London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Sons and Lovers
Sons and Lovers is a 1913 novel by the English writer D. H. Lawrence published by B. W. Huebsch Publishers; the Modern Library placed it ninth on their list of the 100 best novels of the 20th century. While the novel received a lukewarm critical reception, along with allegations of obscenity, it is today regarded as a masterpiece by many critics and is regarded as Lawrence's finest achievement; the third published novel of D. H. Lawrence, taken by many to be his earliest masterpiece, tells the story of Paul Morel, a young man and budding artist; the original 1913 edition was edited by Edward Garnett who removed 80 passages a tenth of the text. The novel is dedicated to Garnett. Garnett, as the literary advisor to the publishing firm Duckworth, was an important figure in leading Lawrence farther into the London literary world during the years 1911 and 1912, it was not until the 1992 Cambridge University Press edition was released that the missing text was restored. Lawrence began working on the novel in the period of his mother's illness, expresses this sense of his mother's wasted life through his female protagonist Gertrude Morel.
Letters written around the time of its development demonstrate the admiration he felt for his mother – viewing her as a'clever, delicately moulded woman' — and her unfortunate marriage to his coal-miner father, a man of'sanguine temperament' and instability. He believed. Lydia Lawrence wasn't born into the middle-class; this personal family conflict experienced by Lawrence provided him with the impetus for the first half of his novel – in which both William, the older brother, Paul Morel become contemptuous of their father – and the subsequent exploration of Paul Morel's antagonising relationships with both his lovers, which are both incessantly affected by his allegiance to his mother. The first draft of Lawrence's novel is now lost and was never completed, which seems to be directly due to his mother's illness, he did not return to the novel for three months, at which point it was titled'Paul Morel'. The penultimate draft of the novel coincided with a remarkable change in Lawrence's life, as his health was thrown into turmoil and he resigned his teaching job to spend time in Germany.
This plan was never followed, however, as he met and married the German minor aristocrat, Frieda Weekley, the wife of a former professor of his at the University of Nottingham. According to Frieda's account of their first meeting and Lawrence talked about Oedipus and the effects of early childhood on life within twenty minutes of meeting; the third draft of'Paul Morel' was sent to the publishing house Heinemann. His reaction captures the shock and newness of Lawrence's novel,'the degradation of the mother, supposed to be of gentler birth, is inconceivable'. In addition to altering the title to a more thematic'Sons and Lovers', Heinemann's response had reinvigorated Lawrence into vehemently defending his novel and its themes as a coherent work of art. To justify its form, Lawrence explains, in letters to Garnett, that it is a'great tragedy' and a'great book', one that mirrors the'tragedy of thousands of young men in England'. Lawrence rewrote the work four times. Although before publication the work was titled Paul Morel, Lawrence settled on Sons and Lovers.
The refined daughter of a "good old burgher family," Gertrude Coppard meets a rough-hewn miner, Walter Morel, at a Christmas dance and falls into a whirlwind romance characterised by physical passion. But soon after her marriage to Walter, she realises the difficulties of living off his meagre salary in a rented house; the couple drift apart and Walter retreats to the pub after work each day. Mrs. Morel's affections shift to her sons beginning with the oldest, William; as a boy, William is so attached to his mother. As he grows older, he defends her against his father's occasional violence, he leaves their Nottinghamshire home for a job in London, where he begins to rise up into the middle class. He is engaged, he dies and Mrs. Morel is heartbroken, but when Paul catches pneumonia she rediscovers her love for her second son. Both repulsed by and drawn to his mother, Paul is afraid to leave her but wants to go out on his own, needs to experience love, he falls into a relationship with Miriam, a farmer's daughter who attends his church.
