Nine Days in One Year
Nine Days in One Year is a 1962 Soviet black-and-white drama film directed by Mikhail Romm about nuclear particle physics and their relationships. The film is based on true events, it is one of the most important Soviet films of the 1960s. It won the Crystal Globe Award in 1962. Two young physicists and old friends — the possessed experimental physicist Dmitri Gusev and the skeptical theoretical physicist Ilya Kulikov — conduct nuclear studies at a research institute in Siberia. Dmitri leads the research started by his teacher Sintsov, who has received a deadly dose of radiation as a result of an experiment. Dmitri has been irradiated. Doctors warn him. Meanwhile, his friend Ilya and Lyolya, a love interest of Dmitri, have developed a romantic relationship; the enamoured couple is getting prepared for the wedding and looking for an opportunity to inform Dmitri. When they meet, Dmitri suspects Lyolya and Ilya and treats them coldly. Caught up in self-contradictions, Lyolya tries to understand Dmitri's true feelings for her, only to learn the terrible diagnosis.
Realizing that she still loves Dmitri, Lyolya cancels the wedding to Ilya. Despite the health warnings, Dmitri continues with his experiments in fusion power. After a number of failures, he turns to Ilya for help. Whilst carrying out of the experiment Dmitri receives a new radiation dose, he tries to hide this fact from everyone, including his wife Lyolya, misinterpreting his sudden isolation, though the truth rises to the surface. The research work has been continued by Ilya. Dmitri's health is getting worse, but he decides to fight his illness to the end and agrees to undergo bone marrow transplantation; the film's working title was 365 Days. Mikhail Romm assembled a team of people with whom he had never worked before. Popular actors Yury Yakovlev and Alexey Batalov were hired for the main roles. Before the filming started, Yakovlev was hospitalized and had to be replaced with Innokenty Smoktunovsky. For the main female part a young and little-known actress Tatyana Lavrova of the Sovremennik Theatre was invited.
The role of Lyolya was Tatiana’s best known role in her film career she devoted herself to the theater. I had great interest in working on my portrayal of Dmitry Gusev; the life of this atomic scientist is filled with a persistent and moreover with quite an inconspicuous feat. The role of Gusev appeals to me the fact that he is a modern man intelligent, we can say – a man of the new Soviet formation; the screenplay was written by Romm jointly with Khrabrovitsky. The cinematographer of the film was a newcomer German Lavrov. In many respects, the picture became a new word in the Soviet cinema. Experts have noted an unusual interpretation of the theme song and sound engineering - in fact there is no music, there is only a certain sound accompaniment of the technological sense; the sets of the film were innovative. The filming took 6 months; the premiere was on the 5th of March 1962 at the Rossiya Theatre in Moscow.7 actors participated in the film who were awarded the title of People's Artist of the USSR: Batalov, Plotnikov, Gerdt, Durov.
The director Mikhail Romm became the People's Artist of the USSR in 1950. Alexey Batalov witnessed that numerous dark parts which were conceived by the authors were removed from the film per censorship requirements; as a result, an episode was removed where Gusev visits his mother's grave, a possible indication that in the finale the disease leads to Gusev becoming blind. Hoberman, J.. "FILM. The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-02-06. Aleksey Batalov as Dmitri Gusev, nuclear physicist Innokenty Smoktunovsky as Ilya Kulikov, nuclear physicist Tatyana Lavrova as Lyolya Nikolai Plotnikov as professor Sintsov Sergei Blinnikov as Paul D. Butov, director of the Institute Yevgeniy Yevstigneyev as Nikolai Ivanovich, physicist Mikhail Kozakov as Valery Ivanovich, physicist Valentin Nikulin as young physicist Pavel Shpringfeld as physicist Aleksandr Pelevin as physicist Yevgeni Teterin as professor Pokrovsky Nikolai Sergeyev as Gusev's Father Ada Vojtsik as Maria Tikhonovna, Sintsov's wife Valentina Belyayeva as doctor Igor Yasulovich as Fedorov, physicist Lyusyena Ovchinnikova as Nura, Gusev's younger sisterOff-screen voice by Zinovi Gerdt.
