settled in March 1899; the new Hong Kong Governor Henry Blake arrived in November 1898. The date for the takeover of the New Territories was fixed as 17 April 1899 and Tai Po was chosen as the administrative centre; however the transfer was not peaceful. Before the handover in early April, Captain Superintendent of Police, Francis Henry May and some policemen erected a flagstaff and temporary headquarters at Tai Po and posted the Governor's proclamation of the takeover date. Fearing for their traditional land rights, in the Six-Day War of 1899, a number of clans attempted to resist the British, mobilising clan militias, organised and armed to protect against longshore raids by pirates.
The militia men attempted a frontal attack against the temporary police station in Tai Po, the main British base but were beaten back by superior force of arms. An attempt by the clansmen at guerilla warfare was put down by the British near Lam Tsuen with over 500 Chinese men killed, collapsed when British artillery was brought to bear on the walled villages of the clansmen. Most prominent of the villages in the resistance Kat Hing Wai, of the Tang clan, was symbolically disarmed, by having its main gates dismounted and removed. However, in order to prevent future resistance the British made concessions to the indigenous inhabitants with regards to land use, land inheritance and marriage laws; some of the concessions with regard to land use and inheritance remain in place in Hong Kong to this day and is a source of friction between indigenous inhabitants and other Hong Kong residents. Lord Lugard was Governor from 1907 to 1912, he proposed the return of Weihaiwei to the Chinese government, in return for the ceding of the leased New
Wu Kai Sha
Wu Kai Sha known as Wu Kwai Sha or U Kwai Sha, is a place at the shore of Tolo Harbour, northwest of Ma On Shan in the New Territories, Hong Kong. Wu Kai Sha is within one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. There were only a few villages in the area, like Wu Kwai Sha Village, it is now an extension of the Ma On Shan New Town. The vicinity is called Whitehead in English; the area was once home to the largest of the detention centres for Vietnamese boat people. Wu Kai Sha is famous for a campsite, Wu Kai Sha Youth Village of YMCA. There is a beach near the Wu Kai Sha Youth Village. Before the area was developed, there existed only rough roads to the area. Many residents and visitors took kai to boats from Ma Liu Shui, near the MTR University Station, across Tolo Harbour to the area. With the extension of the new town to the northwestern side of Ma On Shan, roads were extended and expanded. Sai Sha Road is an alternative route to Sai Kung. In 2001, the Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation began construction of the Ma On Shan Rail system, which terminates at Wu Kai Sha Station.
War Office, Hong Kong University Press.. Hong Kong and The New Territories, Hong Kong University Press
Private housing estates in Hong Kong
Private housing estate is a term used in Hong Kong for private mass housing – a housing estate developed by a private developer, as opposed to a public housing estate built by the Hong Kong Housing Authority or the Hong Kong Housing Society. It is characterised with a cluster of high-rise buildings, with its own market or shopping mall. Mei Foo Sun Chuen, built by Mobil, is the largest by number of blocks. Early real estate development in Hong Kong followed the urban street pattern: single blocks are packed along streets and most of them are managed independently, with quality varying from block to block. Private housing estates on the other hand provide integrated management throughout whole estate, attracting more affluent residents. Mei Foo Sun Chuen, Taikoo Shing, Whampoa Garden and City One Shatin are early notable examples. More projects followed and the idea became accepted as the middle class of Hong Kong emerged. With the economies of scale of large developments, the lifting of height restrictions since the opening of the new airport at Chek Lap Kok, there is the tendency of new private tower block developments with 10 to over 100 towers, ranging from 30-to-70-storeys high.
There has been a trend in joint ventures between the oligopolistic real-estate developer in Hong Kong. Developers have been partnering up to bid for development sites. At a land auction on 8 May 2007, the Government warned developers not to collude in bidding. There is some controversy over the "wall effect" caused by uniform high-rise developments which adversely impact air circulation and aggravate the heat effect but impact public hygiene and contribute to air pollution. Private developers seeking to maximise revenues have tended to build uniform blocks on seafront sites to give all units unrestricted sea view. Environmental group Green Sense expressed concern that their survey on 155 housing estates found 104 have a'wall-like' design, it cited estates in Tai Kok Tsui and Tseung Kwan O as the "best examples". Head of the Planning Department, Ava Ng, argued that the air ventilation factor has been taken into consideration with regard to the auction of all prime sites on the land application list, said the erection of tall buildings at these sites will not create any "wall effect."An air ventilation assessment is required only for sites with a total gross floor area of more than 100,000 square metres, according to technical guidelines in existence since 2006.