The two take long walks and have intellectual conversations about books but Paul resists, in part because his mother disapproves. At Miriam's family's farm, Paul meets Clara Dawes, a young woman with feminist sympathies who has separated from her husband, Baxter. After pressuring Miriam into a physical relationship, which he finds unsatisfying, Paul breaks with her as he grows more intimate with Clara, more passionate physically, but she cannot hold him and he returns to his mother. When his mother dies soon after, he is alone. Lawrence summarised the plot in a letter to Edward Garnett on 12 November 1912: It follows this idea: a woman of character and refinement goes into the lower class, has no satisfaction in her own life, she has had a passion for her husband, so her children are born of passion, have heaps of vitality. But as her sons grow up she selects them as lovers — first the eldest the second; these sons are urged into life by their reciprocal love of their mother -- urged on. But when they come to manhood, they can't l
Boots UK, trading as Boots, is a health and beauty retailer and pharmacy chain in the United Kingdom, other territories. The parent company, The Boots Company Plc, merged with Alliance UniChem in 2006 to form Alliance Boots. In 2007, Alliance Boots was bought by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and Stefano Pessina, taking the company private, moving its headquarters to Switzerland, making it the first FTSE 100 company to be bought by a private equity firm. In 2012, Walgreens bought a 45% stake in Alliance Boots, with the option to buy the rest within three years, it exercised this option in 2014, as a result Boots became a subsidiary of the new company, Walgreens Boots Alliance, on 31 December 2014. Boots is one of the largest retailers in the UK and Ireland, both in terms of revenue and the number of shops, they have 2,500 shops across the United Kingdom and Ireland ranging from local pharmacies to large health and beauty shops. Their shops are located on the high streets and in shopping centres, it sells many health and beauty products, provides optician and hearing care services within shops and as standalone practices.
Boots operates a retail website and since 1997 it runs a loyalty card programme called the Boots Advantage Card. Boots was established by John Boot. After his father's death in 1860, Jesse Boot, aged 10, helped his mother run the family's herbal medicine shop in Nottingham, incorporated as Boot and Co. Ltd in 1883, becoming Boots Pure Drug Company Ltd in 1888. In 1920, Jesse Boot sold the company to the American United Drug Company. However, because of deteriorating economic circumstances in North America Boots was sold back into British hands in 1933; the grandson of the founder, John Boot, who inherited the title Baron Trent from his father, headed the company. The Boots Pure Drug Company name was changed to The Boots Company Limited in 1871. Between 1898 and 1966, many branches of Boots incorporated a lending library department, known as Boots Book-Lovers' Library. Boots diversified into the research and manufacturing of drugs with its development of the Ibuprofen painkiller during the 1960s, invented by John Nicholson and Stewart Adams.
The company was awarded the Queen's Award For Technical Achievement for this in 1987. A major research focus of Boots in the 1980s was the drug for congestive heart failure Manoplax; the withdrawal from market of Manoplax due to safety concerns in 1993 caused major pressure from investors, in 1994, Boots divested its prescription drugs division, which had become no longer viable, to BASF. In 2006, it sold the Nurofen brand to Reckitt Benckiser; the 2006 sale of Boots Healthcare International included everything made by Crookes Healthcare, based on the Nottingham site. In 1968 Boots acquired the 622-strong Timothy Taylors Ltd chain. Boots expanded into Canada by purchasing the Tamblyn Drugs chain circa 1978. Most Canadian Boots shops were converted to Pharma Plus in 1989, although a handful of locations remained as late as 1993, if not later. In 1982, the company opened a new manufacturing plant in Northumberland. In the early 1990s, Boots began to diversify and bought Halfords, the bicycle and car parts business in 1991.
It developed the Children's World business but sold it in 1996 to Mothercare. Halfords was sold in 2002. Boots Opticians Ltd was formed in 1987 with the acquisition of Clement Clarke Ltd and Curry and Paxton Ltd. Boots Opticians became the UK's second largest retail optics chain. In 2009 Boots Opticians acquired Dollond & Aitchison, an optician chain, founded in 1750. Boots diversified into dentistry with a number of shops offering this service. Boots sold its Do-It-All home furnishings chain to Focus in 1998. Boots made a venture into "Wellbeing" services offering customers treatments ranging from facials and nutritional advice to laser eye surgery and Botox but these services were abandoned in 2003, despite a launch that included a dedicated Freeview and Sky TV channel of the same name, redirecting web traffic from boots.com to wellbeing.com In late 2004, Boots sold its laser eye surgery business to Optical Express. In October 2005, a merger with Alliance UniChem was announced by the chairman, Sir Nigel Rudd.