Nine Days in One Year at AllMovie Nine Days in One Year on IMDb Nine Days in One Year at Turner Classic Movies
Isabelle Marie Anne de Truchis de Varennes, better known by her stage name Zazie, is a French singer-songwriter and former fashion model. Her greatest hits include "Je suis un homme", "À ma place" and "Speed", she is noted for her playful use of language. Isabelle de Truchis de Varennes was born in France, she was nicknamed "Zazie" in reference to the title character of the Raymond Queneau novel, Zazie dans le métro. Her mother was a music teacher and her father, Hervé de Truchis de Varennes, was an architect. At home, they listened to Jacques Brel and Barbara, as well as classical music. Inspired, Zazie began learning to play the violin at the age of ten teaching herself to play the piano and guitar. After high school, Zazie began studies to become a physiotherapist. In 1990, Zazie began her musical career, she signed a contract with Phonogram in 1991. In 1992, she released Je, tu, her first album recorded in the studios of Peter Gabriel, she collaborated for the first time with Pascal Obispo on the song "Un, trois, soleil".
She wrote all the tracks of the album and participated in the composition. The album had minor success, the single "Sucré salé" was ranked No. 46 on the Top 50. The following year, Zazie was awarded'Best New Female Pop Artist of the Year' at the Victoires de la musique; the other two singles from the albums were much less successful, but the singer's career was launched. Her record label agreed to sign for a second album. From Je, tu, ils Zazie distinguished herself as a songwriter by crafting songs notable for their wit, alliteration and double entendres. In 1995, she released her second album Zen, co-written by and co-produced with Vincent-Marie Bouvot; the album produced the singles "Zen" and "Homme sweet homme". Her 1996 single "Un point c'est toi" from the same album was discussed on Canada's MuchMusic TV program Too Much 4 Much due to its controversial content; the discussion panel deemed the video okay for audiences. In the video, a group of four smitten women, including Zazie, follow a pair of men down to a lake.
There, the two men swim in the water. Zazie fantasizes about kissing him. However, her fantasies are spoiled. In 1997, Pascal Obispo and Zazie released the single "Les meilleurs ennemis", her 1998 album Made in Love was co-produced by Ali Staton, Pierre Jaconelli, herself. The album photos were taken by fashion designer Jean-Baptiste Mondino; the songs "Ça fait mal et ça fait rien", "Tous des anges", "Tout le monde" were released as singles. This album was followed by a live album, Made in Live, the next year. In 1999 she wrote a song for Jane Birkin. In 2001, Zazie teamed up with Axel Bauer on the single "À ma place", it was her most successful single in France, reaching number four on the French charts. Zazie once again addressed homosexuality on her 2002 single "Adam et Yves" from her 2001 album La Zizanie; this album was produced by Pierre Jaconelli. Other singles included "Rue de la paix" and "Danse avec les loops". In 2003, she released Ze Live, her 2004 album Rodéo was co-produced with Philippe Paradis.
The video for the single "Excuse-moi" features Zazie playing the role of an Indian woman who leaves her cheating husband. She followed this album up with a live album, Rodéo Tour in 2006, her sixth album, was released in February 2007. Like her previous album, it was co-produced with Philippe Paradis; the "Totem Tour" began on 1 July. In 2007, she wrote several songs for Christophe Willem's album, Inventaire. In June 2010, Zazie released a new single "Avant l'amour". Avant l'amour was the first single from the album "Za7ie". "Za7ie" was constructed as a concept project of 49 songs, split into seven theme albums of seven songs each. A shorter version with 14 songs was released in September 2010, with the 49 song project released as a box set in November of the same year. Zazie announced eighth album, "Cyclo", scheduled for release in spring 2013; the album was mixed by Tony Hoffer. In 2015, she released her ninth album "Encore heureux". On May 24, 2018 Zazie released a single "Speed", her tenth studio album, "Essenciel" was released on September 7, 2018.