In May, 2007, citing concern over developments in West Kowloon, near Tai Wai and Yuen Long railway stations, Wong Kwok-hing of the Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions proposed a motion calling for measures to reduce screen-like buildings which maximise good views at the expense of air flow in densely populated areas. The motion was vetoed by functional constituency representatives; the following is a partial list of private housing estates in Hong Kong: Housing in Hong Kong Condominium Commonhold
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are rich in iron oxides and vary in colour from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red; the iron is found in the form of magnetite, goethite, limonite or siderite. Ores containing high quantities of hematite or magnetite are known as "natural ore" or "direct shipping ore", meaning they can be fed directly into iron-making blast furnaces. Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, one of the main raw materials to make steel—98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel. Indeed, it has been argued that iron ore is "more integral to the global economy than any other commodity, except oil". Metallic iron is unknown on the surface of the Earth except as iron-nickel alloys from meteorites and rare forms of deep mantle xenoliths. Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, comprising about 5%, the vast majority is bound in silicate or more carbonate minerals.
The thermodynamic barriers to separating pure iron from these minerals are formidable and energy intensive, therefore all sources of iron used by human industry exploit comparatively rarer iron oxide minerals hematite. Prior to the industrial revolution, most iron was obtained from available goethite or bog ore, for example during the American Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Prehistoric societies used laterite as a source of iron ore. Much of the iron ore utilized by industrialized societies has been mined from predominantly hematite deposits with grades of around 70% Fe; these deposits are referred to as "direct shipping ores" or "natural ores". Increasing iron ore demand, coupled with the depletion of high-grade hematite ores in the United States, after World War II led to development of lower-grade iron ore sources, principally the utilization of magnetite and taconite. Iron-ore mining methods vary by the type of ore being mined. There are four main types of iron-ore deposits worked depending on the mineralogy and geology of the ore deposits.
These are magnetite, massive hematite and pisolitic ironstone deposits. Banded iron formations are sedimentary rocks containing more than 15% iron composed predominantly of thinly bedded iron minerals and silica. Banded iron formations occur in Precambrian rocks, are weakly to intensely metamorphosed. Banded iron formations may contain iron in carbonates or silicates, but in those mined as iron ores, oxides are the principal iron mineral. Banded iron formations are known as taconite within North America; the mining involves moving tremendous amounts of waste. The waste comes in two forms, non-ore bedrock in the mine, unwanted minerals which are an intrinsic part of the ore rock itself; the mullock is mined and piled in waste dumps, the gangue is separated during the beneficiation process and is removed as tailings. Taconite tailings are the mineral quartz, chemically inert; this material is stored in regulated water settling ponds. The key economic parameters for magnetite ore being economic are the crystallinity of the magnetite, the grade of the iron within the banded iron formation host rock, the contaminant elements which exist within the magnetite concentrate.
The size and strip ratio of most magnetite resources is irrelevant as a banded iron formation can be hundreds of meters thick, extend hundreds of kilometers along strike, can come to more than three billion or more tonnes of contained ore. The typical grade of iron at which a magnetite-bearing banded iron formation becomes economic is 25% iron, which can yield a 33% to 40% recovery of magnetite by weight, to produce a concentrate grading in excess of 64% iron by weight; the typical magnetite iron-ore concentrate has less than 0.1% phosphorus, 3–7% silica and less than 3% aluminium. Magnetite iron ore is mined in Minnesota and Michigan in the U. S. Eastern Canada and Northern Sweden. Magnetite bearing banded iron formation is mined extensively in Brazil, which exports significant quantities to Asia, there is a nascent and large magnetite iron-ore industry in Australia. Direct-shipping iron-ore deposits are exploited on all continents except Antarctica, with the largest intensity in South America and Asia.