The CEO Richard Baker left, the new group became Alliance Boots plc. The merger became effective on 31 July 2006. Alliance Boots was purchased by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and Stefano Pessina, the deputy chairman of the company, in April 2007 for £11.1 billion, taking the company private and beating a rival bid from Guy Hands' Terra Firma Capital Partners. This was the first instance of a FTSE 100 company having been bought by a private equity firm. In June 2008, the group headquarters were moved to Switzerland. According to John Ralfe, Boots' former head of corporate finance, "the UK has lost about £100m a year in tax as result".'Boots the Chemists Limited' was re-registered under the name'Boots UK Limited' on 1 October 2007. Management of all staff was moved to Boots Management Services Limited on 1 July 2010. On 19 June 2012, it was announced that Walgreens, the United States' largest chemist chain, would purchase a 45% stake in Alliance Boots for US$6.7 billion. The deal was said to be a long term plan to give maximum exposure to both brands, Boots more so in the US and, Walgreens more so in the UK and in China through Boots' presence in that market.
The deal gave the option to complete a full merger of the organisations within three years costing an extra $9.5bn. Walgreens confirmed on 6 August 2014 that it would purchase the remaining 55% and merge with Alliance Boots to form a new holding company, Walgreens Boots Alliance Inc. Walgreens and Boots both become subsidiaries of the new company on 31 December 2014. On 2 April
Alford is a town in Lincolnshire, about 11 miles north-west of the coastal resort of Skegness. It lies at the foot of the Lincolnshire Wolds, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the population of the town was recorded as 3,459 in the 2011 Census. An electoral ward of the same name exists, it stretches east with a population of 4,531, as recorded in the 2011 census. Alford's retail outlets cater for local demand. Shops include a grocery, two butchers and DIY and hardware stores. There are three supermarkets, in West Street and Hamilton Road; the five public houses are the Half Moon Hotel, Windmill Hotel, George and White Hart. Four of these still operate – the Half Moon has an attached tea shop and is the venue for many local activities; the Anchor is now a bed-and-breakfast establishment. The Windmill is a hotel, while the White Hart is still a traditional pub; the town has no banks as the last one, Lloyds Bank, closed in September 2018. There is still a Yorkshire Building Society office. Banking facilities are available at the Post Office, now incorporated into the Quicky Supermaket in West Street and open from 7 am to 10 pm on weekdays.
H & M Ducos Pottery, established in London in 1972 moved to Alford in 1973, became the Alford Pottery, acquired premises in Commercial Road in 1978, where it has been manufacturing tableware and exporting worldwide. It was responsible for establishing the Alford Craft Market, the Alford Festivals of arts and crafts, the Alford Folk Club, the Alford Morris Dancing club, the Alford Jazz Festival, the Alford Film Society and many other organisations; the Alford Craft Market Centre is a cooperative venture selling works from local and regional craftsmen, with the help of a substantial grant from the National Lottery, providing many different classes and workshops to give opportunities to the public to experience art and craft activities on a regular basis. National Health private dentists are located in South Street and the Doctor's surgery is in Merton Lodge on West Street. A crematorium opened at the entrance of the town in 2008. Market day in Alford is Tuesday, it is a charter market. The main market is organised by Alford Town Council and held in the Market Place, with stalls of groceries, greengrocery and a long-established fishmonger and other small items, as well as a popular auction.