On October 5, the SNEP announces. On February 15, 2019 "Essenciel" was certified platinum for more than 100,000 copies sold. On February 15, 2019, her new tour "Essenciel Tour" began in March 2019. Zazie co-composed. Zazie made her acting debut in the 1998 film by Didier Le Pêcheur "J'aimerais pas crever un dimanche". In 2007, Zazie wrote and co-composed seven of the fifteen tracks of Christophe Willem's first album, while providing backing vocals in the tracks she wrote. In 2009, she participated in Rendez-vous en terre inconnue. Zazie started coaching on the French version of The Voice in 2015 and one of her team, Lilian Renaud, won that 4th season, she again coached in 2016 and 2017. Zazie is a member of the Les Enfoirés charity ensemble since 1997. 1 Reached No. 1 on the French compilations chart. A Promotional release only. Victoires de la musique: Musical show, tour or concert of the year Female group of artists of the year Female artist of the year Music video of t
Color grading is the process of improving the appearance of an image for presentation in different environments on different devices. Various attributes of an image such as contrast, saturation, black level, white point may be enhanced whether for motion pictures, videos, or still images. Color grading and color correction are used synonymously as terms for this process and can include the generation of artistic color effects through creative blending and composting of different images. Color grading is now performed in a digital process either in a controlled environment such as a color suite, or in any location where a computer can be used in dim lighting; the earlier photo-chemical film process, now referred to as color timing, was performed at a photographic laboratory by the use of filters and exposure changes while copying from one film to another. Color timing is used in reproducing film elements. "Color grading" was a lab term for the process of changing color appearance in film reproduction when going to the answer print or release print in the film reproduction chain.
By the late 2010s, this film grading technique had become known as color timing and still involved changing the duration of exposure through different filters during the film development process. Color timing is specified in printer points which represent presets in a lab contact printer where 7-12 printer points represent one stop of light; the number of points per stop varied based upon negative or print stock and different presets at Film Labs. In a film production, the creative team would meet with the “Lab Timer” who would watch a running film and make notes dependent upon the team's directions. After the session, the Timer would return to the Lab, put the film negative on a device which had preview filters with a controlled backlight, pick exact settings of each printer point for each scene; these settings were punched onto a paper tape and fed to the high-speed printer where the negative was exposed through a backlight to a print stock. Filter settings were changed on the fly to match the printer lights.
For complex work such as visual effects shots, "wedges” running through combinations of filters were sometimes processed to aid the choice of the correct grading. This process is used. With the advent of television, broadcasters realised the limitations of live television broadcasts and they turned to broadcasting feature films from release prints directly from a telecine; this was before 1956 when Ampex introduced the first Quadruplex videotape recorder VRX-1000. Live television shows could be recorded to film and aired at different times in different time zones by filming a video monitor; the heart of this system was a device for recording a television broadcast to film. The early telecine hardware was the "film chain" for broadcasting from film and utilized a film projector connected to a video camera; as explained by Jay Holben in American Cinematographer Magazine, "The telecine didn't become a viable post-production tool until it was given the ability to perform colour correction on a video signal."
In a Cathode-ray tube system, an electron beam is projected at a phosphor-coated envelope, producing a spot of light the size of a single pixel. This beam is scanned across a film frame from left to right, capturing the "vertical" frame information. Horizontal scanning of the frame is accomplished as the film moves past the CRT's beam. Once this photon beam passes through the film frame, it encounters a series of dichroic mirrors which separate the image into its primary red and blue components. From there, each individual beam is reflected onto a photomultiplier tube where the photons are converted into an electronic signal to be recorded to tape. In a charge-coupled device telecine, a white light is shone through the exposed film image onto a prism, which separates the image into the three primary colors, red and blue; each beam of colored light is projected at a different CCD, one for each color. The CCD converts the light into an electronic signal, the telecine electronics modulate these into a video signal that can be color graded.
Early color correction on Rank Cintel MkIII CRT telecine systems was accomplished by varying the primary gain voltages on each of the three photomultiplier tubes to vary the output of red and blue. Further advancements converted much of the color-processing equipment from analog to digital and with the next-generation telecine, the Ursa, the coloring process was digital in the 4:2:2 color space; the Ursa Gold brought about color grading in the full 4:4:4 color space. Color correction control systems started with the Rank Cintel TOPSY in 1978. In 1984 Da Vinci Systems introduced their first color corrector, a computer-controlled interface that would manipulate the color voltages on the Rank Cintel MkIII systems. Since technology has improved to give extraordinary power to the digital colorist. Today there are many companies making color correction control interfaces including Da Vinci Systems, Pandora International and more; some telecines are still in operation in 2018. Some of the main artistic functions of color correction: Reproduce what was shot Compensate for variations in the material Compensate for the intended viewing environment Optimize base appearance for inclusion of special visual effects Establish a desired artistic'look' Enhance and/or alter the mood of a scene — the visual equivalent to the musical accomp
Édith Piaf was a French vocalist, cabaret performer and film actress noted as France's national chanteuse and one of the country's most known international stars. Piaf's music was autobiographical and she specialized in chanson and torch ballads about love and sorrow, her most known songs include “La Vie en rose", "Non, je ne regrette rien", "Hymne à l'amour", "Milord", "La Foule", "L'Accordéoniste", "Padam, padam...". Since her death in 1963, several biographies and films have studied her life, including 2007's Academy Award-winning La Vie en rose — and Piaf has become one of the most celebrated performers of the 20th century. Despite numerous biographies, much of Piaf's life is unknown, she was born Édith Giovanna Gassion in Paris. Legend has it that she was born on the pavement of Rue de Belleville 72, but her birth certificate cites that she was born on 19 December 1915 at the Hôpital Tenon, a hospital located at the 20th arrondissement, she was named Édith after the World War I British nurse Edith Cavell, executed 2 months before her birth for helping French soldiers escape from German captivity.