Most large hematite iron-ore deposits are sourced from altered banded iron formations and igneous accumulations. DSO deposits are rarer than the magnetite-bearing BIF or other rocks which form its main source or protolith rock, but are cheaper to mine and process as they require less beneficiation due to the higher iron content. However, DSO ores can contain higher concentrations of penalty elements being higher in phosphorus, water content and aluminum. Export grade DSO ores are in the 62–64% Fe range. Granite and ultrapotassic igneous rocks segregate magnetite crystals and form masses of magnetite suitable for economic concentration. A few iron ore deposits, notably in Chile, are formed from volcanic flows containing significant accumulations of magnetite phenocrysts. Chilean magnetite iron ore deposits within the Atacama Desert have formed alluvial accumulations of magnetite in s
The Mass Transit Railway is a major public transport network serving Hong Kong. Operated by the MTR Corporation Limited, it consists of heavy rail, light rail, feeder bus service centred on an 11-line rapid transit network serving the urbanised areas of Hong Kong Island and the New Territories; the system includes 218.2 km of rail with 159 stations, including 91 heavy rail stations and 68 light rail stops. The MTR is one of the most profitable metro systems in the world. Under the government's rail-led transport policy, the MTR system is a common mode of public transport in Hong Kong, with over five million trips made in an average weekday, it achieves a 99.9 per cent on-time rate on its train journeys. As of 2014, the MTR has a 48.1 per cent market share of the franchised public transport market, making it the most popular transport option in Hong Kong. The integration of the Octopus smart card fare-payment technology into the MTR system in September 1997 has further enhanced the ease of commuting on the MTR.
Construction of the MTR was prompted by a study, released in 1967, commissioned by the Hong Kong Government in order to find solutions to the increasing road congestion problem caused by the territory's fast-growing economy. Construction started soon after the release of the study, the first line opened in 1979; the MTR was popular with residents of Hong Kong. There are continual debates regarding where to expand the MTR network; as a successful railway operation, the MTR has served as a model for other newly built systems in the world urban rail transit in China. During the 1960s, the government of Hong Kong saw a need to accommodate increasing road traffic as Hong Kong's economy continued to grow strongly. In 1966, British transportation consultants Freeman, Wilbur Smith & Associates were appointed to study the transportation system of Hong Kong; the study was based on the projection of the population of Hong Kong for 1986, estimated at 6,868,000. On 1 September 1967, the consultants submitted the Hong Kong Mass Transport Study to the government, which recommended the construction of a 40-mile rapid transit rail system in Hong Kong.
The study suggested that four rail lines be developed in six stages, with a completion date set between December 1973 and December 1984. Detailed positions of lines and stations were presented in the study; these four lines were the Kwun Tong line, Tsuen Wan line, Island line, Shatin line. The study was submitted to the Legislative Council on 14 February 1968; the consultants received new data from the 1966 by-census on 6 March 1968. A short supplementary report was submitted on 22 March 1968 and amended in June 1968; the by-census indicated that the projected 1986 population was reduced by more than one million from the previous estimate to 5,647,000. The dramatic reduction affected town planning; the population distribution was different from the original study. The projected 1986 populations of Castle Peak New Town, Sha Tin New Town, and, to a lesser extent, Tsuen Wan New Town, were revised downward, the plan of a new town in Tseung Kwan O was shelved. In this updated scenario, the consultants reduced the scale of the recommended system.
The supplementary report stated that the suggested four tracks between Admiralty station and Mong Kok station should be reduced to two, only parts of the Island line, Tsuen Wan line, Kwun Tong line should be constructed for the initial system. The other lines would be placed in the list of extensions; this report led to the final study in 1970. In 1970, a system with four lines was laid out and planned as part of the British consultants' new report, Hong Kong Mass Transit: Further Studies; the four lines were to be the Kwun Tong line, Tsuen Wan line, Island line, East Kowloon line. However, the lines that were constructed were somewhat different compared to the lines that were proposed by the Hong Kong Mass Transport Study. In 1972, the Hong Kong government authorised construction of the Initial System, a 20-kilometre system that translates to today's Kwun Tong line between Kwun Tong and Prince Edward, Tsuen Wan line between Prince Edward and Admiralty, Island line between Sheung Wan and Admiralty.
The Mass Transit Steering Committee, chaired by the Financial Secretary Philip Haddon-Cave, began negotiations with four major construction consortia in 1973. The government's intention was to tender the entire project, based on the British design, as a single tender at a fixed price. A consortium from Japan, led by Mitsubishi, submitted the only proposal within the government's $5 billion price ceiling, they signed an agreement to construct the system in early 1974, but in December of the same year, pulled out of the agreement for reasons stemming from fears of the oil crisis. Several weeks in early 1975, the Mass Transit Steering Group was replaced by the Mass Transport Provisional Authority, which held more executive powers, it announced that the Initial System would be reduced to 15.6 kilometres and renamed the "Modified Initial System". Plans for a single contract were abandoned in favour of 25 engineering contracts and 10 electrical and mechanical contracts. On 7 May 1975 the Legislative Council passed legislation setting up the government-owned Mass Transit Railway Corporation to replace the Mass Transport Provisional Authority.