The Alford Craft Market has been held on the Market Place since 1974 and every late Spring Bank Holiday and August bank holiday since 1975 in the grounds of the Alford Manor House. The summer weekly Craft Market is now held in the Corn Exchange; the cattle market closed in 1987.. Most factories have closed in the last few years; the main sources of employment are a number of newer businesses on the industrial estate, Safelincs in West Street, the schools, nursing homes and other smaller firms. Beeching's Way Industrial Estate in the south-west of the town includes companies for printing and manufacturing, a builders' merchant, a postal sorting office, it was built on the line of the East Lincolnshire Railway from Grimsby to Boston, which closed on 5 October 1970, along with the local station. The naming of the industrial estate as Beeching's Way is a wry reminder of Richard Beeching, who masterminded the nationwide rail cutbacks under publicly owned British Railways; the town's previous largest employer was C. S. Martin Finnveden Powertrain Ltd, closed its doors in 2010.
Following redundancies, the factory now operates as Gnutti Carlo UK Ltd. There is a daytime Monday-to-Friday bus service to Skegness, a single Wednesday service to Boston, occasional local and school bus services open to other passengers. Alford is known for its Grade I listed five-sailed windmill, a tower mill built in 1837 by Sam Oxley, an Alford millwright. In its heyday it could grind 4–5 tons of corn a day, it ceased to operate in 1955, but after two years' idle, it was restored to full working order in 1957. It is now used commercially to produce stone-ground organic flour and cereal, as the only surviving windmill in the town. In 1932 there were still each with a different number of sails. Other working windmills in the county can be found at Lincoln, Boston, Kirton in Lindsey and Burgh le Marsh; the town's Manor House is one of the largest thatched buildings of its kind in the country. Manor houses. In 2006 it was refurbished with National Lottery funding in association with English Heritage.
Interactive exhibits were accessibility increased for disabled visitors. The manor house has a tea room and open gardens; the Manor House has two permanent exhibitions. Alford Remembers has First World War memorabilia and a photography exhibition by Edwin Nainby, born in Gedney in January 1842 and died in Alford in July 1908; the youngest son of a Quaker he was first in business as a photographer in Long Sutton and in 1873 moved to Alford. There are over 750 glass photography plates exhibited. There are a number of annual events such as the Christmas Tree exhibition, a tractor rally and a threshing day. There is a local museum at the back of the Manor House which has many exhibits from the time when Alford was a thriving Victorian market town; the Alford Corn Exchange was given by East Lindsey District Council to a specially instituted CIC composed of volunteers, is now a centre for cultural and community activities. Primary education is provided by Alford Primary School. In secondary education, Alford has one of England's few remaining grammar schools, Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School and John Spendluffe Technology College.
The A52 is a major road in the East Midlands, England. It runs east from a junction with the A53 at Newcastle-under-Lyme near Stoke-on-Trent via Ashbourne, Stapleford, West Bridgford, Grantham and Skegness to the east Lincolnshire coast at Mablethorpe, it is 147 miles long. The dual-carriageway 12.5-mile stretch between The Pentagon Island in Derby and the Queen's Medical Centre in Nottingham was named Brian Clough Way in 2005 to honour the late Derby County and Nottingham Forest football manager Brian Clough. The A52 used to start at Nantwich in Cheshire, but was renumbered to become the A500, the A531, the B5500—the A500 sections becoming unclassified; the road starts as Ryecroft from the roundabout with the A34 and B5367. It is dual carriageway until the next roundabout, forming part of the Newcastle ring road, with the A527 and A53, it passes the leisure centre on the right veers right at a junction with the B5045, where it enters the City of Stoke-on-Trent. As Hartshill Road, it passes the Royal Stoke University Hospital and enters the town of Stoke-upon-Trent.