Piaf -- slang for "sparrow" -- was a nickname. Louis Alphonse Gassion, Édith's father, was a street performer of acrobatics from Normandy with a past in the theatre, he was the son of Victor Alphonse Gassion and Léontine Louise Descamps, known as Maman Tine, a "madam" who ran a brothel in Bernay in Normandy. Her mother, Annetta Giovanna Maillard, was of French descent on her father's side and of Italian and Moroccan Shilha Berber origin on her mother's, she was a native of Livorno, Italy, she worked as a café singer under the name Line Marsa. Her parents were Auguste Eugène Maillard and Emma Saïd Ben Mohammed, daughter of Said ben Mohammed, a Moroccan acrobat born in Mogador and Marguerite Bracco, born in Murazzano in Italy, she and Louis-Alphonse divorced on 4 June 1929. Piaf's mother abandoned her at birth, she lived for a short time with her maternal grandmother, Emma; when her father enlisted with the French Army in 1916 to fight in World War I, he took her to his mother, who ran a brothel in Bernay, Normandy.
There, prostitutes helped look after Piaf. The bordello had two floors and seven rooms, the prostitutes were not numerous, "about ten poor girls" as she described, in fact five or six were permanent and a dozen for market and any busy days; the sub-mistress of the brothel, "Madam Gaby" could be considered a little like family since she became godmother of Denise Gassion, the half-sister born in 1931. Edith believed. "I thought that when a boy called a girl, the girl would never refuse" she would say later. From the age of three to seven, Piaf was blind as a result of keratitis. According to one of her biographers, she recovered her sight after her grandmother's prostitutes pooled money to accompany her on a pilgrimage honouring Saint Thérèse of Lisieux. Piaf claimed. In 1929, at age 14, she joined her father in his acrobatic street performances all over France, where she first sang in public. At the age of 15, Piaf met Simone "Mômone" Berteaut, who may have been her half-sister, who became a companion for most of her life.
Together they toured the streets earning money for themselves. With the additional money Piaf earned as part of an acrobatic trio, she and Mômone were able to rent their own place. In 1932, she fell in love with Louis Dupont. Within a short time, he moved into their small room, where the three lived despite Louis' and Mômone's dislike for each other. Louis was never happy with the idea of Piaf's roaming the streets, continually persuaded her to take jobs he found for her, she resisted his suggestions, until she became pregnant and worked for a short while making wreaths in a factory. In February 1933, the 17-year-old Piaf gave birth to her daughter, Marcelle at the Hôpital Tenon. Like her mother, Piaf found it difficult to care for a child, as she had little maternal instinct, parenting knowledge, or domestic skills, she returned to street singing, until the summer of 1933, when she opened at Juan-les-Pins, Rue Pigalle. Following an intense quarrel over her behavior, Piaf left Louis Dupont taking Mômone and Marcelle with her.