Construction of the Modified Initial System (now part of
Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic
KFC known as Kentucky Fried Chicken, is an American fast food restaurant chain headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky that specializes in fried chicken. It is the world's second-largest restaurant chain after McDonald's, with 22,621 locations globally in 136 countries as of December 2018; the chain is a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, a restaurant company that owns the Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, WingStreet chains. KFC was founded by Colonel Harland Sanders, an entrepreneur who began selling fried chicken from his roadside restaurant in Corbin, during the Great Depression. Sanders identified the potential of the restaurant franchising concept, the first "Kentucky Fried Chicken" franchise opened in Utah in 1952. KFC popularized chicken in the fast food industry, diversifying the market by challenging the established dominance of the hamburger. By branding himself as "Colonel Sanders", Harland became a prominent figure of American cultural history, his image remains used in KFC advertising to this day. However, the company's rapid expansion overwhelmed the aging Sanders, he sold it to a group of investors led by John Y. Brown Jr. and Jack C.
Massey in 1964. KFC was one of the first American fast food chains to expand internationally, opening outlets in Canada, the United Kingdom and Jamaica by the mid-1960s. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, it experienced mixed fortunes domestically, as it went through a series of changes in corporate ownership with little or no experience in the restaurant business. In the early 1970s, KFC was sold to the spirits distributor Heublein, taken over by the R. J. Reynolds food and tobacco conglomerate; the chain continued to expand overseas, in 1987, it became the first Western restaurant chain to open in China. It has since expanded in China, now the company's single largest market. PepsiCo spun off its restaurants division as Tricon Global Restaurants, which changed its name to Yum! Brands. KFC's original product is pressure-fried chicken pieces, seasoned with Sanders' recipe of 11 herbs and spices; the constituents of the recipe represent a notable trade secret. Larger portions of fried chicken are served in a cardboard "bucket", which has become a well-known feature of the chain since it was first introduced by franchisee Pete Harman in 1957.
Since the early 1990s, KFC has expanded its menu to offer other chicken products such as chicken fillet sandwiches and wraps, as well as salads and side dishes such as French fries and coleslaw and soft drinks. KFC is known for its slogans "It's Finger Lickin' Good!", "Nobody does chicken like KFC", "So good". Harland Sanders was raised on a farm outside Henryville, Indiana; when Sanders was five years old, his father died. This left Sanders, as the eldest son. After he reached seven years of age, his mother taught him. After leaving the family home at the age of 13, Sanders passed through several professions, with mixed success. In 1930, he took over a Shell filling station on US Route 25 just outside North Corbin, Kentucky, a small town on the edge of the Appalachian Mountains, it was here that he first served to travelers the recipes that he had learned as a child: fried chicken and other dishes such as steaks and country ham. After four years of serving from his own dining room table, Sanders purchased the larger filling station on the other side of the road and expanded to six tables.
By 1936, this had proven successful enough for Sanders to be given the honorary title of Kentucky colonel by Governor Ruby Laffoon. In 1937 he expanded his restaurant to 142 seats, added a motel he purchased across the street, naming it Sanders Court & Café. Sanders was unhappy with the 35 minutes it took to prepare his chicken in an iron frying pan, but he refused to deep fry the chicken, which he believed lowered the quality of the product. If he pre-cooked the chicken in advance of orders, there was sometimes wastage at day's end. In 1939, the first commercial pressure cookers were released onto the market designed for steaming vegetables. Sanders bought one, modified it into a pressure fryer, which he used to fry chicken; the new method reduced production time to be comparable with deep frying, while, in the opinion of Sanders, retaining the quality of pan-fried chicken. In July 1940, Sanders finalised what came to be known as his "Original Recipe" of 11 herbs and spices. Although he never publicly revealed the recipe, he admitted to the use of salt and pepper, claimed that the ingredients "stand on everybody's shelf".
After being recommissioned as a Kentucky colonel in 1950 by Governor Lawrence Wetherby, Sanders began to dress the part, growing a goatee and wearing a black frock coat, a string tie, referring to himself as "Colonel". His associates went along with the title change, "jokingly at first and in earnest", according to biographer Josh Ozersky; the Sanders Court & Café served travelers, so when the route planned in 1955 for Interstate 75 bypassed Corbin, Sanders sold his properties and traveled the US to franchise his chicken recipe to restaurant owners. Independent restaurants would pay four cents on each chicken as a franchise fee, in exchange for Sanders' "secret blend of herbs and spices" and the right to feature his recipe on their menus and use his name and likeness for promotional purposes. In 1952 he had successfully franchised his recipe to his friend Pete Harman of South Salt Lake, the operator of one of the city's largest restaurants. Don Anderson, a sign painter hired by