It takes two possible routes around the town centre. It goes under the West Coast Main Line near Stoke-on-Trent railway station and becomes Leek Road, passing one campus of Staffordshire University, it meets the A50 at a roundabout at Joiner's Square near Hanley. It meets the A5009 at crossroads, where it turns right. There is a junction with the A5272; as Werrington Road in Bucknall it passes the former Mitchell High School and enters Staffordshire and the borough of the Staffordshire Moorlands. It passes through Ash Bank and Staffordshire meets the A520 at crossroads overlaps the A522, it passes through the villages of Kingsley and Froghall where it crosses over the Churnet Valley Railway and Cauldon Canal, before meeting the A521 and B5053. It passes through Whiston and meets the B5417, it meets the A523 and passes through Swinscoe briefly enters East Staffordshire. The road enters Derbyshire and the Derbyshire Dales district where it crosses the River Dove over the Hanging Bridge near the junction with the B5032 at Mayfield close to the Queens Arms Hotel.
The £3 million 1.5-mile Ashbourne Relief Road opened in October 1994. There is a roundabout for the exit to Ashbourne and one with the A515; the road climbs up the side of the Dove Valley, there is a central overtaking/crawler lane. The roundabout with the eastern exit to Ashbourne is near an old airfield, now an industrial estate; the area around the next section of road to Derby has links with Bonnie Prince Charlie. It passes through Brailsford and the Rose and Crown and at Kirk Langley, there is a junction with the B5020 for Mickleover, it passes Mackworth, the Munday Arms and Mackworth Hotel, with part of the Mackworth Estate to the south and Markeaton Park. Entering Derby as Ashbourne Road, it meets the busy A38 at a roundabout, Esso Mackworth Service Station, it passes the Shell Friargate garage on the left. From here to the dual-carriageway is a popular pub crawl, with many student residences close by for the University of Derby, such as St Christopher's Court. Close by to the north is the new Markeaton campus of the university.
The road splits into east and west sections, passing St John the Evangelist church on the left, with the easterly section being Agard Street and the westerly section being Friargate. From the traffic lights at the eastern end of both, the road becomes Ford Street, passing the Friargate Studios, it overlaps the £3.5 million, A601 Derby Inner Ring Road, called St Alkmunds Way and was opened on 30 July 1972. It is used by 70,000 motorists. From the Radio Derby building to Nottingham, it is dual-carriageway, it crosses the River Derwent, the A601 leaves to the south, it passes under the Midland Main Line as Eastgate. There is the Pentagon Island Grade Separated Junction with the A61 near Chaddesden and the Texaco Pentagon Service Station; the westbound-direction is not grade-separated and meets the roundabout, thus causing many severe queues at rush-hour. Westbound traffic would be better choosing another route from 8 to 9 am, it passes a large Costco, the next junction is a GSJ for the Wyvern Retail Park, passes a KFC, McDonald's, Pizza Hut and Sainsbury's.
Near Spondon, there is a large GSJ with the A5111 Derby outer ring road near a large Asda. The £4.6 million, 0.5-mile Borrowash Bypass Extension, from Raynesway to Megaloughton Lane opened on 29 May 1980 as well the £6 million, Nottingham Road Diversion, from the Pentagon Island to Raynesway. Both sections totalled 2.5 miles. 0.5 miles before Borrowash, it enters the Borough of Erewash. Further east, it is the main east-west route from Derby to Nottingham, connecting the two cities via the busy junction 25 of the M1 at Sandiacre, passing the Shell Ockbrook garage on the left near Ockbrook; the £250,000 3-mile Borrowash Bypass opened in 1957, although the bridge at Ockbrook opened in 1969, from a roundabout with the A6005 to Hopwell Firs. The former route is the A6005; the 5-mile £2 million,Sandiacre Stapleford Bypass opened in December 1964, being built two years before junction 25 of the M1 had been opened although all the bridges and roundabout were part of the bypass. It was the first
Mablethorpe railway station
Mablethorpe railway station was a station in the town of Mablethorpe, Lincolnshire, now closed. The station was demolished soon after closure. Since 1985 only a short section of platform survives forming a wall of a flower bed in a public garden; the station was situated on the north side of High Street, between the present-day Station Road and Alexandra Road