The three stayed at Rue André-Antoine. During this time, Marcelle was left alone in the room while Piaf and Mômone were out on the streets or at the club singing. Dupont came and took Marcelle away, saying that if Édith wanted the child, she must come home. Like her own mother, Piaf decided not to come home. Marcelle died of meningitis at age two, it is rumored. In 1935, Piaf was discovered in the Pigalle area of Paris by nightclub owner Louis Leplée, whose club Le Gerny's off the Champs-Élysées was frequented by the upper and lower classes alike, he persuaded her to sing despite her extreme nervousness, combined with her height of only 142 centimetres, inspired him to give her the nickname that would stay with her for the rest of her life and serve as her stage name, La Môme Piaf (Paris
Évry is a former commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, prefecture of the department of Essonne. On 1 January 2019, it was merged into the new commune Évry-Courcouronnes, it is located 25.0 km from the center of Paris, in the "new town" of Évry Ville Nouvelle, created in the 1960s, of which it is the central and most populated commune. Significant nearby communes include Courcouronnes, Corbeil-Essonnes, Ris-Orangis, Brétigny-sur-Orge, Draveil; the commune was called Évry-sur-Seine. The name "Évry" comes from the Gallic name Eburacon or Eburiacos, meaning "land of Eburos" the leader of a Gallic tribe in the area before the conquest of Gaul by the Romans. After the conquest, the name was corrupted into Latin Apriacum Medieval Latin Avriacum, Evriacum. In 1881 the name of the commune was changed into Évry-Petit-Bourg at the request of entrepreneur Paul Decauville, owner of Ateliers de Petit-Bourg, a large boiler works located in Évry and at the time the largest employer in the area; the factory owed its name to the hamlet of Petit-Bourg.
On 29 June 1965 the name of the commune was shortened into "Évry" only. Évry had just been chosen to become a "new town" of the suburbs of Paris, destined to host tens of thousands of suburbanites, so the name "Petit-Bourg" was deemed too old fashioned and improper for the new large suburban city of Évry to be built. In 1965 Évry took its current name. Before it was known as "Évry-Petit-Bourg" and had a population of only a few thousand; when Évry was built, Orly was the primary international airport of France, many international companies such as Digital, Hewlett-Packard, Alstom established their head offices in Évry. However, with the expansion of Charles de Gaulle Roissy airport, all the larger companies have moved out, causing the downfall of the many smaller service companies which catered to the lunchtime needs of the thousands of staff who were either displaced or made redundant. Amongst the few international companies remaining are the hotel and catering firm of Accor and the supermarket chain of Carrefour.
Although both have a postal Cedex address in Évry, geographically they are in Courcouronnes. The town has tried to counteract this exodus by increasing the capacity of the commercial center, the Agora, to 235 shops selling the same wares; the economy of the Agora has been hit by the recession. A total of 29 shops and one restaurant are vacant. 24 are on the upper level where the rents are double that of the lower level shops. During the week the car parks are now "pay by the hour" to discourage rail commuters from saturating the parking space during the day to the detriment of shoppers. Weekend parking is free. Another measure taken by the local authorities has been to declare certain quarters a "zone franche" which means that businesses starting up in these areas are exempt from corporation tax along with many other social benefits and aids which makes Évry an attractive town for future entrepreneurs; the Cathedral of the Resurrection, dedicated to Saint Corbinien, is one of the few 20th century cathedrals built in a modern style.
The total cost was 13.72M€. The total surface is 1,600 m2, it is 34m high, it can receive 1,400 people. Pope John Paul II made a visit on 22 August 1997, although car parks were requisitioned as far away as Corbeil-Essonnes, apart from invited guests, fewer than 500 people turned out for the event, which means that Évry may hold the world record for the smallest crowd at a papal appearance. In 2003, the Socialist mayor, Manuel Valls, and, the constituency deputé and a qualified avocat, embarked upon a massive safeguard plan designed to renovate the more defavourised areas which includes much demolition of the obsolete 1960s buildings, the upgrading of the more recent residential structures and schools. 2006 saw the final renovation of the Collège des Pyramides at the cost of 11.43M€ and will receive 571 pupils. In 2007, enlargement and renovation was to begin on the Lycée des Loges; the work was to last three years without interruption of lessons, the budget was set at 40M€. Demolition of several buildings in the Jules Vallès quarter of the Pyramides is in progress.
They will be replaced by "low level" blocks of appartements. At the same time, the university residence is being renovated along with the construction of a "mall" which will link the northern limit of the town with the town centre in preparation for when the tramway will provide a direct transport to Paris as an alternative to the RER railway. On 31 January 2006, in the Sénat during the 14th ceremony of the "Prix du Trombinoscope 2005", Manuel Valls was elected "Local Representative of the Year". With the heavy defeat of the Socialists on the national scale during the 2007 elections, Manuel Valls has taken a prominent position in the party and has been given the nickname of "Le Sarko de la gauche" (the left
Golden Globe Award
The Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association beginning in January 1944, recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign. The annual ceremony at which the awards are presented is a major part of the film industry's awards season, which culminates each year in the Academy Awards; the eligibility period for the Golden Globes corresponds to the calendar year. The 76th Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best in film and television in 2018, were held on January 6, 2019; the 77th Golden Globe Awards will take place on January 5, 2020. In 1943, a group of writers banded together to form the Hollywood Foreign Press Association, and, by creating a generously distributed award called the Golden Globe Award, they now play a significant role in film marketing; the 1st Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best achievements in 1943 filmmaking, were held in January 1944, at the 20th Century-Fox studios. Subsequent ceremonies were held at various venues throughout the next decade, including the Beverly Hills Hotel and the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel.
In 1950, the Hollywood Foreign Press Association made the decision to establish a special honorary award to recognize outstanding contributions to the entertainment industry. Recognizing its subject as an international figure within the entertainment industry, the first award was presented to director and producer, Cecil B. DeMille; the official name of the award thus became the Cecil B. DeMille Award. Beginning in 1963, the trophies commenced to be handed out by one or more persons referred to as "Miss Golden Globe", a title renamed on January 5, 2018 to "Golden Globe Ambassador"; the holders of the position were, the daughters or sometimes the sons of a celebrity, as a point of pride, these continued to be contested among celebrity parents. In 2009, the Golden Globe statuette was redesigned; the New York firm Society Awards collaborated for a year with the Hollywood Foreign Press Association to produce a statuette that included a unique marble and enhanced the statuette's quality and gold content.
It was unveiled at a press conference at the Beverly Hilton prior to the show. Revenues generated from the annual ceremony have enabled the Hollywood Foreign Press Association to donate millions of dollars to entertainment-related charities, as well as funding scholarships and other programs for future film and television professionals; the most prominent beneficiary is the Young Artist Awards, presented annually by the Young Artist Foundation, established in 1978 by Hollywood Foreign Press member Maureen Dragone, to recognize and award excellence of young Hollywood performers under the age of 21 and to provide scholarships for young artists who may be physically or financially challenged. The qualifying eligibility period for all nominations is the calendar year from January 1 through December 31. Voice-over performances and cameo appearances in which persons play themselves are disqualified from all of the film and TV acting categories. Films must be at least 70 minutes and released for at least a seven-day run in the Greater Los Angeles area, starting prior to midnight on December 31.
Films can be released on pay-per-view, or by digital delivery. For the Best Foreign Language Film category, films do not need to be released in the United States. At least 51 percent of the dialogue must be in a language other than English, they must first be released in their country of origin during a 14-month period from November 1 to December 31 prior to the Awards. However, if a film was not released in its country of origin due to censorship, it can still qualify if it had a one-week release in the United States during the qualifying calendar year. There is no limit to the number of submitted films from a given country. A TV program must air in the United States between the prime time hours of 11:00 p.m.. A show can air on basic or premium cable, or by digital delivery. A TV show must either be made in the United States or be a co-production financially and creatively between an American and a foreign production company. Furthermore and non-scripted shows are disqualified. For a television film, it cannot be entered in both the film and TV categories, instead should be entered based on its original release format.
If it was first aired on American television it can be entered into the TV categories. If it was released in theaters or on pay-per-view it should instead to be entered into the film categories. A film festival showing does not count towards disqualifying. Actors in a TV series must appear in at least six episodes during the qualifying calendar year. Actors in a TV film or miniseries must appear in at least five percent of the time in that TV film or miniseries. Active HFPA members need to be invited to an official screening of each eligible film directly by its respective distributor or publicist; the screening must take place in the Greater Los Angeles area, either before the film's release or up to one week afterwards. The screening can be a regular screening in a theater with a press screening; the screening must be cleared with the Motion Picture Association of America so there are not scheduling conflicts with other official screenings. For TV programs, they must be available to be seen by HFPA members in any common format, including the original TV broadcast.
Entry forms for films need to be received by the HFPA within ten days of the
Salt of the Earth (1954 film)
Salt of the Earth is a 1954 American drama film written by Michael Wilson, directed by Herbert J. Biberman, produced by Paul Jarrico. All had been blacklisted by the Hollywood establishment due to their alleged involvement in communist politics; the drama film is one of the first pictures to advance the feminist social and political point of view. Its plot centers on a long and difficult strike, based on the 1951 strike against the Empire Zinc Company in Grant County, New Mexico. In the film, the company is identified as "Delaware Zinc," and the setting is "Zinctown, New Mexico." The film shows how the miners, the company, the police react during the strike. In neorealist style, the producers and director used actual miners and their families as actors in the film. Esperanza Quintero is a miner's wife in Zinc Town, New Mexico, a community, run and owned by Delaware Zinc Inc. Esperanza is thirty-five years old, pregnant with her third child and dominated by her husband, Ramon Quintero; the majority of the miners are Mexican-Americans and want decent working conditions equal to those of white, or "Anglo" miners.
The unionized workers go on strike, but the company refuses to negotiate and the impasse continues for months. Esperanza gives birth and Ramon is jailed for assaulting a union worker who betrayed his fellows; when Ramon is released, Esperanza tells him. He counters that if the strike succeeds they will not only get better conditions right now but win hope for their children's futures; the company presents a Taft-Hartley Act injunction to the union, meaning any miners who picket will be arrested. Taking advantage of a loophole, the wives picket in their husbands' places; some men dislike this, seeing it as dangerous. Esperanza is forbidden to picket by Ramon at first, but she joins the line while carrying her baby; the sheriff, by company orders, arrests the leading women of the strike. Esperanza is among those taken to jail; when she returns home, Ramon tells her the strike is hopeless, as the company will outlast the miners. She insists that the union is stronger than and asks Ramon why he can't accept her as an equal in their marriage.
Both angry, they sleep separately that night. The next day the company evicts the Quintero family from their house; the union men and women arrive to protest the eviction. Ramon tells Esperanza; the mass of workers and their families proves successful in saving the Quinteros' home. The company plans to negotiate. Esperanza believes that the community has won something no company can take away and it will be inherited by her children. Professional actors Rosaura Revueltas as Esperanza Quintero Will Geer as Sheriff David Wolfe as Barton Mervin Williams as Hartwell David Sarvis as AlexanderNon-professional actors The film was called subversive and blacklisted because the International Union of Mine and Smelter Workers sponsored it and many blacklisted Hollywood professionals helped produce it; the union had been expelled from the CIO in 1950 for its alleged communist-dominated leadership. Director Herbert Biberman was one of the Hollywood screenwriters and directors who refused to answer the House Committee on Un-American Activities on questions of CPUSA affiliation in 1947.
The Hollywood Ten were jailed. Biberman was imprisoned in the Federal Correctional Institution at Texarkana for six months. After his release he directed this film. Other participants who made the film and were blacklisted by the Hollywood studios include: Paul Jarrico, Will Geer, Rosaura Revueltas, Michael Wilson; the producers cast only five professional actors. The rest were locals from Grant County, New Mexico, or members of the International Union of Mine and Smelter Workers, Local 890, many of whom were part of the strike that inspired the plot. Juan Chacón, for example, was a real-life Union Local president. In the film he plays the protagonist; the director was reluctant to cast him at first, thinking he was too "gentle," but both Revueltas and his sister-in-law, Sonja Dahl Biberman, wife of Biberman's brother Edward, urged him to cast Chacón as Ramon. The film was denounced by the United States House of Representatives for its communist sympathies, the FBI investigated the film's financing.
The American Legion called for a nationwide boycott of the film. Film-processing labs were told not to work on Salt of the Earth and unionized projectionists were instructed not to show it. After its opening night in New York City, the film languished for 10 years because all but 12 theaters in the country refused to screen it. By one journalist's account: "During the course of production in New Mexico in 1953, the trade press denounced it as a subversive plot, anti-Communist vigilantes fired rifle shots at the set, the film's leading lady Rosaura Revueltas was deported to Mexico, from time to time a small airplane buzzed noisily overhead... The film, edited in secret, was stored for safekeeping in an anonymous wooden shack in Los Angeles." The Hollywood establishment did not embrace the film at the time of its release, with The Hollywood Reporter charged at the time that it was made "under direct orders of the Kremlin."Pauline Kael, who reviewed the film for Sight and Sound in 1954, panned it as a simplistic left-wing "morality play" and said it was "as clear a piece of Communist propaganda as we have had in many years."Bosley Crowther, film critic for The New York Times reviewed the picture favorably, both for its screenplay and direction, writing: "In the light of this agitated history, it is somewhat surprising to find that Salt of the Earth is, in